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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000821, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886672

RESUMO

As a novel alternative to established surface display or combinatorial chemistry approaches for the discovery of therapeutic peptides, we present a method for the isolation of small, cysteine-rich domains from bovine antibody ultralong complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). We show for the first time that isolated bovine antibody knob domains can function as autonomous entities by binding antigen outside the confines of the antibody scaffold. This yields antibody fragments so small as to be considered peptides, each stabilised by an intricate, bespoke arrangement of disulphide bonds. For drug discovery, cow immunisations harness the immune system to generate knob domains with affinities in the picomolar to low nanomolar range, orders of magnitude higher than unoptimized peptides from naïve library screening. Using this approach, knob domain peptides that tightly bound Complement component C5 were obtained, at scale, using conventional antibody discovery and peptide purification techniques.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Dissulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Domínios de Imunoglobulina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Formação de Anticorpos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos/genética , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Bovinos , Complemento C5/química , Complemento C5/genética , Complemento C5/imunologia , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/imunologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Humanos , Imunização , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4170, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820174

RESUMO

Sulfur-sulfur motifs widely occur in vital function and drug design, which yearns for polysulfide construction in an efficient manner. However, it is a great challenge to install desired functional groups on both sides of sulfur-sulfur bonds at liberty. Herein, we designed a mesocyclic bilateral disulfurating reagent for sequential assembly and modular installation of polysulfides. Based on S-O bond dissociation energy imparity (mesocyclic compared to linear imparity is at least 5.34 kcal mol-1 higher), diverse types of functional molecules can be bridged via sulfur-sulfur bonds distinctly. With these stable reagents, excellent reactivities with nucleophiles including C, N and S are comprehensively demonstrated, sequentially installing on both sides of sulfur-sulfur motif with various substituents to afford six species of unsymmetrical polysulfides including di-, tri- and even tetra-sulfides. Life-related molecules, natural products and pharmaceuticals can be successively cross-linked with sulfur-sulfur bond. Remarkably, the cyclization of tri- and tetra-peptides affords 15- and 18-membered cyclic disulfide peptides with this reagent, respectively.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Peptídeos/química , Sulfetos/química , Enxofre/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Ciclização , Indicadores e Reagentes/síntese química , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5517-5526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801703

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide and is typically treated using oral drugs. However, the frequency of oral administration may result in poor patient compliance, and reduced bioavailability owing to the first-pass effect can also prove problematic. Methods: In this study, we developed a new transdermal-drug-delivery system (TDDS) for the treatment of hypertension using atenolol (ATE) based on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-decorated three-dimensional (3D) flower-like MoS2 nanoparticles (PAA-MoS2 NPs) that respond to NIR laser irradiation. The PAA-modified MoS2 NPs were synthesized and characterized using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and the sedimentation equilibrium method. The drug-loading efficiency and photothermal conversion effect were also explored. Results: The results showed that the colloidally stable PAA-MoS2 NPs exhibited a high drug-loading capacity of 54.99% and high photothermal conversion ability. Further, the capacity of the PAA-MoS2 NPs for controlled release was explored using in vitro drug-release and skin-penetration studies. The drug-release percentage was 44.72 ± 1.04%, and skin penetration was enhanced by a factor of 1.85 in the laser-stimulated group. Sustained and controlled release by the developed TDDS were observed with laser stimulation. Moreover, in vivo erythema index analysis verified that the PAA-MoS2 NPs did not cause skin irritation. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that PAA-MoS2 NPs can be used as a new carrier for transdermal drug delivery for the first time.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Dissulfetos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Molibdênio/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Atenolol/efeitos adversos , Atenolol/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Eritema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579565

RESUMO

Lasso peptides are unique in that the tail of the lasso peptide threads through its macrolactam ring. The unusual structure and biological activity of lasso peptides have generated increased interest from the scientific community in recent years. Because of this, many new types of lasso peptides have been discovered. These peptides can be synthesized by microorganisms efficiently, and yet, their chemical assembly is challenging. Herein, we investigated the possibility of high pressure inducing the cyclization of linear precursors of lasso peptides. Unlike other molecules like rotaxanes which mechanically interlock at high pressure, the threaded lasso peptides did not form, even at pressures the high pressure up to 14 000 kbar.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclização , Dissulfetos/química , Oxirredução , Pressão , Conformação Proteica , Soluções
5.
Food Chem ; 329: 127196, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516712

