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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415396

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with cytotoxicity and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high-proportion medium chain triglyceride (MCT) on body fat distribution and levels of leptin and adiponectin during chemotherapy of children with ALL.New-onset ALL children treated at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between March 2016 and March 2017 were enrolled. Children were divided into the MCT and control groups. For the MCT group, high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation was added to the diet, while no MCT was added for the control group. The MCT group was further divided into subgroups A and B based on the amount of supplement. Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, bone marrow concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio were measured before and on days 19 and 46 of chemotherapy. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured on admission and discharge.Waist circumference in the control group increased by day 46 (P = .047), but did not change in the MCT group. The BMI of the children in the control group was higher than those in the MCT group on admission (P = .003), but not different at discharge. No significant differences in hip circumference, leptin levels, adiponectin levels, and body weight were observed between the 2 groups.This preliminary study suggests that short-term supplementation of high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation may help reduce the centripetal distribution of adipose induced by the application of glucocorticoids in children with ALL. This will have to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 417-426, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. RESULTS: Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Anim Sci J ; 90(8): 948-960, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148361

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets containing rice distillers' by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and gut microbiota of fattening pigs. Twenty-four crossbred finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), 56.9 ± 3.1 kg initial body weight, were randomly allocated to three groups. For 56 days, pigs were fed one of three diets including RDP0 (control), RDP15 (15% RDP in DM), and RDP30 (30% RDP in DM). With RDP level in diet, average daily gain and backfat thickness linearly increased (p < 0.05), and drip loss tended to increase (p ≤ 0.08). In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon profiling showed that RDP was associated with modulation of colonic microbiota composition, especially at family and genus levels. Relative abundance of Porphyromonadaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families in colonic digesta increased with inclusion of RDP, while that of Enterobacteriaceae decreased. The proportion of genera unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae, and Butyrivibrio increased as inclusion of RDP. These results indicate that up to 30% inclusion in diet of finishing pigs, RDP can modulate colonic microbiota composition, and induces an improvement of animal growth and fat deposition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Oryza , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2408, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160598

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been linked to host obesity; however, sex-specific associations between microbiome and fat distribution are not well understood. Here we show sex-specific microbiome signatures contributing to obesity despite both sexes having similar gut microbiome characteristics, including overall abundance and diversity. Our comparisons of the taxa associated with the android fat ratio in men and women found that there is no widespread species-level overlap. We did observe overlap between the sexes at the genus and family levels in the gut microbiome, such as Holdemanella and Gemmiger; however, they had opposite correlations with fat distribution in men and women. Our findings support a role for fat distribution in sex-specific relationships with the composition of the microbiome. Our results suggest that studies of the gut microbiome and abdominal obesity-related disease outcomes should account for sex-specific differences.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores Sexuais
5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2175-2183, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164040

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different training modalities on the soluble Klotho (S-Klotho) plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 74 middle-aged adults (53.4 ± 5.0 years old; 52.7% women) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. We conducted a 12-week randomised controlled trial. The participants were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: (i) a control group (no exercise), (ii) a physical activity recommendation from the World Health Organization group (PAR), (iii) a high intensity interval training group (HIIT), and (iv) a high intensity interval training group adding whole-body electromyostimulation training group (HIIT-EMS). S-Klotho plasma levels, anthropometric measurements, and body composition variables were measured before and after the intervention programme. All exercise training modalities induced an increase in the S-Klotho plasma levels (all P ≤ 0.019) without statistical differences between them (all P ≥ 0.696). We found a positive association between changes in lean mass index and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels, whereas a negative association was reported between changes in fat mass outcomes and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels after our intervention study. In conclusion, our results suggest that the link between exercise training and the increase in S-Klotho plasma levels could be mediated by a decrease of fat mass and an increase of lean mass.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Exercício/fisiologia , Glucuronidase/sangue , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15317, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last 10 years, it has been demonstrated that photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), also known as phototherapy, using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and/or light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has ergogenic effects, improving athletic performance and also accelerating post-exercise recovery. However, many aspects related to these effects and its clinical applicability remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this project is to evaluate the ergogenic effects of PBMT in detraining after an aerobic endurance training protocol. METHODS AND ANALYZES: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial will be carried out. Healthy male volunteers will be randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: PBMT before and after training sessions + PBMT during detraining, PBMT before and after training sessions + placebo during detraining, placebo before and after training sessions + PBMT during detraining, and placebo before and after training sessions + placebo during detraining. The aerobic endurance training sessions will be carried out using motorized treadmills during 12 weeks, and the detraining period will consist in the next 4 weeks after that. It will be analyzed the time until exhaustion, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and fat percentage of volunteers. DISCUSSION: Despite the increasing body of evidence for the use of PBMT as an ergogenic agent, several aspects remain unknown. The findings of this study will contribute to the advance of knowledge in this field regarding clinical applications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Nove de Julho University. The results from this study will be further disseminated through scientific publications in international peer-reviewed journals and presentations at national and international scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03879226.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Placebos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 887-893, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111649

