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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26187, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115002

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cosmetic appearance is a major concern for living donors. However, little is known about the impact of a surgical scar on body image changes in living liver donors. The aim of this study was to identify potential factors that cause displeasing upper midline incision scar, and to evaluate the overall satisfaction regarding body image and scarring after living donor hepatectomy.Donors who underwent right lobe hepatectomy were recruited. Exclusion criteria included reoperation, refusal to participate, and lost follow-up. All donors were invited to complete the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and the body image questionnaire. According to the VSS results of upper midline incision scar, donors were divided into 2 groups: good scarring group (VSS ≤4) and bad scarring group (VSS >4). we compared the clinical outcomes, including the demographics, preoperation, intraoperation, and postoperation variables. The study also analyzed the results of the body image questionnaire.The proportion of male donors was 48.9%. The bad scarring group consisted of 63% of the donors. On multivariate analysis, being a male donor was found to be an independent predictor of a cosmetically displeasing upper midline incision scar with statistical significance. The results of body image questionnaires, there were significant differences in cosmetic score and confidence score among the 2 groups.The upper midline incision and male donors have higher rates of scarring in comparison with the transverse incision and female donors. Donors who reported having a higher satisfaction with their scar appearance usually had more self-confidence. However, the body image won't be affected. Medical staff should encourage donors to take active participation in wound care and continuously observe the impact of surgical scars on psychological changes in living liver donors.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Satisfação do Paciente , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Cicatriz/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Doadores Vivos/psicologia , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Ferida Cirúrgica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 299-302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The permanent maxillary lateral incisor (PMLI) shows morphological variations, in the form of different crown shapes such as peg-shaped, cone-shaped, barrel-shaped and canine-shaped. The frequency of developmentally malformed permanent maxillary lateral incisors varies among different populations. The aim of this study was to document the frequency of different shapes of developmentally malformed permanent maxillary lateral incisors in patients visiting the three teaching dental hospitals of Peshawar. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Oral Diagnosis department of Peshawar Dental College, Sardar Begum Dental College, and Khyber College of Dentistry from 1st Sep 2018 to 15th June 2019. A total of 82 subjects were included that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Shape of the malformed PMLI was determined using Computer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing software. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages for observed developmental malformation and their types were computed and Chi-square test was applied to see the relation between various shapes and their occurrence with respect to site and position within the jaws. RESULTS: The peg shaped PMLI was seen in 81 (98.87%) patients and barrel shaped was present in 1 (1.22%) patient. The malformed PMLIs was found to be unilateral in 38 (46.3%) and bilateral in 44 (53.7%) patients, with more common presence on both sides 44 (53.7%) followed by right side 20 (24.4%) and left side 18 (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The subjects having predominant developmental malformation in case of permanent maxillary lateral incisor was peg-shaped permanent maxillary lateral incisor.


Assuntos
Incisivo/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Estudos Transversais , Odontologia , Hospitais Especializados , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062937

