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1.
Bioinformatics ; 37(Suppl_1): i1-i6, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252962

RESUMO

Annually, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes three outstanding researchers for significant scientific contributions to the field of bioinformatics and computational biology, as well as one individual for exemplary service to the field. ISCB is honored to announce the 2021 Accomplishments by a Senior Scientist Awardee, Overton Prize recipient, Innovator Awardee and Outstanding Contributions to ISCB Awardee. Peer Bork, EMBL Heidelberg, is the winner of the Accomplishments by a Senior Scientist Award. Barbara Engelhardt, Princeton University, is the Overton Prize winner. Ben Raphael, Princeton University, is the winner of the ISCB Innovator Award. Teresa Attwood, Manchester University, has been selected as the winner of the Outstanding Contributions to ISCB Award. Martin Vingron, Chair, ISCB Awards Committee noted, 'As chair of the Awards Committee it gives me great pleasure to convey my heart-felt congratulations to this year's awardees. Our community, as represented by the committee, admires these individuals' outstanding achievements in research, training, and outreach.'


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Biologia Computacional , Coração , Humanos , Sociedades Científicas
2.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(7 Supple B): 17-24, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192913

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with spinal pathology who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have an increased risk of dislocation and revision. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of the Hip-Spine Classification system in these patients would result in a decreased rate of postoperative dislocation in patients with spinal pathology. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre study evaluated 3,777 consecutive patients undergoing THA by three surgeons, between January 2014 and December 2019. They were categorized using The Hip-Spine Classification system: group 1 with normal spinal alignment; group 2 with a flatback deformity, group 2A with normal spinal mobility, and group 2B with a stiff spine. Flatback deformity was defined by a pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis of > 10°, and spinal stiffness was defined by < 10° change in sacral slope from standing to seated. Each category determined a patient-specific component positioning. Survivorship free of dislocation was recorded and spinopelvic measurements were compared for reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 2,081 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 987 group 1A, 232 group 1B, 715 group 2A, and 147 group 2B patients. A total of 70 patients had a lumbar fusion, most had L4-5 (16; 23%) or L4-S1 (12; 17%) fusions; 51 patients (73%) had one or two levels fused, and 19 (27%) had > three levels fused. Dual mobility (DM) components were used in 166 patients (8%), including all of those in group 2B and with > three level fusions. Survivorship free of dislocation at five years was 99.2% with a 0.8% dislocation rate. The correlation coefficient was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.91). CONCLUSION: This is the largest series in the literature evaluating the relationship between hip-spine pathology and dislocation after THA, and guiding appropriate treatment. The Hip-Spine Classification system allows surgeons to make appropriate evaluations preoperatively, and it guides the use of DM components in patients with spinopelvic pathology in order to reduce the risk of dislocation in these high-risk patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(7 Supple B):17-24.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Luxação do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/classificação , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Posição Ortostática
3.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(7 Supple B): 3-8, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192920

RESUMO

AIMS: While interdisciplinary protocols and expedited surgical treatment improve the management of hip fractures in the elderly, the impact of such interventions on patients specifically undergoing arthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture is not clear. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an interdisciplinary protocol for the management of patients with a femoral neck fracture who are treated with an arthroplasty. METHODS: In 2017, our institution introduced a standardized interdisciplinary hip fracture protocol. We retrospectively reviewed adult patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) for femoral neck fracture between July 2012 and March 2020, and compared patient characteristics and outcomes between those treated before and after the introduction of the protocol. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients were treated before the introduction of the protocol (35 (22.3%) with a THA), and 114 patients were treated after its introduction (37 (32.5%) with a THA). The demographic details and medical comorbidities were similar in the two groups. Patients treated after the introduction of the protocol had a significantly reduced median time between admission and surgery (22.8 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 18.8 to 27.7) compared with 24.8 hours (IQR 18.4 to 43.3) (p = 0.042), and a trend towards a reduced mean time to surgery (24.1 hours (SD 10.7) compared with 46.5 hours (SD 165.0); p = 0.150), indicating reduction in outliers. Patients treated after the introduction of the protocol had a significantly decreased rate of major complications (4.4% vs 17.2%; p = 0.005), decreased median hospital length of stay in hospital (4.0 days vs 4.8 days; p = 0.008), increased rate of discharge home (26.3% vs 14.7%; p = 0.030), and decreased one-year mortality (14.7% vs 26.3%; p = 0.049). The 90-day readmission rate (18.2% vs 21.7%; p = 0.528) and 30-day mortality (3.7% vs 5.1%; p = 0.767) did not significantly differ. Patients who underwent HA were significantly older than those who underwent THA (82.1 years (SD 10.4) vs 71.1 years (SD 9.5); p < 0.001), more medically complex (mean Charlson Comorbidity Index 6.4 (SD 2.6) vs 4.1 (SD 2.2); p < 0.001), and more likely to develop delirium (8.5% vs 0%; p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: The introduction of an interdisciplinary protocol for the management of elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture was associated with reduced time to surgery, length of stay, complications, and one-year mortality. Such interventions are critical in improving outcomes and reducing costs for an ageing population. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(7 Supple B):3-8.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Protocolos Clínicos , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Hemiartroplastia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/mortalidade , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(7 Supple B): 9-16, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192921