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of free-range system (FRS) and conventional cage-rearing system (CRS) on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, lymphoid organ indices, and serum biochemistry of Wannan Yellow chickens. At 56 days of age, a total of 640 male chickens were randomly allocated to FRS and CRS groups, each of which included 4 replicates with 80 chickens in each replicate. The experiment lasted from 56 to 112 days of age. The results showed that CRS chickens exhibited better final body weight, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio, whereas FRS chickens showed better breast and leg yields, shear force, meat color, lower drip loss, and decreased abdominal fat deposition. Moreover, the absolute thymus weight and thymus to body weight ratio of FRS birds were significantly higher than those of CRS birds (p < 0.05). Additionally, FRS chickens had significantly reduced glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol contents, but enhanced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the FRS has advantages in breast and leg yields, meat quality, and some serum biochemical parameters of Wannan Yellow chickens, whereas it has negative effects on growth performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Ração Animal , Animais , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Timo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 136(5): 362-370, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045295

RESUMO

Fat-tailed sheep have a unique characteristic of depositing fat in their tails. In the present study, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on traits related to tail fat deposition and body size in the Hulun Buir sheep. A total number of 300 individuals belonging to two fat-tailed lines of the Hulun Buir sheep breed genotyped with the Ovine Infinium HD SNP BeadChip were included in the current study. Two mixed models, one for continuous and one for binary phenotypic traits, were employed to analyse ten traits, that is, body length (BL), body height (BH), chest girth (CG), tail length (TL), tail width (TW), tail circumference (TC), carcass weight (CW), tail fat weight (TF), ratio of CW to TF (RCT) and tail type (TT). We identified 7, 6, 7, 2, 10 and 1 SNPs significantly associated with traits TF, CW, RCT, TW, TT and CG, respectively. Their associated genomic regions harboured 42 positional candidate genes. Out of them, 13 candidate genes including SMURF2, FBF1, DTNBP1, SETD7 and RBM11 have been associated with fat metabolism in sheep. The RBM11 gene has already been identified in a previous study on signatures of selection in this specific sheep population. Two more genes, that is, SMARCA5 and GAB1 were associated with body size in sheep. The present study has identified candidate genes that might be implicated in tail fat deposition and body size in sheep.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cauda/metabolismo , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo
9.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 48(4): 294-299, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012370

RESUMO

Objectives: To study associations between different anthropometric measures and incident gout, and to find the best predictive measure. Method: We used the baseline investigation from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study, excluding cases of prevalent gout (n = 28 081). Cox regression for each anthropometric measurement was calculated per standard deviation increment for men and women, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using a hospital diagnosis of incident gout (M10) during follow-up as the outcome. Incremental C-statistics for each anthropometric measure were used to determine the measure with the best predictive capacity, in models adjusted for age, socio-economic data, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and antihypertensive medications. Results: The study population included 11 049 men and 17 032 women, with 633 incident gout cases, 393 in men (3.6%) and 240 in women (1.4%). For both men and women, the five anthropometric measurements with highest C-statistics were weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio; in men, the measurement with the highest C-statistic was BMI (0.7361; fully adjusted HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39-1.68), and in women WC (0.8085; fully adjusted HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.46-1.81). The increment in C-statistic with anthropometric measures was good, around 0.035. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-hip-to-height ratio, body fat percentages, and especially A Body Shape Index had lower C-statistics. Conclusions: Both BMI and WC showed good predictive ability for incident gout. The clinically used cut-offs for BMI and WC appeared to be relevant in the assessment of increased risk of gout.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Gota , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Feminino , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(8): e14005, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813124

