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1.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333811

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) usually induces oxidative stress and astaxanthin is regarded as an excellent anti-oxidant. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin supplementation on growth performance, lipid metabolism, antioxidant ability, and immune response of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed HFD. Four diets were formulated: the control diet (10.87% lipid, C), high-fat diet (18.08% lipid, HF), and HF diet supplemented with 75 and 150 mg kg-1 astaxanthin (HFA1 and HFA2, respectively). Dietary supplementation of astaxanthin improved the growth of fish fed HFD, also decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio of fish fed HFD, while having no effect on body fat. Malondialdehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity were increased in fish fed HFD, astaxanthin supplementation in HFD decreased the oxidative stress of fish. The supplementation of astaxanthin in HFD also reduced the mRNA levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, BAD, and IL15. These results suggested that dietary astaxanthin supplementation in HFD improved the growth performance, antioxidant ability and immune response of largemouth bass.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bass , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 529-536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071222

RESUMO

Objective: Transgender individuals sometimes report a lack of physical change during hormone treatment, such as alterations in muscle tone or fat distribution. Identifying characteristics of this subgroup could be a step toward individualizing hormone therapy in transgender individuals. Therefore, we study the variation of changes in body composition and characteristics associated with a lack of change. Design and methods: Body composition measures were recorded in 323 transmen and 288 transwomen at every visit from the start of hormone therapy to a maximum of 24 months follow-up. Absence of change was defined as transmen with a decrease in lean body mass or transwomen with a decrease in fat percentage. Results: A lack of change at 24 months was observed in 19 of 94 (20.2%) transmen and in 9 of 96 (9.4%) transwomen. The risk of not achieving change in body composition was related to lower testosterone levels and less suppression of LH in transmen (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94 per SD increase in testosterone and OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.01-1.83 per SD increase in LH). Conclusions: There is a large variation in body composition changes during hormone therapy, with a substantial proportion of individuals with no measurable effects. In transmen, serum testosterone and LH were associated with a lack of change, but serum hormone levels were not associated with body composition changes in transwomen. The results provide a rationale for individualizing hormone therapy in transmen, by considering individual effects rather than solely relying on a standardized dosage of hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Acetato de Ciproterona/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Impedância Elétrica , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1118-1127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study attempts to investigate whether simple resistance training (RT) exerts different effects on the body composition of different women groups. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant articles from PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched and simultaneously screened by two authors. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials are included. The qualities were evaluated by the Cochrane bias risk evaluation tool. Data about sample size, Means and SD of FM, BF %, FFM and MM from original articles were extracted and processed by Reviewer Manager 5.3 software. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: For women with postmenopausal, RT can significantly reduce their BF% and FM, and increase their FFM; while for women with premenopausal, it can only obviously reduce their BF%. RT can significantly reduce the FM and BF% of women with overweight/obese and increase their FFM, however, it has no significant effect on women with non-overweight/obese. RT can substantially and positively affect the FM, BF% and FFM of women with sedentary, and can significantly increase the FFM of women with non-sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of RT on women's body composition varies across different subgroups with different physiological characteristics. As a consequence, it is more recommended to use RT as a training method for women with postmenopausal, overweight/obese or sedentary, which can achieve a better effect of improving body composition.