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to develop an in vivo model of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in cemented hip hemiarthroplasty, and to monitor infection and biofilm formation in real-time. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty via the posterior approach with pre- and postoperative gait assessments. Infection with Staphylococcus aureus Xen36 was monitored with in vivo photoluminescent imaging in real-time. Pre- and postoperative gait analyses were performed and compared. Postmortem micro (m) CT was used to assess implant integration; field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to assess biofilm formation on prosthetic surfaces. RESULTS: All animals tolerated surgery well, with preservation of gait mechanics and weightbearing in control individuals. Postoperative in vivo imaging demonstrated predictable evolution of infection with logarithmic signal decay coinciding with abscess formation. Postmortem mCT qualitative volumetric analysis showed high contact area and both cement-bone and cement-implant interdigitation. FE-SEM revealed biofilm formation on the prosthetic head. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the utility of a new, high-fidelity model of in vivo PJI using cemented hip hemiarthroplasty in rats. Inoculation with bioluminescent bacteria allows for non-invasive, real-time monitoring of infection. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(7 Supple B):9-16.


Assuntos
Hemiartroplastia , Prótese de Quadril , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Animais , Distinções e Prêmios , Biofilmes , Cimentos Ósseos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Marcha , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografia por Raio-X
5.
8.
Neurosci Res ; 169: 1, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146606
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 8341-8362, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053756

RESUMO

Dairy calf nutrition is traditionally one of the most overlooked aspects of dairy management, despite its large effect on the efficiency and profitability of dairy operations. Unfortunately, among all animals on the dairy farm, calves suffer from the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. These challenges have catalyzed calf nutrition research over the past decade to mitigate high incidences of disease and death, and improve animal health, growth, welfare, and industry sustainability. However, major knowledge gaps remain in several crucial stages of development. The purpose of this review is to summarize the key concepts of nutritional physiology and programming from conception to puberty and their subsequent effects on development of the calf, and ultimately, future performance. During fetal development, developmental plasticity is highest. At this time, maternal energy and protein consumption can influence fetal development, likely playing a critical role in calf and heifer development and, importantly, future production. After birth, the calf's first meal of colostrum is crucial for the transfer of immunoglobulin to support calf health and survival. However, colostrum also contains numerous bioactive proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that may play key roles in calf growth and health. Extending the delivery of these bioactive compounds to the calf through a gradual transition from colostrum to milk (i.e., extended colostrum or transition milk feeding) may confer benefits in the first days and weeks of life to prepare the calf for the preweaning period. Similarly, optimal nutrition during the preweaning period is vital. Preweaning calves are highly susceptible to health challenges, and improved calf growth and health can positively influence future milk production. Throughout the world, the majority of dairy calves rely on milk replacer to supply adequate nutrition. Recent research has started to re-evaluate traditional formulations of milk replacers, which can differ significantly in composition compared with whole milk. Transitioning from a milk-based diet to solid feed is critical in the development of mature ruminants. Delaying weaning age and providing long and gradual step-down protocols have become common to avoid production and health challenges. Yet, determining how to appropriately balance the amount of energy and protein supplied in both liquid and solid feeds based on preweaning milk allowances, and further acknowledging their interactions, shows great promise in improving growth and health during weaning. After weaning and during the onset of puberty, heifers are traditionally offered high-forage diets. However, recent work suggests that an early switch to a high-forage diet will depress intake and development during the time when solid feed efficiency is greatest. It has become increasingly clear that there are great opportunities to advance our knowledge of calf nutrition; yet, a more concentrated and rigorous approach to research that encompasses the long-term consequences of nutritional regimens at each stage of life is required to ensure the sustainability and efficiency of the global dairy industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Distinções e Prêmios , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Leite , Maturidade Sexual , Desmame
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 761-763, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961778