RESUMO

Pigeon pea is rich in proteins but has low protein digestibility like other legumes. This work investigated the effects of processing, including soaking, grinding, ultrasound and microwave, on the protein digestibility of pigeon pea flour. Only microwave treatment significantly increased in vitro protein digestibility from 54.4 ± 2.5% to 71.6 ± 4.2%. SDS-PAGE showed that the most abundant proteins in all samples were the 7S vicilin subunits. After microwave treatment, the starch granular structures of pigeon pea flour changed to clusters, and protein secondary structures lost 5% ß-sheet and gained 5% random coil, which contributed to the increased protein digestibility. Microwave decreased protein water solubility from 94.4 ± 0.8% to 48.1 ± 6.5% and increased the disulfide bond content by 42%. The increased protein digestibility is attributable to the relatively reduced particle size (166.6 ± 38.6 nm) and increased zeta potential (-35.2 ± 2.6 mV) of the microwave-treated sample. Therefore, microwave is a promising approach for increasing pigeon pea flour protein quality and utilisation.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Micro-Ondas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Dissulfetos/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/química
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127319, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569936

RESUMO

The influence of fresh egg white (EW) addition on the quality characteristics and protein aggregation in oat noodles containing wheat flour and gluten was studied. EW addition decreased cooking loss and increased cooking time of 70% oat noodles. The hardness, chewiness, tensile force and tensile distance improved significantly. A smooth surface and continuous protein network were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after adding EW. After cooking, the peak area in SE-HPLC profile of 70% oat noodles with EW decreased obviously. The extractabilities of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium (SDSEP) of cooked wheat and oat noodles under non-reducing condition were lower than those of samples under reducing condition. The protein bands changes in SDS-PAGE profiles showed that EW could induce disulfide cross-linking of proteins in noodles. EW addition promoted proteins interaction and improved the cooking and texture properties of oat noodles.


Assuntos
Avena , Clara de Ovo/química , Farinha , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Farinha/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Glutens , Dureza , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum
7.
Proteins ; 88(11): 1387-1393, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543705

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). The SARS CoV-2 is transmitted more rapidly and readily than SARS CoV. Both, SARS CoV and SARS CoV-2 via their glycosylated spike proteins recognize the human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. We generated multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees for representative spike proteins of SARS CoV and SARS CoV-2 from various host sources in order to analyze the specificity in SARS CoV-2 spike proteins required for causing infection in humans. Our results show that among the genomes analyzed, two sequence regions in the N-terminal domain "MESEFR" and "SYLTPG" are specific to human SARS CoV-2. In the receptor-binding domain, two sequence regions "VGGNY" and "EIYQAGSTPCNGV" and a disulfide bridge connecting 480C and 488C in the extended loop are structural determinants for the recognition of human ACE-2 receptor. The complete genome analysis of representative SARS CoVs from bat, civet, human host sources, and human SARS CoV-2 identified the bat genome (GenBank code: MN996532.1) as closest to the recent novel human SARS CoV-2 genomes. The bat SARS CoV genomes (GenBank codes: MG772933 and MG772934) are evolutionary intermediates in the mutagenesis progression toward becoming human SARS CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Quirópteros/virologia , Dissulfetos/química , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110772, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464444

RESUMO

Recently two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have received much attention as adsorbent materials for the effective removal of organic contaminants. MoS2 is attracting attention, not only for its chemical-physical properties, but also for its wide availability in nature as a constituent of molybdenite. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of different MoS2 concentrations (5 × 10-1, 5 × 10-2 and 5 × 10-3 mg/ml) on the embryonated eggs of Gallus gallus domesticus, according to Beck method. We evaluated the toxic effect of the MoS2 powder purchased at Sigma-Aldrich indicated as "received" and MoS2 powder treated via mechanical milling indicated as "ball mille". Subsequently, the embryos were sacrificed at different times of embryonic development (11th, 15th and 19th day after incubation) in order to evaluate their embryotoxic and teratogenic effects. The alterations of the embryonic development were studied by morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissues. The results obtained have shown the toxicity of both powders of MoS2 with a high percentage of deaths and growth delays. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis performed on several tissue sections showed a strong positivity to the anti-metallothionein1 antibody only for the erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grafite/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/embriologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Food Chem ; 327: 127048, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454285