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Treinamento de Resistência , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Maturitas ; 139: 64-68, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls in older women; however, it is not certain how body fat distribution affects this relationship. This study examined the association between android and gynoid obesity and the incidence of falls in women aged 60 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were recruited from the community in Brasilia, Brazil. At baseline, participants underwent obesity screening using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Participants identified as obese (body fat percentage >42 %) were classified as android or gynoid type, based on the median of the android-gynoid fat percent ratio (0.99). Incident falls were recorded at the end of the 18-month follow-up period via participant recall. Chi-square test and modified Poisson regression were used to examine the association between obesity and falls. RESULTS: A total of 246 participants were recruited and 204 completed the follow-up. The gynoid obese group had a larger proportion of fallers (n = 27, 41 %) than the android obese (n = 17, 24 %) and non-obese (n = 12, 18 %) groups (p = .009). Compared with non-obese women, participants with gynoid obesity were more likely to experience a fall (RR: 2.09, 95 %CI: 1.13-3.87). The risk of falling did not differ between non-obese participants and those with android obesity (RR: 1.26, 95 %CI: 0.64-2.50). CONCLUSIONS: Gynoid obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls in women aged 60 years and over. Screening for body fat distribution as a supplement to other risk factors for falls may help to identify older adults at a greater risk of falling and to prompt early implementation of fall prevention programs.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 97, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to an increased prevalence of migraine, and to increased migraine attack frequency, but several questions are left unanswered by previous studies. We examined the relationship between obesity and headache in a large, population-based study where we could take into account body fat distribution, migraine subtypes and tension-type headache. METHODS: The third population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) included validated headache questionnaires and objective anthropometric measurements. Using a cross-sectional design, our sample consisted of 18,191 women and 14,985 men, aged 19 to 96 years. Of these 4290 (12.9%) had migraine, 4447 (13.4%) had frequent tension-type headache (TTH), and 24,439 were headache-free controls. A total of 5049 individuals with unclassified headache were excluded from the analyses. Using logistic regression, we modeled the association between obesity and headache prevalence, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Both total body obesity (TBO) and abdominal obesity (AO) were associated with a higher prevalence of migraine when compared to headache-free controls (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.32-1.59 and OR 1.29 95% CI 1.18-1.41, respectively), in particular for individuals < 50 years of age (OR 1.74 95% CI 1.54-1.98 and OR 1.89 95% CI 1.69-2.11). Similar results were seen for migraine with and without aura. Similar Overall, a weaker associations were as observed between obesity and TTH. There was a dose-response relationship between obesity categories and increased headache frequency in subjects with migraine. TBO was associated with migraine prevalence and attack frequency independent of AO. CONCLUSION: Both TBO and AO were associated with migraine prevalence and attack frequency. This association was largely limited to individuals < 50 years of age. TBO, rather than AO, may be a better measure of obesity in relation to migraine.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 41, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists regarding the relationship between central-to-peripheral fat ratio measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and subsequent cardiometabolic risk in both pediatric and adult populations. METHODS: The present cohort study investigated the relationship between DXA-measured body fat distribution and cardiometabolic parameters. The source population was 275 4th-6th graders (aged 9.6-12.6 years) in the northeast region of Japan (Shiokawa area in Kitakata). A 3-year follow-up was conducted to obtain complete information from 155 normal-weight children (87 boys and 68 girls). Normal-weight children were identified using sex- and age-specific international cut-offs for body mass index (BMI) based on adult BMI values of 25 kg/m2 and 18.5 kg/m2, respectively. Body fat distribution was assessed using the trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAR) and trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLR) measured by DXA. RESULTS: In boys, systolic blood pressure (SBP) at follow-up showed a significant relationship with TAR at baseline after adjusting for age, height, pubic hair appearance, SBP, and whole body fat at baseline (ß = 0.24, P < 0.05), and SBP also showed a significant relationship with TLR after adjusting for confounding factors including whole body fat (ß = 0.25, P < 0.05). In girls, there were no significant relationships between blood pressure and TAR/TLR. CONCLUSION: Body fat distribution in normal-weight boys predicted subsequent blood pressure levels in adolescence. The relationship between fat distribution and blood pressure was independent of fat volume.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13449, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815204