RESUMO

This article is based on the address given by the author at the 2020 virtual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) on October 26, 2020. The video of the original address can be found at the ASHG website.


Assuntos
Genética Médica/história , Distinções e Prêmios , História do Século XX , Sociedades Científicas , Estados Unidos
13.
Neuron ; 109(9): 1418-1420, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957069

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Johnson et al. show that mice rely on binocular vision when hunting insect prey. Specific types of retinal output neurons support this behavior. They have functional properties and brain connections well-suited to their role.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Neurônios Retinianos , Animais , Encéfalo , Camundongos , Comportamento Predatório , Visão Binocular
14.
Nurs Manage ; 52(2): 7-9, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953077
15.
BMJ ; 373: n1328, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045180
16.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 3-12, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053272

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose is to determine the non-inferiority of a smartphone-based exercise educational care management system after primary knee arthroplasty compared with a traditional in-person physiotherapy rehabilitation model. METHODS: A multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted evaluating the use of a smartphone-based care management system for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and partial knee arthroplasty (PKA). Patients in the control group (n = 244) received the respective institution's standard of care with formal physiotherapy. The treatment group (n = 208) were provided a smartwatch and smartphone application. Early outcomes assessed included 90-day knee range of movement, EuroQoL five-dimension five-level score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS JR) score, 30-day single leg stance (SLS) time, Time up and Go (TUG) time, and need for manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). RESULTS: Overall, 90-day mean flexion was not significantly different between the control (121° (SD 11.7°)) and treatment groups (121o; p = 0.559); 90-day mean SLS was 22.7 seconds (SD 9.8) in controls and 24.3 seconds (SD 20.8) in treatment (p = 0.519); 90-day mean TUG times were 10.1 seconds (SD 4.8) in control and 9.3 seconds (SD 3.3) in treatment (p = 0.139). Mean KOOS JR scores were significantly different between control group (73.6 (SD 13.4)) and treatment group (70.4 (SD 12.6); p = 0.026). MUAs were performed in nine (3.7%) patients in the control group and four (1.9%) in the treatment group (p = 0.398). Physiotherapy was performed by 230 (94.4%) of control group and 123 (59.3%) of treatment group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups in postoperative urgent care visits, or readmissions within 90 days, with significantly fewer emergency department visits in the treatment group (16 (8.2%) vs five (2.5%), p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: The use of the smartwatch/smartphone care platform demonstrated non-inferiority of clinically significant outcomes to traditional care models, while requiring significantly less postoperative physiotherapy and fewer emergency department visits. This platform could aid in decreasing postoperative costs, while improving patient engagement and communication with the healthcare team. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):3-12.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Smartphone , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distinções e Prêmios , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
17.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 18-22, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053277