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to better understand the relationship of bone mass with body composition based on different stages of puberty and to illuminate the contribution of site-specific fat mass and lean mass (FM and LM) compared with bone mass in school-aged children and adolescents in Chongqing, China.A total of 1179 healthy subjects of both sexes were recruited. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone area, and both FM and LM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The fat mass and lean mass indexes (FMI and LMI, respectively) were calculated as the FM (kg) and LM (kg) divided by the height in meters squared, respectively.Most of the bone mass indicators were significantly higher for postpubertal boys than for girls at the same stage (P < .001). The proportion of subjects with normal bone mass increased, while the proportion of subjects with osteopenia and osteoporosis decreased with increased body weight regardless of gender and puberty stage (P < .01). FM and LM were significantly positively related to bone mass regardless of gender and puberty stage (P < .0001). FMI and LMI were significantly positively related to bone mass in most conditions (P < .05 and P < .0001, respectively). Four components of the FM and LM were linearly and significantly associated with BMD and BMC for TB and TBHL. Among them, the head fat mass and head lean mass showed the greatest statistical contribution.In the process of assessing bone status, we recommend measuring fat and lean masses, including the fat and lean masses of the head.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Anthropol Anz ; 76(2): 113-120, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907919

RESUMO

Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic, however, the hypothesis claiming that masculine digit ratio in women is connected with masculine phenotype is not fully confirmed. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in anthropometric parameters in women in relation to the digit ratio value. Cross-sectional research was conducted among 730 Polish female university students, aged 19-25 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed and data about socioeconomic status were collected. The results showed no statistically significant relationships between both right- or left-hand 2D:4D digit ratio and body height and BMI either in univariate linear regressions or in multivariate regression when SES was included in the models. The correlation between right-hand 2D:4D digit ratio and WHR also was not statistically significant. There were significant linear negative relationships between left 2D:4D and WHR. The significant linear negative relationships between both right and left 2D:4D and waist circumference and WHtR were found. Relationships between digit ratio and WC and WHtR were also tested by multiple regression analyses with SES included in the models. The results were statistically significant. Additionally, statistically significant differences in both right- and left digit ratios depending of the categories of waist circumference and WHtR were found. The lowest values of digit ratio were presented by the women with abdominal obesity. The results suggest that low values of digit ratio in women are associated with higher abdominal fat accumulation.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Dedos , Adulto , Idoso , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 99-105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861430

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of fish oil supplementation and restricted feeding on body fat distribution and blood lipid profile in experimentally induced obesity in rabbits. The trial was carried out with 30 male rabbits, divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each (NC - non-castrated, non-treated, full-diet fed; C100 - castrated, non-treated, full-diet fed; FO100 - castrated, treated with fish oil, full-diet fed; C50 - castrated, non-treated, 50% restricted fed; FO50 - castrated, treated with fish oil, 50% restricted fed). At the end of the experiment, plasma lipids measurement and quantification of fat distribution was performed. The results of this study indicate that fish oil supplementation reduces obesity-associated abnormalities in lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and non-esterified fatty acids) and in body fat distribution in full-diet fed rabbits. Restricted feeding (C50) alone and the combination of restricted feeding and fish oil supplementation (FO50) in particular, has a detrimental effect on the lipid profile despite the marked reduction in intra-abdominal fat.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Privação de Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/veterinária , Coelhos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Castração/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/etiologia
13.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1741-1745, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893018

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to establish normative fat-free mass index (FFMI) ranges in collegiate female athletes. A sample of 266 female athletes (Mean±SD; Age: 19.7 ± 1.5 yrs, Height: 166.0 ± 6.4 cm, Weight: 63.2 ± 8.8 kg) were included in analyses. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured bone mineral content (BMC; kg) and lean mass (LM; kg). Fat-free mass index was calculated as follows: FFMI = (BMC + LM)/Height2. Participants were classified by sport: cross-country (XC), field hockey, football, gymnastics, lacrosse, resistance-trained, swimming track. Mean, range and percentile ranks of FFMI were calculated for the full sample for each cohort. For all females, mean FFMI was 16.9 ± 1.7 kg/m2, FFMI values ranged from 13.3 to 25.5 kg/m2. The XC athletes had the lowest FFMI (15.3 ± 0.96 kg/m2; p < 0.001). Mean FFMI measures were similar between all other female athletes. Percentile ranks varied across sport; median FFMI was highest for football (18.0 kg/m2), lowest for XC (15.1 kg/m2) and ranged between 16.4 and 17.3 kg/m2 for all other athletes. Establishing sport-specific FFMI values for female athletes may be beneficial for athletes and coaches by leading to more appropriate body composition goals based on FFM.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Esportes/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(2): 191-195, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744295