RESUMO

Ectopic fats have been recognized as a new risk factor for metabolic syndrome. In obese humans, ectopic fat accumulations are affected by body fat distribution. Intramuscular adipose tissue is categorized as one of the ectopic fats. Japanese black cattle (Wagyu) are characterized by the ability to accumulate high amounts of intramuscular adipose tissue. In Japan, the marbling level is indicated by the beef marbling standard number (BMS No.), which reflects the intramuscular fat content of longissimus muscle. We hypothesized that the intramuscular fat accumulation is affected by the body fat distribution in Wagyu cattle. In this study, we showed that the BMS No. was not correlated with the subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte diameter. In contrast, the BMS No. was positively correlated with intramuscular adipocyte diameter. These results indicate that the intramuscular adipocyte diameter of Wagyu is hypertrophied with an increase in the intramuscular fat accumulation. In addition, we showed that the BMS No. was positively correlated with the subcutaneous fat percentage. In contrast, the BMS No. was negatively correlated with the visceral fat percentage. These results indicate that highly marbled Wagyu cattle have a higher percentage of subcutaneous fat and a lower percentage of visceral fat.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/normas , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672407

RESUMO

Circulating leptin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of production traits in cattle. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between circulating leptin concentrations and growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality indexes in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets (concentrate-to-forage ratio 70:30). Fifty-seven Simmental × Luxi F1 crossbred bulls were used for 112-day finishing experiment. Circulating leptin concentrations and relevant indexes of growth performance, and carcass traits and meat quality were measured during or after finishing trail. The results indicated that the leptin concentrations tended to be negatively correlated with dry matter intake (DMI) (r = -.233, p = .081), and were positively correlated with 12th-rib fat thickness (r = .330, p = .012), marbling score (r = .336, p = .011), and intramuscular fat content (r = .368, p = .021). Moreover, the leptin concentrations were negatively correlated with cholesterol content (r = -.339, p = .037) and were not correlated with sensory indexes including tenderness, juiciness, and like flavor (p > .05). In conclusion, circulating leptin concentrations may potentially be used as a predictor of carcass traits related to content of fat and beef quality traits related to content of cholesterol in finishing bulls fed high-concentrate diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leptina/sangue , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 766-770, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650343

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine body composition of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer players by position and season. One hundred seventy-five female athletes were categorized by positions of forward (n=47), midfielder (n=51), defender (n=57), and goalkeeper (n=20). A dual X-ray absorptiometry scan assessed percent body fat, total lean mass, total fat mass, arm and leg lean mass and fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue. Goalkeepers had significantly higher total, arm, and leg lean mass and fat mass compared to all other positions (p<0.05). For seasonal changes, body fat percentage was significantly higher in winter off-season (26.7%) compared to summer off-season (25.7%) and pre-season (25.8%; p<0.01) for all positions. Total and leg lean mass was significantly lower in winter off-season compared to all other seasons, and total lean mass was significantly higher in summer off-season than pre-season (p<0.01). Overall, goalkeepers were significantly different than all other positions. Body fat percentage increased and lean mass decreased in winter off-season indicating potential undesired changes in training and/or nutrition over the break whereas lean mass was the highest in summer off-season potentially reflecting the emphasis on resistance training and increased volume of training.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gene ; 758: 144957, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683081

RESUMO

Leptin receptor (LEPR) gene play a pivotal role in the regulation of fat deposition and energy homeostasis. This study investigated the presence and frequency of polymorphisms of bovine LEPR gene and determine whether the polymorphisms are associated with the fat deposition in two Chinese beef cattle breeds. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions identified that the expression of LEPR gene was highest in the liver and subcutaneous fat. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified including g.24169C > T, g.24256T > A, g.24267 G > C and g.24413T > A. A greater backfat thickness was associated with the AA genotype of g.24256T > A compared to the TT genotype. A greater intramuscular fat content was associated with the GG genotype of g.24267 G > C compared to the CC genotype. Both g.24169C > T and g.24413T > A were not correlated with fat deposition. These results indicated that the SNP g.24256T > A and g.24267 G > C of LEPR gene may be useful markers for genetic improvement of fat deposition in Chinese beef cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Leptina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1997-2004, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497454