RESUMO

In our previous study, a novel LMW-GS designated as LMW-N13 with a unique molecular structure was identified from Aegilops uniaristata. LMW-N13 has been characterized as the largest LMW-GS, so far, and possesses an extra cysteine residue compared with typical LMW-GS. In order to analyze the contribution of LMW-N13 to dough quality, in this work, three transgenic wheat lines overexpressing LMW-N13 were generated. Compared with non-transformation (NT) lines, transgenic (TG) lines demonstrated superior dough properties. These superior dough properties were accompanied by the higher contents of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) and total protein. The microstructure of the dough was further investigated by scanning electron microscopy; starch granules in NT lines were smaller than those in transgenic lines. The protein matrix in NT lines was relatively loose and discontinuous. Conversely, the protein matrix in transgenic lines was more continuous and tight. The application of LMW-N13 in wheat breeding is also discussed.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Triticum/química , Aegilops/genética , Dissulfetos/química , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11450-11458, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385162

RESUMO

Dynamic remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects many cellular processes, either directly or indirectly, through the regulation of soluble ligands; however, the mechanistic details of this process remain largely unknown. Here we propose that type I collagen remodeling regulates the receptor-binding activity of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a widely expressed secreted glycoprotein that has multiple important biological functions in tissue and organ homeostasis. We determined the crystal structure of PEDF in complex with a disulfide cross-linked heterotrimeric collagen peptide, in which the α(I) chain segments-each containing the respective PEDF-binding region (residues 930 to 938)-are assembled with an α2α1α1 staggered configuration. The complex structure revealed that PEDF specifically interacts with a unique amphiphilic sequence, KGHRGFSGL, of the type I collagen α1 chain, with its proposed receptor-binding sites buried extensively. Molecular docking demonstrated that the PEDF-binding surface of type I collagen contains the cross-link-susceptible Lys930 residue of the α1 chain and provides a good foothold for stable docking with the α1(I) N-telopeptide of an adjacent triple helix in the fibril. Therefore, the binding surface is completely inaccessible if intermolecular crosslinking between two crosslink-susceptible lysyl residues, Lys9 in the N-telopeptide and Lys930, is present. These structural analyses demonstrate that PEDF molecules, once sequestered around newly synthesized pericellular collagen fibrils, are gradually liberated as collagen crosslinking increases, making them accessible for interaction with their target cell surface receptors in a spatiotemporally regulated manner.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/química , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/química , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Serpinas/química , Serpinas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Colágeno Tipo I/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dissulfetos/química , Lisina/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
Food Chem ; 327: 127107, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454281

RESUMO

Herein, we proposed a duplex and homogeneous fluorescent immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of amantadine (AMD) and chloramphenicol (CAP) residue in chicken breast with both high sensitivity and short assay time. The immunoassay was based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between hapten-labeled carbon dots (CDs) and antibody-modified WS2 nanosheets. To achieve the duplex FRET, polyethyleneimine-functionalized blue and green emissive CDs with separated emission were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method and directly coupled with the haptens of AMD and CAP, serving as the energy donors. The antibodies were modified on the surface of WS2 nanosheets with high quenching efficiency to construct the energy acceptor. The specific immunoreaction could trigger the efficient FRET between the donors and the acceptors, causing the fluorescence quenching of CDs. The developed immunoassay was applied to simultaneously detect AMD and CAP, having the detection limit of 0.10 ng g-1 and 0.06 ng g-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Amantadina/análise , Cloranfenicol/análise , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Imunoensaio , Carbono/química , Dissulfetos/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas , Tungstênio/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126995, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416394

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the preparation of MoS2-modified magnetic biochar (MoS2@MBC) as a novel adsorbent by a simple hydrothermal method. MoS2@MBC contains abundant S-containing functional groups that facilitate efficient Cd(II) removal from aqueous systems. We employed various characterization techniques to explore the morphology, surface area, and chemical composition of MoS2@MBC; these included Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction,. The results indicated the successful decoration of the surface of MoS2@MBC with iron and MoS2, and a higher surface area of MoS2@MBC than that of unmodified biochar. Moreover, adsorption properties including thermodynamics and kinetics were investigated along with the effects of pH, humic acid, and ionic strength on the Cd(II) adsorption onto MoS2@MBC. The O-, C-, S-, and Fe-containing functional groups on the surface of MoS2@MBC led to an electrostatic attraction of Cd(II) and strong Cd-S complexation. The Langmuir and pseudo second-order models fitted best for the batch adsorption experiments results. The adsorption capacity of MoS2@MBC (139 mg g-1 on the basis of the Langmuir model) was 7.81 times higher than that of pristine biochar. The adsorption process was found to be pH-dependent. The experimental results indicated that MoS2@MBC is an effective adsorbent for removing Cd(II) from water solutions. Further, the adsorption process involved the complexation of Cd(II) with oxygen-based functional groups, ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, Cd(II)-π interactions, metal-sulfur complexation, and inner-surface complexation. This work provides new insights into the Cd(II) ions removal from water via adsorption. It also demonstrates that MoS2@MBC is an efficient and economic adsorbent to treat Cd(II)-contaminated water.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal/química , Dissulfetos/química , Molibdênio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cádmio/química , Cinética , Concentração Osmolar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13329-13338, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461372