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the association between body fat distribution and calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents aged 6-16 years in Beijing. Methods: Children and adolescents were selected in 30 schools (8 primary schools, 21 middle schools and one 12-year education school) from Dongcheng, Tongzhou, Fangshan and Miyun districts of Beijing by using a stratified cluster sampling method from November 2017 to January 2018. A total of 15 030 students in grade 1 to 4 of primary school, grade 1 of junior and senior middle school were enrolled after excluding subjects who were not able to participate into this study due to trauma or other uncomfortable physical conditions or with missing key values or with diabetes and kidney diseases. Questionnaire survey, body composition and calcaneus bone mineral density were conducted. The relation of fat mass percentage (FMP), trunk to total fat ratio (TrTFR), trunk to limb fat ratio (TrLFR), limb to total fat ratio (LTFR) and viscera to total fat ratio (VTFR) with calcaneus BMD were assessed using the multivariate linear regression models after adjusting for possible confounding effects. The central fat distribution types were divided into 4 groups including type 1: both trunk fat and visceral fat greater than the sex-and age-specific internal P(75); type 2: barely trunk fat greater than P(75); type 3: barely visceral fat greater than P(75); type 4: both trunk fat and visceral fat greater than P(75). The central fat distribution types were included into the model in the form of dummy variables to analyze its relationship with calcaneal BMD. The sex-and age-specific z-scores of fat distribution indicators and BMD were calculated. Results: A total of 15 030 participants aged (11.4±3.3) years (50.2% boys) were involved in the analysis. In both genders, after adjusting for age, height, lean mass index, smoking, drinking, physical activity, milk intake, vitamin D and calcium supplementation, FMP, TrTFR, TrLFR and VTFR were negatively correlated with calcaneal BMD (all P value<0.05), while LTFR was positively associated with calcaneal BMD (all P values<0.05). Compared to the central fat distribution type 1, the regression coefficients (95% CI) of type 2, 3 and 4 were -0.253 (-0.418, -0.087), -0.385 (-0.567, -0.204) and -0.428 (-0.487, -0.369) in boys, respectively; the regression coefficients (95% CI) of type 3 and 4 were -0.158 (-0.301, -0.015) and -0.226 (-0.290, -0.163), respectively. Conclusion: Body fat distribution and central fat distribution in children and adolescents were correlated with calcaneus bone mineral density.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Óssea , Calcâneo , Adolescente , Pequim , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Sports Sci ; 37(14): 1630-1637, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747578

RESUMO

Underfat individuals have been neglected as a malnourished population in terms of redox homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of body composition on redox homeostasis at rest and in response to exercise. Underfat, lean and overfat women, classified according to their BMI and body fat percentage, participated in the study and were subjected to an acute session of eccentric exercise. With regard to muscle function and damage, a significant group × time interaction was found for range of motion (P < .01), isometric peak torque at 90° (P < .01), delayed onset muscle soreness (P < .01) and creatine kinase (P < .05), with the lean group generally exhibiting faster recovery compared to the underfat and overfat groups. With regard to redox homeostasis, a significant group × time interaction was found for F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls and glutathione (P < .01 for all biomarkers), with the underfat and overfat groups exhibiting increased resting oxidative stress levels and lower exercise-induced reactive species production . In conclusively, our data underline the importance of normal body composition for redox homeostasis, since underfat and overfat women demonstrate a similar pattern of redox disturbances both at rest and in response to exercise.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Homeostase , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Magreza/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Joelho/fisiologia , Mialgia/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Descanso , Torque , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1263-1276, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787031

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the regulation of a diverse range of biological processes. However, most studies have been focused on a few established model organisms and little is known about lncRNAs in fat-tail development in sheep. Here, the first profile of lncRNA in sheep fat-tail along with their possible roles in fat deposition were investigated, based on a comparative transcriptome analysis between fat-tailed (Lori-Bakhtiari) and thin-tailed (Zel) Iranian sheep breeds. Among all identified lncRNAs candidates, 358 and 66 transcripts were considered novel intergenic (lincRNAs) and novel intronic (ilncRNAs) corresponding to 302 and 58 gene loci, respectively. Our results indicated that a low percentage of the novel lncRNAs were conserved. Also, synteny analysis identified 168 novel lincRNAs with the same syntenic region in human, bovine and chicken. Only seven lncRNAs were identified as differentially expressed genes between fat and thin tailed breeds. Q-RT-PCR results were consistent with the RNA-Seq data and validated the findings. Target prediction analysis revealed that the novel lncRNAs may act in cis or trans and regulate the expression of genes that are involved in the lipid metabolism. A gene regulatory network including lncRNA-mRNA interactions were constructed and three significant modules were found, with genes relevant to lipid metabolism, insulin and calcium signaling pathway. Moreover, integrated analysis with AnimalQTLdb database further suggested six lincRNAs and one ilncRNAs as candidates of sheep fat-tail development. Our results highlighted the putative contributions of lncRNAs in regulating expression of genes associated with fat-tail development in sheep.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , Sintenia
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 339, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664634