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise protocol to improve metabolic health, but direct comparisons with higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) under unsupervised settings are limited. This study compared low-volume HIIT and higher-volume MICT interventions on cardiometabolic and psychological responses in overweight/obese middle-aged men. Twenty-four participants (age: 48.1±5.2yr; BMI: 25.8±2.3kg·m-2) were randomly assigned to undertake either HIIT (10 X 1-min bouts of running at 80-90% HRmax separated by 1-min active recovery) or MICT (50-min continuous jogging/brisk walking at 65-70% HRmax) for 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks (2-week supervised + 6-week unsupervised training). Both groups showed similar cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) improvement (HIIT: 32.5±5.6 to 36.0±6.2; MICT: 34.3±6.0 to 38.2±5.1mL kg-1 min-1, p < 0.05) and %fat loss (HIIT: 24.5±3.4 to 23.2±3.5%; MICT: 23.0±4.3 to 21.5±4.1%, p< 0.05) over the 8-week intervention. Compared to baseline, MICT significantly decreased weight and waist circumference. No significant group differences were observed for blood pressure and cardiometabolic blood markers such as lipid profiles, fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Both groups showed similar enjoyment levels and high unsupervised adherence rates (>90%). Our findings suggest that low-volume HIIT can elicit a similar improvement of cardiovascular fitness as traditional higher-volume MICT in overweight/obese middle-aged men.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Prazer , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
12.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2307-2313, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552507

RESUMO

Body composition can substantially impact elite swimming performance. In practice, changes in fat and lean mass of elite swimmers are estimated using body mass, sum of seven skinfolds (∑7) and lean mass index (LMI). However, LMI may be insufficiently accurate to detect small changes in body composition which could meaningfully impact swimming performance. This study developed equations which estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean and fat mass using body mass and ∑7 data. Elite Australian swimmers (n = 44; 18 male, 26 female) completed a DXA scan and standardised body mass and ∑7 measurements. Equations to estimate DXA-derived lean and fat mass based on body mass, ∑7 and sex were developed. The relationships between ∑7, body mass and DXA-derived lean and fat mass were non-linear. Fat mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.91; standard error = 1.0 kg) and lean mass (Adjusted R2 = 0.99; standard error = 1.0 kg) equations were considered sufficiently accurate. Lean mass estimates outperformed the LMI in identifying the correct direction of change in lean mass (82% correct; LMI 71%). Using the accurate estimations produced by these equations will enhance the prescription and evaluation of programmes to optimise the body composition and subsequent performance in swimmers.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pregas Cutâneas , Natação/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(7): 616-627, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559477

RESUMO

An increase in fat mass is considered to be an important risk factor for the worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, for a given fat mass, there is a large variability in the risk prediction of these cardiometabolic diseases. For example, some lean people unexpectedly have a risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that is similar to the increased risk that is observed in most people who have obesity. What both of these phenotypes have in common is a very characteristic fat distribution. As a result, much focus has been given on the strong predictive power of increased visceral fat mass. However, an analysis of the causes of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as well as comparisons to rare diseases such as lipodystrophy and studying genetically determined fat distribution in the general population, suggest that an impaired ability to expand subcutaneous fat in the lower part of the body is also important for predicting the incidence of these cardiometabolic diseases. This Review, first, addresses the identification of distinct fat distribution phenotypes and their risk of cardiometabolic diseases by discussing findings from published studies that have applied precise quantification of different fat depots. Second, this Review provides support for the theory that a lower amount of lower-body fat mass is equally important to a high amount of visceral fat mass as a determinant of cardiometabolic diseases. Third, this Review discusses the genetic and lifestyle-related causes of metabolically healthy and unhealthy fat distribution. Finally, this Review summarises and appraises the effectiveness of lifestyle-related interventions and pharmacological interventions for reducing visceral adiposity and maintaining lower-body fat mass to prevent and treat cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(2): 151-158, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194715

