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1.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 84-95, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190643

RESUMO

Spodoptera exigua Hübner and Sesamia cretica Led. (Lep., Noctuidae) are two important pests of corn. In this study, the effect of weed bands in the corn field, as weedy culture, on population density and damages of the pests were evaluated during two growing seasons (2016/2017). Cumulative insect days (CID) of each lepidopteran pest in weedy culture were compared with non-weedy culture. Results showed that CIDs of S. exigua and S. cretica in the non-weedy corn culture were significantly higher than the weedy corn culture. There was no significant difference between the total yield in the weedy and non-weedy cultures. Also, determinations of spatial distributions of the pests in the weedy and no-weedy treatments using Taylor's power law (TPL) and Iwao's patchiness (IP) showed that TPL provides a better fit for the data than IP and spatial distributions of both pests on both cultures were aggregative. Moreover, minor differences were observed between spatial distribution parameters of the pests in the weedy and non-weedy cultures. Green's model was used for developing a fixed-precision sequential sampling plan of the pests on the weedy and no-weedy treatments. Optimum sample sizes of S. exigua ranged from 532 to 5370 and 428 to 5296 plants and S. cretica varied from 297 to 2040 and 43 to 186 plants in the non-weedy and weedy cultures based on the desired precision level (0.25-0.1). Estimated stop lines of non-weedy and weedy cultures for S. exigua ranged from 0.000057 to 52.59 and 0.00029 to 58.87 and for S. cretica ranged from 1.59 to 111.5 and 2.09 to 98.03 larval cumulative numbers, respectively (0.25-0.1). The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using RVSP software. Results of the study can be used in the integrated pest management program of corn fields.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Distribuição Animal , Spodoptera , Animais , Densidade Demográfica , Zea mays
2.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305022

RESUMO

Following significant developments in technology, alternative devices have been applied in fieldwork for animal and plant surveys. Thermal-image acquisition cameras installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used in animal surveys in the wilderness. This article demonstrates an example of how UAVs can be used in high mountainous regions, presenting a case study on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with a detection rate of 65.19% for positive individual identification. It also presents a model that can prospectively predict population size for a given animal species, which is based on combined initial work using UAVs and traditional surveys on the ground. A great potential advantage of UAVs is significantly shortening survey procedures, particularly for areas with high mountains and plateaus, such as the Himalayas, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Hengduan Mountains, the Yunnan-Gui Plateau and Qinling Mountains in China, where carrying out a traditional survey is extremely difficult, so that species and population surveys, particularly for critically endangered animals, are largely absent. This lack of data has impacted the management of endangered animals as well as the formulation and amendment of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
3.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 55-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149780

RESUMO

Patterns of body size variation along geographical gradients have long been searched for and generalized into eco-geographical rules. However, no rodent species has yet been analyzed in relation to the 3 dimensions of latitude, longitude and altitude. We analyzed geographical clines and dimorphism of body and skull size in the herb field mouse (Apodemus uralensis) across the species range, based on field data and on data from the literature. Sexual dimorphism in adult A. uralensis was not expressed at a large scale, while local patterns were inconsistent. Age-dependent size changes were most expressed in adult individuals: most characters of adults exceeded in size those of subadults, while subadult-juvenile size differences were only significant in body weight and length, zygomatic skull width, length of cranial diastema and breadth of braincase. Despite central morphological niches along the clines being separated, A. uralensis populations showed a high degree of size overlap in morphological space. We found the species to be characterized by high size variability, with the largest individuals inhabiting the eastern and southern edges of the distribution range. Tail, hind foot and ear lengths were largest in the southern part of the range, in agreement with Allen's rule. The main measurements that we analyzed, namely body mass, zygomatic skull width and condylobasal skull length, show the presence of 3 clines in the size of adult A. uralensis: (i) a decreasing south-north cline, opposing Bergmann's rule; (ii) an increasing west-east cline, in accordance with Murphy's rule; and (iii) an increasing altitudinal cline.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Murinae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Murinae/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Syst Biol ; 69(1): 76-90, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125064