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are an emerging class of biomaterials that are photoresponsive at near-infrared wavelengths (NIR). Here, we demonstrate the ability of 2D MoS2 to modulate cellular functions of human stem cells through photothermal mechanisms. The interaction of MoS2 and NIR stimulation of MoS2 with human stem cells is investigated using whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Global gene expression profile of stem cells reveals significant influence of MoS2 and NIR stimulation of MoS2 on integrins, cellular migration, and wound healing. The combination of MoS2 and NIR light may provide new approaches to regulate and direct these cellular functions for the purposes of regenerative medicine as well as cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/efeitos da radiação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos da radiação , Molibdênio/efeitos da radiação , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Adesão Celular/efeitos da radiação , Movimento Celular/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Integrinas/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação
14.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127099, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470733

RESUMO

Membrane fouling is an issue of concern due to the hydrophobic properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane when applied in water treatment. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method was utilized to synthesize hierarchical flower-like structured molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (HF-MoS2 NSs) that then incorporated into PES membranes as composite membranes. We characterized their permeability, the separation performance, the antifouling performance, and the antibacterial activity systematically. Results showed that composite membranes exhibited a better pure water flux (286 LMH/bar) at the HF-MoS2 NSs content of 0.4 wt%, which was 1.8 times higher than the control membrane. Also, composite PES membranes achieved 98.2% and 96.9% rejection of BSA and HA in comparison with the control PES membrane (87.3%, and 84.5%, respectively). Compare to the control PES membrane, the flux recovery ratio of the composite membrane increased from 69% to 88% for BSA fouling and increased from 84% to 93% for HA fouling. The retention rate for the organic dyes also improved slightly after HF-MoS2 NSs incorporation into the membrane. Additionally, the composite membranes exhibited a relatively high antibacterial activity against E. coli and B. subtilis with antibacterial rates of 67.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In conclusion, HF-MoS2 NSs incorporated composite membranes were shown to have outstanding filtration performance and could be a promising candidate for practical application in water filtration.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Polímeros/química , Sulfonas/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Dissulfetos/química , Escherichia coli , Filtração , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Molibdênio/química , Permeabilidade , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 321: 126722, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272351

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a novel and simple non-thermal method for preparing a low-pH-induced surimi gel from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). To this end, effect of glucose oxidase (GOD) on gelation properties of the surimi with added 5% glucose was investigated. The surimi containing glucose was blended with 0%-3.0% GOD and incubated for 15 h at 4 °C. The pH of the surimi gel with 1.0% GOD decreased to 4.6 after the incubation. The addition of 1.0% GOD was the optimum to elevate breaking force and breaking deformation of the surimi gel. Surface hydrophobicity and disulfide bond contents that are involved in the formation of protein gel network in the surimi increased with an increase in GOD concentration. These results indicate that the addition of 1.0% GOD significantly enhances low-pH-induced gelation of surimi because GOD catalyzes the oxidative reaction of glucose resulting in lowering of the pH.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gadiformes , Géis/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Animais , Dissulfetos/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224438

RESUMO

A fusion peptide mimicking a part of the sequence of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with an additional cysteine at its C-terminus (FP8: AVGIGAVFC) was conjugated to a carrier protein through a linker for development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Since this fusion peptide is very hydrophobic with poor solubility and can self-dimerize via a disulfide bond, co-existence of monomeric and dimeric forms presented a major challenge for residual unconjugated FP8 quantification. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with UV detection was developed to monitor residual FP8 using an experimental correction factor of 0.85 for UV peak area measurement between FP8 dimer and monomer. Therefore, both forms of unconjugated residual FP8 can be measured based on a single FP8 monomer reference curve. Overall, this study demonstrated that the current purification process can remove free residual FP8 to a low level, <20 µg/mL, which showed negligible impact (<10%) for the conjugated FP8 ratio measurement using another method, amino acid analysis.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cisteína/química , Dissulfetos/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Limite de Detecção , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229427

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic phytopathogen that has been the subject of several scientific research efforts. Despite the numerous research efforts its proteome remains understudied. This study aimed to identify proteins produced by S. sclerotiorum, thereby increasing the current proteomic knowledge base. Total proteins were extracted from mycelia scraped from five-day old cultures of S. sclerotiorum. The extracted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were annotated using the AB Sciex TripleToF 6600 mass spectrometer. Exactly 1471 proteins were reproducibly present in all three replicates. All proteins detected were classified based on their molecular and biological functions. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the most comprehensive proteomic study on S. sclerotiorum (judging by the high number of proteins identified).