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El aumento de la cirugía bariátrica como alternativa al tratamiento tanto del síndrome metabólico como de la obesidad y el sobrepeso, conlleva múltiples deformidades corporales, entre las que unas de las más complejas son las alteraciones mamarias. Su tratamiento quirúrgico depende de un diagnóstico y técnica adecuados, capaces de remodelar la estética mamaria. El objetivo de esta investigación es definir la importancia del injerto de grasa como procedimiento previo a la mamoplastia en pacientes que han sufrido grandes pérdidas ponderales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo, lineal, en 124 pacientes sometidas a 158 procedimientos quirúrgicos consecutivos entre enero de 2009 y diciembre de 2019, con rango de edad entre 18 y 72 años. Evaluamos los procedimientos para la corrección de las diversas deformidades mamarias tales como, hipotrofia o atrofia mamaria, ptosis, asimetrías, posicionamiento lateralizado del complejo areola pezón, pérdida de la proyección del polo superior, flacidez cutánea asociada a lipodistrofia corporal persistente, cirugías previas de contorno corporal, así como la edad y el índice de masa corporal (IMC). RESULTADOS: El mayor porcentaje de procedimientos correspondió a la triple interposición de colgajos (28%, 44 procedimientos), seguida del injerto de grasa mamaria (27%, 42 procedimientos) y la triple interposición de colgajos con implante de silicona (19%, 30 procedimientos). Se realizó injerto graso mamario en un 40.50% de los procedimientos realizados, con una media de volumen graso infiltrado de 450.60 ml. CONCLUSIONES: Recomendamos la realización de injertos de grasa en todas las pacientes sometidas a cirugía de remodelación mamaria secundaria a pérdida masiva de peso con el fin de recomponer volumétricamente la mama y reconstruir estructuras cutáneas, parenquimatosas y musculares, siendo la transferencia de grasa mamaria la única forma de relleno definitiva del polo superior. Los colgajos locales representan no solo una forma de aumento volumétrico de la mama sino también una posibilidad de mejorar el contorno mamario y el segmento superior del cuerpo


BACKGRAUND AND OBJECTIVE: The increase in bariatric surgery as an alternative to the treatment of both the metabolic syndrome and obesity and overweight leads to multiple bodily deformities, among these one of the most complex are mammary alterations. The surgical treatment of these alterations depends on an adequate diagnosis and a suitable technique able to reshape the mammary aesthetics. The objective of this research is to define the importance of fat grafting as a procedure prior to breast-plasty in patients with post-weight loss. METHODS: A retrospective and linear study was performed in 124 patients, who underwent 158 consecutive procedures between January 2009 and December 2019, age range between 18 and 72 years. The evaluated procedures allowed correction of different breast deformities such as hypotrophy or breast atrophy, ptosis, asymmetries, lateral positioning of the nipple areola complex, loss of the upper pole projection, skin flaccidity associated with persistent body lipodystrophy, previous body contour surgeries, and patient's age and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: A total of 158 procedures were performed which the highest percentage was of triple flap interposition (28%, 44 procedures), followed by breast fat grafting (27%, 42 procedures) and triple flap interposition with silicone implants (19%, 30 procedures). The fat graft to breast was performed in 40.50% of the total procedures performed, with a mean infiltrated fat volume corresponded to 450.60 ml. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend performing fat grafts in all patients undergoing breast remodeling procedures after massive weight loss in order to volumetrically recompose the breast and rebuild skin, parenchymal and muscular structures, with breast fat transfer being the only way definitive filling of the upper pole. In addition, local flaps represent not only a form of volumetric augmentation of the breast but also a possibility of improving the breast contour and upper body segment