RESUMO

A statistical framework to infer areas of endemism from geographic distributions is proposed. This novel method is based on hidden Markov random fields (HMRFs), a type of undirected graph model commonly used in computer vision. This framework assumes areas of endemism are the states of the hidden layer of the model, whereas taxon distributions are emitted values in the observed layer. Taxon distributions are associated to the observed layer through a clustering procedure based on the extent of overlap. Observations are emitted by the hidden layer according to a Gaussian distribution, whereas the joint distribution of the hidden layer follows a Potts model. State and parameter inference of the maximum a posteriori configuration is performed through a modified version of the expectation-maximization algorithm. The optimal number of areas of endemism in the data set is estimated through the pseudolikelihood information criterion, a model selection procedure that uses an approximation to likelihood. The performance of the new algorithm was assessed on simulated data, and compared with the most popular methods for delimitation of areas of endemism: biotic element analysis, parsimony analysis of endemism, and endemicity analysis. HMRFs efficiently recovered the true pattern across a wide range of uncertainty values. The performance was also examined on empirical data: South African weevils (Sciobius) and Central American ground beetles and funnel-web tarantulas (Carabidae and Dipluridae, respectively). HMRFs uncovered six areas of endemism from the weevil data set, whereas eight were estimated for the Central American arthropods (compared with 3-5 and 3-14 from the other methods, respectively).


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Modelos Estatísticos , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Cadeias de Markov
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20181240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800702

RESUMO

This study presents the first record of Elops smithi for northern Brazil. The evidence suggests this species is being misidentified incorrectly as Elops saurus in estuaries of the Western Atlantic Ocean. Here, morphological, molecular, and cytogenetic evidence identified all ladyfish specimens from one estuary in the region as E. smithi. Thus, at least Elops smithi occurs in the northern coast of Brazil and it is recommended that specimens from this region identified as E. saurus be further investigated with genetic and cytogenetic tools in order to assure a correct species identification.


Assuntos
Peixes/classificação , Peixes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Estuários , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800711

RESUMO

Three piranha species, Serrasalmus maculatus, S. marginatus and Pygocentrus nattereri, living sympatrically in the lower Paraná River (Argentina) were examined searching for nasal monogeneans to know its diversity and distribution. Four species of monogeneans belonging to Rhinoxenus were found parasitizing the nasal cavities. Two new species are described, and new morphological data of 2 previously described species is provided. Rhinoxenus argentinensis n. sp. is characterized by having the male copulatory organ (MCO) as a coiled tube with a reel shaped-base; an elongated accessory piece articulated to base of MCO; a sinistral vagina with a sclerotized vestibule, and a sclerotized cap of the ventral anchor laterally modified forming a triangular expansion. Rhinoxenus paranaensis n. sp. is characterized by having a MCO as a coiled tube with a reel-shaped base; an accessory piece with an elongate proximal portion, a dilated distal portion with digitiform projections articulated to base of MCO; a sinistral vagina with 5-6 cuticular spine-shaped processes, and a sclerotized cap of the ventral anchor modified laterally forming a bilobate expansion. Additionally, multivariate discriminant analyses showed significant morphometric differences in the ventral anchors among Rhinoxenus species parasitizing 'piranhas '.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Masculino , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/classificação , Rios
8.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 471-478, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833318

RESUMO

The nominotypical subspecies of the Eastern buzzard (Buteo japonicus japonicus; BJJ) is a common raptor inhabiting East Asia and Japan. Another subspecies, B. j. toyoshimai (BJT), inhabits only the Bonin Islands of the Ogasawara Islands, where there are only an estimated 85 breeding pairs. Because of this low population size, this subspecies is classified as endangered (class IB) in Japan. The aims of the present study were to examine genetic differences between BJJ and BJT, determine the genetic structure of the Eastern Buzzard, and assess genetic diversity within each subspecies. We sequenced 1526 bp within the control region of the mtDNA of 10 BJJ individuals during the breeding season in four sites; similarly, we sequenced 23 BJJ individuals during winter in three sites. We detected 24 haplotypes among the 33 individuals. In a similar analysis performed with 12 BJT individuals, three haplotypes were detected. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BJJ and BJT have diverged into distinct clades, supporting the genetic differentiation between the subspecies. Network and mismatch distribution analyses indicated that BJJ may have experienced population expansion. In addition, comparisons with other raptors revealed a high degree of genetic diversity in the BJJ population. In contrast, the genetic diversity of the BJT population is lower than that in other raptors. Our results indicated that it is necessary to protect BJT to prevent the reduction in its genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Falconiformes/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Falconiformes/fisiologia , Haplótipos , Japão , Filogenia , Estações do Ano
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 479-489, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833319