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Proteoma/análise , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Espectrometria de Massas , Micélio/química , Oxirredução , Proteômica
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1814, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286284

RESUMO

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enable crystallographic structure determination beyond the limitations imposed upon synchrotron measurements by radiation damage. The need for very short XFEL pulses is relieved through gating of Bragg diffraction by loss of crystalline order as damage progresses, but not if ionization events are spatially non-uniform due to underlying elemental distributions, as in biological samples. Indeed, correlated movements of iron and sulfur ions were observed in XFEL-irradiated ferredoxin microcrystals using unusually long pulses of 80 fs. Here, we report a femtosecond time-resolved X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiment on protein nanocrystals. We observe changes in the protein backbone and aromatic residues as well as disulfide bridges. Simulations show that the latter's correlated structural dynamics are much slower than expected for the predicted high atomic charge states due to significant impact of ion caging and plasma electron screening. This indicates that dense-environment effects can strongly affect local radiation damage-induced structural dynamics.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Elétrons , Lasers , Dissulfetos/química , Enxofre/química , Raios X
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282813

RESUMO

A designed disulfide-rich ß-hairpin peptide that dimerizes spontaneously served as a hinge-type connection between proteins. Here, we analyze the range of dynamics of this hinge dimer with the aim of proposing new applications for the DNA-encodable peptide and establishing guidelines for the computational analysis of other disulfide hinges. A recent structural analysis based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ion mobility spectrometry revealed an averaged conformation in the hinge region which motivated us to investigate the dynamic behavior using a combination of molecular dynamics simulation, metadynamics and free energy surface analysis to characterize the conformational space available to the hinge. Principal component analysis uncovered two slow modes of the peptide, namely, the opening and closing motion and twisting of the two ß-hairpins assembling the hinge. Applying a collective variable (CV) that mimics the first dominating mode, led to a major expansion of the conformational space. The description of the dynamics could be achieved by analysis of the opening angle and the twisting of the ß-hairpins and, thus, offers a methodology that can also be transferred to other derivatives. It has been demonstrated that the hinge peptide's lowest energy conformation consists of a large opening angle and strong twist but is separated by small energy barriers and can, thus, adopt a closed and untwisted structure. With the aim of proposing further applications for the hinge peptide, we simulated its behavior in the sterically congested environment of a four-helix bundle. Preliminary investigations show that one helix is pushed out and a three-helix bundle forms. The insights gained into the dynamics of the tetra-disulfide peptide and analytical guidelines developed in this study may contribute to the understanding of the structure and function of more complex hinge-type proteins, such as the IgG antibody family.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , DNA/química , Dissulfetos/química , Imunoglobulina G/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000656, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271748

RESUMO

Chemokines and their receptors are orchestrators of cell migration in humans. Because dysregulation of the receptor-chemokine system leads to inflammation and cancer, both chemokines and receptors are highly sought therapeutic targets. Yet one of the barriers for their therapeutic targeting is the limited understanding of the structural principles behind receptor-chemokine recognition and selectivity. The existing structures do not include CXC subfamily complexes and lack information about the receptor distal N-termini, despite the importance of the latter in signaling, regulation, and bias. Here, we report the discovery of the geometry of the complex between full-length CXCR4, a prototypical CXC receptor and driver of cancer metastasis, and its endogenous ligand CXCL12. By comprehensive disulfide cross-linking, we establish the existence and the structure of a novel interface between the CXCR4 distal N-terminus and CXCL12 ß1-strand, while also recapitulating earlier findings from nuclear magnetic resonance, modeling and crystallography of homologous receptors. A cross-linking-informed high-resolution model of the CXCR4-CXCL12 complex pinpoints the interaction determinants and reveals the occupancy of the receptor major subpocket by the CXCL12 proximal N terminus. This newly found positioning of the chemokine proximal N-terminus provides a structural explanation of CXC receptor-chemokine selectivity against other subfamilies. Our findings challenge the traditional two-site understanding of receptor-chemokine recognition, suggest the possibility of new affinity and signaling determinants, and fill a critical void on the structural map of an important class of therapeutic targets. These results will aid the rational design of selective chemokine-receptor targeting small molecules and biologics with novel pharmacology.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/química , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/química , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Western Blotting , Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/genética , Dissulfetos/química , Citometria de Fluxo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Insetos/citologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores CXCR4/genética , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo
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