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Mamoplastia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/cirurgia , Adipócitos/transplante , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Mamoplastia/reabilitação , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/cirurgia , Géis de Silicone/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Centrifugação/métodos
15.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 334-340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female runners are at increased risk of stress fractures (SFs) compared with men. Literature is lacking with regard to best practice for preventing and treating SFs in women. The purpose of the study was to compare physiological measures and running-related factors between women of various ages and running abilities with and without a history of running-related SFs. HYPOTHESIS: Women with and without SF histories will differ with regard to medical and menstrual history, bone health, body composition, nutrition, and running history. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. METHODS: A total of 20 female runners with SF histories were matched based on age and running distance with 20 women without SF histories. Data included medical, menstrual, running, injury, and nutritional histories; blood histology related to nutritional, hormonal, and bone-related risk factors; and bone density, fat, and lean tissue using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Paired t tests were used to examine differences between women with and without SF histories, and Spearmen correlations were conducted to examine relationships between physiological factors. RESULTS: Women with SF histories had lower hip bone mineral density compared with women without SF histories (P < 0.05). SF history was moderately correlated with menstrual changes during increased training times (r = 0.580; P < 0.0001) but was not correlated with any other physiological factor. There was a moderate correlation within the SF group (r = 0.65; P = 0.004) for bone markers for resorption and formation both increasing, indicating increased bone turnover. CONCLUSION: Female runners with low hip bone mineral density, menstrual changes during peak training, and elevated bone turnover markers may be at increased risk of SF. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Female runners need routine screening for risks associated with SF occurrence. As bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are not routinely assessed in this population, important risk factors may be missed.


Assuntos
Fraturas de Estresse/fisiopatologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2797, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493999

RESUMO

Fat distribution is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor. However, its molecular and cellular underpinnings remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that two independent GWAS signals at RSPO3, which are associated with increased body mass index-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, act to specifically increase RSPO3 expression in subcutaneous adipocytes. These variants are also associated with reduced lower-body fat, enlarged gluteal adipocytes and insulin resistance. Based on human cellular studies RSPO3 may limit gluteofemoral adipose tissue (AT) expansion by suppressing adipogenesis and increasing gluteal adipocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. RSPO3 may also promote upper-body fat distribution by stimulating abdominal adipose progenitor (AP) proliferation. The distinct biological responses elicited by RSPO3 in abdominal versus gluteal APs in vitro are associated with differential changes in WNT signalling. Zebrafish carrying a nonsense rspo3 mutation display altered fat distribution. Our study identifies RSPO3 as an important determinant of peripheral AT storage capacity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1909-1915, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is among the most popular daily beverages in the United States. Importantly, coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of multiple health outcomes including a reduction in adiposity. DXA is a means to assess body fat and distribution. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between coffee consumption and DXA-assessed adiposity and adiposity distribution. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the NHANES were used. Participants were adults aged 20-69 y from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 waves. Information on coffee consumption was assessed through the FFQ (categorized as no coffee, 0 to <0.25 cup/d, 0.25 to <1 cup/d, 1 cup/d, 2-3 cups/d, or ≥4 cups/d). Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption were included. Trunk fat and total fat percentage were measured via whole-body DXA scans. The association between coffee consumption and body fat was investigated using age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models which accounted for sample weights. RESULTS: Higher coffee consumption was associated with significantly lower total body fat percentage and trunk body fat percentage in a dose-response manner (all P values < 0.05) among women. Although this dose-response relation was nonsignificant among men, men aged 20-44 y who drank 2-3 cups/d had 1.3% (95% CI: -2.7%, 0.1%) less total fat and 1.8% (95% CI: -3.3%, -0.4%) less trunk fat than those who did not consume coffee. Furthermore, the association between coffee consumption and body fat percentage exhibited for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee among women (all P for trend < 0.001) but not among men (all P for trend > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a significant association between higher coffee consumption and lower DXA-measured adiposity. Moreover, a gender difference in this association in the general US adult population was also observed.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Café , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 732, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inverse association between physical activity and body fat percentage (%) varies among different populations. We aim to examine whether the significant association between them was uniform across the subpopulations after taking into account body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Our study relied on data from China Health and Nutrition Surveys in 2015, including 5763 participants aged 40-64 years from 15 regions. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET·h/d). Body fat% was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body mass index < 24 kg/m2 was defined as normal weight and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 was overweight/obese. The effects of physical activity on body fat% were estimated using the Kruskal-Wallis test among sex, age, BMI groups, education, income, region and urbanization. Quantile regression analyses were utilized to describe the relationship between physical activity and body fat% distribution. RESULTS: Older adults, overweight/obese, higher education, higher income, residents of central China and those living in areas of higher urbanization had the lower physical activity. Participants who engaged in the highest level of physical activity had 2.0 and 1.5% lower body fat% than the lowest level of physical activity group (23.4, 34.8%) for men and women, respectively. There were 10.4 and 8.8% of normal weight males and females called normal weight obese. Overall, 1 h extra 4.5 MET•h/d was significantly associated with 0.079 and 0.110% less total body fat% at the 75th and 90th percentiles in normal weight males, with 0.071% less at the 25th percentiles in overweight/obese males, with 0.046-0.098% less at the 25th to 90th percentiles in normal weight females, and with 0.035-0.037% less from the 50th to 90th percentiles in overweight/obese females. The inverse association between physical activity and total body fat% was stronger in normal weight obese participants than other subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged Chinese adults, the inverse association between physical activity and body fat% was only in particular subpopulations rather than the entire population. We should pay much attention to normal weight obese and give a suitable physical activity guideline taking into account people with different body fat%.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 610-615, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353880