RESUMO

In the present study, we add genetic data of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum collected from the Japanese Islands to the established molecular phylogenetic knowledge in the mitochondrial COI gene of Cloeon mayflies. Cloeon dipterum is a typical cosmopolitan species that includes six intraspecific haplotype groups. The present phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotypes of the Japanese C. dipterum constitute a seventh group together with a haplotype from Korea. This East Asian group forms a sister group with previously known European and North American haplotype groups (i.e., the clade CT1 to CT3). The present phylogenetic analysis further revealed the occurrence of two described species (C. dipterum and Cloeon ryogokuensis) and possibly three species (Cloeon sp. 1 to 3) in Japan. Consideration is given to the degree of genetic differentiation, divergence time, and differentiation process among these seven genetic groups.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Japão , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 511-520, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833322

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of the effect of reproductive modes and swimming ability on ostracod distribution, we visited 111 randomly selected aquatic sites in Kirsehir province. A total of 35 ostracods were newly reported for the area. The number of species with and without swimming setae was not statistically different, but numbers of sexual species was significantly lower than parthenogenetics. Species without setae did not show a significant difference between sexual and parthenogenetic forms. Numbers of species with (out) setae were not significant among different elevational ranges. Distribution of parthenogenetic species was common in all 11 habitat types when sexual species were only found from three different types located from 690 to ca. 1400 m of elevational ranges. Numbers of parthenogenetic species with or without setae did not show a difference among the ranges, but sexual species without setae exhibited wider distributional ranges (690-1289 m) than species with swimming setae (690-1089 m). Species' co-occurrence revealed two positive, five negative, and 44 random pairs of co-occurrences. Wards cluster analyses portrayed three main clustering groups. While group I includes parthenogenetic and sexual species, group II covers mostly parthenogenetic species with and without setae. Group III consists of species without setae. CCA results displayed three environmental variables (water temperature, pH and elevation) effective on species distribution. Species distributed in all elevational ranges tend to show lower optimum and wider ecological tolerances. Parthenogenetic species with swimming setae and with relatively higher tolerance ranges were dominant over sexual species. The present results suggest that swimming mode has a greater effect on species distribution among the habitats than reproductive modes.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Natação/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
11.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854452

RESUMO

Ants are among the most successful insects in Earth's evolutionary history. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding range-limiting factors that may influence their distribution. The goal of this study was to describe the environmental factors (climate and soil types) that likely impact the ranges of five out of the eight most abundant Trachymyrmex species and the most abundant Mycetomoellerius species in the United States. Important environmental factors may allow us to better understand each species' evolutionary history. We generated habitat suitability maps using MaxEnt for each species and identified associated most important environmental variables. We quantified niche overlap between species and evaluated possible congruence in species distribution. In all but one model, climate variables were more important than soil variables. The distribution of M. turrifex (Wheeler, W.M., 1903) was predicted by temperature, specifically annual mean temperature (BIO1), T. arizonensis (Wheeler, W.M., 1907), T. carinatus, and T. smithi Buren, 1944 were predicted by precipitation seasonality (BIO15), T. septentrionalis (McCook, 1881) were predicted by precipitation of coldest quarter (BIO19), and T. desertorum (Wheeler, W.M., 1911) was predicted by annual flood frequency. Out of 15 possible pair-wise comparisons between each species' distributions, only one was statistically indistinguishable (T. desertorum vs T. septentrionalis). All other species distribution comparisons show significant differences between species. These models support the hypothesis that climate is a limiting factor in each species distribution and that these species have adapted to temperatures and water availability differently.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Formigas , Agaricales , Animais , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Estados Unidos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.6, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717055

RESUMO

Themus (Telephorops) davidis species-group is redefined and we present a catalogue, identification key and distribution map for this group. Some previously known species are redescribed and we provide new illustrations of female internal genitalia, abdominal sternite VIII and/or aedeagus. Further, we report new distribution data. A new species, Themus (Telephorops) hainanus sp. nov. from China (Hainan) is described, and Themus (Telephorops) birmanicus Wittmer, 1983 is recorded from China for the first time.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , China , Feminino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.7, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717056