RESUMO

AIMS: The optimal management of an infrapopliteal deep venous thrombosis (IDVT) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. The risk of DVT propagation and symptom progression must be balanced against potential haemorrhagic complications associated with administration of anticoagulation therapy. The current study reports on a cohort of patients diagnosed with IDVT following TKA who were treated with aspirin, followed closely for development of symptoms, and scanned with ultrasound to determine resolution of IDVT. METHODS: Among a cohort of 5,078 patients undergoing TKA, 532 patients (695 TKAs, 12.6%) developed an IDVT between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2019 at a single institution, as diagnosed using Doppler ultrasound at the first postoperative visit. Of the entire cohort of 532 patients with IDVT, 91.4% (486/532) were treated with aspirin (325 mg twice daily) and followed closely. Repeat lower limb ultrasound was performed four weeks later to evaluate the status of IDVT. RESULTS: Follow-up Doppler ultrasound was performed on 459/486 (94.4%) patients and demonstrated resolution of IDVT in 445/459 cases (96.9%). Doppler diagnosed propagation of IDVT to the popliteal vein had occurred in 10/459 (2.2%) cases. One patient with an IDVT developed a pulmonary embolus six weeks postoperatively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate a low rate of IDVT propagation in patients managed with aspirin. Additionally, no significant bleeding episodes, wound-related complications, or other adverse events were noted from aspirin therapy. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):18-22.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Veia Poplítea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 13-17, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053300

RESUMO

AIMS: Infection complicating primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common reason for revision surgery, hospital readmission, patient morbidity, and mortality. Increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particular concern. The use of vancomycin as prophylactic agent alone or in combination with cephalosporin has not demonstrated lower periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates, partly due to timing and dosing of intravenous (IV) vancomycin administration, which have proven important factors in effectiveness. This is a retrospective review of a consecutive series of primary TKAs examining incidence of PJI, adverse reactions, and complications using IV versus intraosseous (IO) vancomycin at 30-day, 90-day, and one-year follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,060 patients who underwent TKA between May 2016 to July 2020 was performed. There were 572 patients in the IV group and 488 in the IO group, with minimal 30 days of follow-up. Patients were followed up at regularly scheduled intervals (two, six, and 12 weeks). No differences between groups for age, sex, BMI, or baseline comorbidities existed. The IV group received an IV dose of 15 mg/kg vancomycin given over an hour preceding skin incision. The IO group received a 500 mg dose of vancomycin mixed in 150 ml of normal saline, injected into proximal tibia after tourniquet inflation, before skin incision. All patients received an additional dose of first generation cephalosporin. Evaluation included preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine values, tourniquet time, and adverse reactions attributable to vancomycin. RESULTS: Incidence of PJI with minimum 90-day follow-up was 1.4% (eight knees) in the IV group and 0.22% (one knee) in IO group (p = 0.047). This preliminary report demonstrated an reduction in the incidence of infection in TKA using IO vancomycin combined with a first-generation cephalosporin. While the study suffers from limitations of a retrospective, multi-surgeon investigation, early findings are encouraging. CONCLUSION: IO delivery of vancomycin after tourniquet inflation is a safe and effective alternative to IV administration, eliminating the logistical challenges of timely dosing. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):13-17.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 836-841, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031305

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has prioritized efforts to increase diversity in the biomedical research workforce. NIH-funded institutional career development awards may serve as one mechanism to facilitate these efforts. In 2013, the Duke University KL2 program, an internal career development program funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, set a goal to increase the number of investigators from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREGs) to ≥ 50% of KL2 awardees. From 2013 to 2019, 133 KL2 applications were received, 38% from UREG investigators. Of the 21 scholars selected, 10 (47.6%) were UREG investigators; all were Black/African American. This represents a threefold increase in the proportion of UREG applications and a sixfold increase in the proportion of UREG KL2 scholars compared with Duke's previous KL2 cycles (2003-2012), during which only 13% of applicants and 8.3% of funded scholars were UREGs. Of the 12 KL2 scholars (7 UREG) who completed the program, 5 have received NIH funding as principal investigators of an external K award or R01, and 4 of them are UREG investigators; this constitutes a post-KL2 NIH funding success rate of 57% (4/7) for UREG scholars. Achieving this programmatic priority was facilitated by institutional support, clear communication of goals to increase the proportion of UREG KL2 awardees, and intentional strategies to identify and support applicants. Strategies included targeted outreach to UREG investigators, partnerships with other institutional entities, structured assistance for investigators with preparing their applications, and a KL2 program structure addressing common barriers to success for UREG investigators, such as lack of consistent mentorship, protected research time, and peer support. The authors' experience suggests that KL2 and other internal career development programs may represent a scalable, national strategy to increase diversity in the biomedical research workforce.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Pesquisadores/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , North Carolina , Estados Unidos , Universidades
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