RESUMO

The phase angle is used to evaluate nutritional status and is an indicator of cellular health. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition are strong indicators of health during adolescence. We aimed to evaluate if body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness have an association with phase angle among adolescents. 203 girls and 220 boys (12.8±1.3 years) were evaluated. Peak height velocity, percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and phase angle measurements were collected. Linear regression adjusted by peak height velocity was used to verify if predictor variables were associated with phase angle among adolescents. Phase angle showed correlation with fat-free mass (girls: r=0.42 and boys: r=0.37); with percent fat mass (girls: r=0.23); and with cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: r=0.19). Linear regression showed that percentage fat mass (in girls) and cardiorespiratory fitness (in boys) had an effect of 11 and 17% in phase angle, respectively, while fat-free mass had an effect of 22 and 26% in phase angle for girls and boys, respectively. Changes in phase angle seem to be more associated with the percentage fat mass in girls, cardiorespiratory fitness in boys, and fat-free mass in both when controlled by peak height velocity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pregas Cutâneas
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 104, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue may have different metabolic and endocrine functions depending on the region of the body in which it is located. While visceral or intra-abdominal fat has been found to contribute to leptin concentrations, insulin resistance and obesity-related diseases, there are only a few imaging studies documenting the preferential distribution of body fat to either the intra-abdominal or subcutaneous compartments in dogs. This study aimed to determine if CT-measured abdominal fat distributed preferentially to the visceral space (V) relative to the subcutaneous space (SQ), with increasing DXA-determined total body fat percentage; and if ultrasound measurements of the ventral midline subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose thickness (VAT) can be used to estimate the distribution of fat to the subcutaneous and visceral abdominal spaces, in a sample of 22 dogs with variable body condition. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant correlation between visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/SQ) and increasing total body fat percentage (ß = - 0.07, p = 0.733), but strong correlation with age (ß = 0.71 p = 0.002). A substantial amount of variation for the ultrasound visceral adipose thickness to subcutaneous fat thickness (VAT/SAT) could be explained by both CT V/SQ and sex (R2Adjusted = 0.477, p = 0.001), with female dogs having significant lower VAT/SAT ratios compared to the male dogs (p = 0.047). The ultrasound fat measurements appeared moderately reliable, but a larger sample number is required to confirm this. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that dogs with a relatively healthy to slightly overweight body condition score, distribute fat relatively similarly between their peritoneal (visceral) and subcutaneous abdominal compartments with increasing total body fat percentage. However, there was increased fat distribution to the peritoneal space relative to the subcutaneous space with increasing age. Further, abdominal ultrasound may be useful in estimating the ratio of fat distribution to both the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous spaces.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
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