RESUMO

New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae in Russia are provided. Leptochilus (Lionotulus) leleji Fateryga, sp. nov. is described from Altai Republic. Males of Ancistrocerus hangaicus Kurzenko, 1977 and Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) minutepunctatus Giordani Soika, 1970 are described for the first time; the latter species is transferred from the nominotypical subgenus to the subgenus Eremodynerus Blüthgen, 1939. The genus Tachyancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1952 and six species of eumenine wasps are reported from Russia for the first time: Discoelius pictus Kostylev, 1940a, Euodynerus (Euodynerus) curictensis Blüthgen, 1940, E. (E.) hellenicus Blüthgen, 1942, E. (E.) rufinus Blüthgen, 1942, Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) jerichoensis (von Schulthess, 1928), and Tachyancistrocerus schmidti (Kokujev, 1913); E. hellenicus is also reported from Georgia and Azerbaijan. New regional records for nine species are reported. Three species are excluded from the fauna of Russia: Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) tegularis (Morawitz, 1885), Odynerus (Odynerus) tristis (Blüthgen, 1939), and Stenodynerus aequisculptus (Kostylev, 1940b). The known fauna of Russia now numbers 34 genera and 162 species of eumenine wasps.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Azerbaijão , Georgia , Masculino , Federação Russa
15.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.4, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717066

RESUMO

Among the currently recognized 71 extant genera of Glandulariini, Afroeudesis Franz shows an unusual distribution, with strikingly similar species known from South America, west and east Africa, and the sub-Himalayan region of Asia. Morphological studies revealed that several species placed in other genera share with Afroeudesis several unique characters, among others a symmetrical pattern of numerous setae on the frons and vertex, not known in any other Glandulariini. This 'Afroeudesis group' is here recognized to be composed of the Neotropical genera Meridaphes Jaloszynski, Stenichnoconnus Franz and Pseudoraphes Franz, the broadly distributed Afroeudesis, and the Neotropical Bicarinulodes gen. n. The last is proposed for a species previously misplaced in Microscydmus Saulcy Croissandeau, resulting in Bicarinulodes meridensis (Franz) comb. n. Bicarinulodes is most similar to Afroeudesis, but (among other differences) it lacks the apomorphy that is unique for the latter genus, the raised subtriangular 'platform' on the frons and vertex. Stenichnoconnus minor (Franz), comb. n is proposed for Euconnus minor (Franz), originally published as Venezolanoconnus minor Franz. Stenichnoconnus and Pseudoraphes are redefined and redescribed.


Assuntos
Besouros , África Oriental , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , América do Sul
16.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.9, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717071

RESUMO

A second species of the previously monotypic genus Cornucistela (C. anichtchenkoi sp. nov.) is described, illustrated and compared with C. serrata Campbell, 1980 (type species). It is a first record of the genus in Iran (South Khorasan Province).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Irã (Geográfico)
17.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.10, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717072

RESUMO

Penia Laporte, 1838 is the most species-rich genus in the click-beetle tribe Dimini. Penia is distributed in the Himalayas, East and South East Asia. In this paper, we describe P. mantillerii sp. nov. from northern Vietnam. This species is easily recognizable due to its elongate body and large window-like elytral punctures. The most morphologically similar species to P. mantillerii sp. nov. are P. costipennis Fleutiaux, 1936 and P. sucinea Schimmel, 2001, which also occur in northern Vietnam. Male pregenital segments and genitalia are figured for the first time for P. sucinea. An identification key to the Penia species from Vietnam and surroundings is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Masculino , Vietnã
18.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.11, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717073

RESUMO

The Latithorax Species Group of Velarifictorus contains a number of species that are small and possess a stick-shaped ectoparamere of the epiphallus. Here, three new taxa of this group from China are described and illustrated. These are: Velarifictorus agitatus shaanxiensis sp. and subsp. nov., V. a. yunnanensis subsp. nov., V. stultus sp. nov.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.12, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717074

RESUMO

A new species of genus Agnetina (Plecoptera: Perlidae), Agnetina donans Qian Du sp. nov. from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China is described from males and females. Additionally, Paragnetina indentata Wu Claassen, 1934 is redescribed from two males and a female collected from Mt. Gaoligong, Yunnan Province in southwestern China.


Assuntos
Insetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Neópteros
20.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.4, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717079

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Pentacomia Bates, 1872 (restored to the original concept of the genus by Moravec 2018a) is described from Bolivia as P. paranigrimarginata sp. nov. The new species is compared to P. nigrimarginata Huber, 1999 of which the differential diagnosis and redescription are also given. Both species are illustrated with colour photographs of the habitus and diagnostic characters. A revised key to 12 recognized species of Pentacomia with illustrative figures of important diagnostic characters is given.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Bolívia , Cor
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