RESUMO

Body mass and body fat composition are of clinical interest due to their links to cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Fat stored in the trunk has been suggested to be more pathogenic compared to fat stored in other compartments. In this study, we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the proportion of body fat distributed to the arms, legs and trunk estimated from segmental bio-electrical impedance analysis (sBIA) for 362,499 individuals from the UK Biobank. 98 independent associations with body fat distribution are identified, 29 that have not previously been associated with anthropometric traits. A high degree of sex-heterogeneity is observed and the effects of 37 associated variants are stronger in females compared to males. Our findings also implicate that body fat distribution in females involves mesenchyme derived tissues and cell types, female endocrine tissues as well as extracellular matrix maintenance and remodeling.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Loci Gênicos , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tecido Adiposo/química , Antropometria , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Glândulas Endócrinas/química , Glândulas Endócrinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tronco/anatomia & histologia , Reino Unido , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 169: 770-777, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597775

RESUMO

The current-use brominated flame retardant, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), is capable of perturbing sex steroid and thyroid hormone pathways in vitro and in vivo. Chemicals with this capability may also disrupt metabolic processes and are candidate obesogens, but this potential has not yet been determined for DBE-DBCH. Our objective was to examine gross biomarkers of metabolic disruption in captive American kestrels. Birds were exposed by diet to the ß isomer at the environmentally relevant dose of 0.239 ng ß-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/day, from 30 days (d) prior to pairing through until chicks hatched (82 d) (n = 30 breeding pairs) or for 28 d (n = 16 pre-breeding pairs), and were compared with vehicle-only exposed controls. Body mass was assessed throughout the breeding season at biologically relevant time points, flight and feeding behavior was measured in 5-min samples daily, and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were assessed at d10 of brood rearing. Treated males were heavier than controls at pairing (p = 0.051), the final week of courtship (p = 0.061), and at d10 (p = 0.012) and d20 of brood rearing (p = 0.051); ß-DBE-DBCH-exposed breeding females were similar in weight to control females. Treated birds tended to have higher plasma triglycerides (p = 0.078), which for females, was positively associated with body mass (p = 0.019). Heavier breeding males had higher plasma concentrations of testosterone and total thyroxine (p ≤ 0.046). Overall, both sexes exposed to ß-DBE-DBCH demonstrated reduced flight behavior and increased feeding behavior during courtship. In the pre-breeding pairs, treated male and female kestrels had a higher percentage of body fat than respective controls (p = 0.045). These results demonstrate that ß-DBE-DBCH elicited inappropriate fat and weight gain in adult American kestrels, consistent with their increased feeding, reduced flight activity and endocrine changes, and suggests that DBE-DBCH may be an obesogen warranting further research to test this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Cicloexanos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Falconiformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Voo Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Falconiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Falconiformes/metabolismo , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Masculino , Testosterona/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 652-658, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641784

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed at assessing cardiovascular risk of first degree relatives of diabetes (FDRD). METHODS: A cross sectional study involving 90 apparently healthy normoglycemic volunteers aged between 15 and 50 years (45 FDRD and 45 FDRs of non-diabetics). We measured anthropometric parameters, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, cardiac autonomic function tests, and aerobic capacity, fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, nitric oxide and oxidative stress markers. RESULTS: FDRD had significantly higher hip circumference and BF%. Blood pressure, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output were comparable. FDRD had higher HR and rate pressure product. There were no significant differences in cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2max) and physical activity level. Time and Frequency domain parameters were comparable except for reduced NN50 and total power. Baroreflex sensitivity, 30:15 ratio and E: I ratio were significantly less in FDRD. Fasting glucose was comparable. Fasting Insulin, HOMA IR, HOMA %B and HOMA AD were higher while HOMA %S and QUICKI index were lower in FDRD. Lipid profile or lipid derived parameters were comparable except for higher non-HDLc in FDRD. Adiponectin was lower while Leptin and Leptin/apidonectin ratio was higher in FDRD. IL-6, hsCRP, TNF- alpha and MDA were significantly higher in FDRD, while TAS and nitric oxide were significantly lower in FDRD. CONCLUSION: Higher body fat percentage, with insulin resistance, deranged cardiac autonomic function, higher oxidative stress and inflammation, lower adiponectin and nitric oxide levels places FDRD at higher cardiovascular risk and necessitates early lifestyle modification/intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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