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of dietary fibers are recognized, but less is known about their effects on non-GI symptoms. We assessed non-GI symptoms in a trial of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of oat ß-glucan (OBG). Participants (n = 207) with borderline high LDL-cholesterol were randomized to an OBG (1 g OBG, n = 104, n = 96 analyzed) or Control (n = 103, n = 95 analyzed) beverage 3-times daily for 4 weeks. At screening, baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks participants rated the severity of 16 non-GI symptoms as none, mild, moderate or severe. The occurrence and severity (more or less severe than pre-treatment) were compared using chi-squared and Fisher's exact test, respectively. During OBG treatment, the occurrence of exhaustion and fatigue decreased versus baseline (p < 0.05). The severity of headache (2 weeks, p = 0.032), anxiety (2 weeks p = 0.059) and feeling cold (4 weeks, p = 0.040) were less on OBG than Control. The severity of fatigue and hot flashes at 4 weeks, limb/joint pain at 2 weeks and difficulty concentrating at both times decreased on OBG versus baseline. High serum c-reactive-protein and changes in c-reactive-protein, oxidized-LDL, and GI-symptom severity were associated with the occurrence and severity of several non-GI symptoms. These data provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence that OBG may reduce several non-GI symptoms in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/terapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Jejum/sangue , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefaleia/terapia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 474, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defining socio-demographic factors, clinical presentations and underlying diseases associated with COVID-19 severity could be helpful in its management. This study aimed to further clarify the determinants and clinical risk factors of the disease severity in patients infected with COVID-19. METHODS: A multi-centre descriptive study on all patients who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 in the province of Tehran from March 2020 up to Dec 2020 was conducted. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, comorbidities, and the health outcomes of 205,654 patients were examined. Characteristics of the study population were described. To assess the association of study variables with the disease severity, the Chi-Squared test and Multiple Logistic Regression model were applied. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 52.8 years and 93,612 (45.5%) were women. About half of the patients have presented with low levels of blood oxygen saturation. The ICU admission rate was 17.8% and the overall mortality rate was 10.0%. Older age, male sex, comorbidities including hypertension, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases other than asthma, chronic liver diseases, chronic kidney diseases, chronic neurological disorders, and HIV/AIDS infection were risk markers of poor health outcome. Clinical presentations related with worse prognosis included fever, difficulty breathing, impaired consciousness, and cutaneous manifestations. CONCLUSION: These results might alert physicians to pay attention to determinants and risk factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. In addition, our findings aid decision makers to emphasise on vulnerable groups in the public health strategies that aim at preventing the spread of the disease and its mortalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 212, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the national clinical trials registry ( ClinicalTrials.gov ) launched in February 2000, more than 360,000 research studies in the United States and over 200 countries have registered. As the characteristics of pediatric clinical studies keep changing over time and the results-reporting mechanism is under evolving, to know about the relevant updates of data elements and the effect of policies on the quality of reporting results is significant. METHODS: In this research, 53,060 clinical studies related to children registered from January 2008 to December 2019 were downloaded from ClinicalTrials.gov on August 1st, 2020. Different types of studies and critical categorical variables were identified, based on which, Cochran-Armitage test was performed to explore temporal trend of study characteristics and common pediatric clinical conditions in four time subsets. Further, to examine heterogeneity among subgroups (funding sources, funding sites, pediatric clinical conditions,etc), chi-squared test was applied. RESULTS: A total of 36,136 clinical trials and 16,692 observational studies were identified during the study period. The pediatric clinical trials increased from 7,029 (January 2008-December 2010) to 11,738 (January 2017-December 2019). The number of missing data has declined, with the maximum extent decline from 3.7 to 0.0% (Z = - 15.90, p <  0.001). Drug trials decreased from 48.8 to 28.9% (Z = - 24.68, p <  0.001). Behavioral trials, on the other hand, increased from 12.6 to 20.4% (Z = 12.28, p <  0.001). Most pediatric clinical trials were small-scale (58.9% enrolling 1-100 participants), single-site (61.4%) and funded neither by industry nor by the NIH (59.2%). The proportion of reporting study results varied by study type (χ2 = 1,256.8, p <  0.001), lead sponsor (χ2 = 4,545.6, p <  0.001), enrollment (χ2 = 29.4, p <  0.001) and trial phase (χ2 = 218.8, p <  0.001). CONCLUSION: Pediatric clinical studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov were dominated by small-scale interventional trials, containing significant heterogeneity in funding sources, funding sites, pediatric clinical conditions and study characteristics. Although the results database has evolved in the past decade, efforts to strengthen the practice of systematic reporting must be continued.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 908, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recreational trails abound across the United States and represent high risk areas for tick exposure. Although online reviews represent a rich source of user information, they have rarely been used in determining the risk of tick exposure during recreational trail use. Based on online user reviews and comments, the purpose of this study was to determine risk factors and behavioral recommendations associated with tick encounters (Tick Presence) on recreational trails in the state of Indiana, U.S. METHODS: We reviewed 26,016 user comments left on AllTrails.com for 697 Indiana trails. Reviews were evaluated to determine Tick Presence/Absence, the total number of Tick Presence Reviews per trail, and multiple trail and user behavioral characteristics. We used hot spot (Getis-Ord Gi*) analysis to test the hypothesis of whether there are clusters in the number of Tick Presence Reviews. Pearson chi-square tests of independence evaluated whether tick presence was associated with several trail characteristics. Finally, negative binomial regression evaluated the strength of the association between the number of Tick Presence Reviews and several trail characteristics. RESULTS: Tick Presence was recorded at 10% (n = 65) of trails and occurred most frequently in May. Hot spot analysis revealed statistically significant clusters of Tick Presence Reviews on trails in the Southern Indiana State Region. Results of χ2 tests indicated significant associations between Tick Presence Reviews and (a) State Region and (b) Land Management Type; Mann-Whitney U tests detected significant differences in Tick Presence Reviews based on Trail Length and Elevation Gain. Subsequent results of a negative binomial regression model indicated that Southern Indiana State Region, Federal and Private Land Management Type, and Elevation Gain were factors significantly associated with Tick Presence Reviews. Content of user reviews indicated several behaviors employed to prevent tick encounters, particularly Repellent Application and Recreational Deterrence; 25% included a behavior Recommendation to others. CONCLUSIONS: Online, user-generated trail reviews have the potential to serve as rich data sources for identifying recreational trails, where 1) the risk of tick exposure is great, 2) more robust active tick and tick-borne pathogen surveillance may be warranted, and 3) tailored prevention interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Humanos , Indiana , Recreação , Fatores de Risco
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25674, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), a patient is exposed to pure oxygen in a chamber. While HBOT is a long-standing and well-established treatment for a wide variety of medical conditions, one of the main complications is middle ear barotrauma (MEB), which can lead to complaints of ear discomfort, stuffiness or fullness in the ear, and difficulties in equalizing ear pressure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of self-acupressure in preventing and reducing the degree of MEB associated with HBOT. METHODS: This is a prospective nonrandomized controlled study. A sample of 152 participants will be assigned to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. The participants in the control group will receive conventional Valsalva and Toynbee maneuvers, while those in the experimental group will be given additional self-acupressure therapy. The acupoints used will be TE17 (Yifeng), TE21 (Ermen), SI19 (Tinggong), and GB2 (Tinghui). The Modified Teed Classification, symptoms of MEB, and overall ear discomfort levels will be assessed. Data will be analyzed using the Chi-Squared test or t test. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of self-acupressure for preventing and reducing the degree of MEB associated with HBOT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04311437. Registered on 17 March, 2020.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Barotrauma/terapia , Orelha Média/lesões , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/efeitos adversos , Autocuidado/métodos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Adulto , Barotrauma/etiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Manobra de Valsalva , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5536893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860032

RESUMO

Objectives: This study was aimed at comparing the predictors of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors between smoking and nonsmoking medical students at An-Najah National University located in Palestine. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed during the academic year 2017/2018. Medical students were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that involved the predictors of Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. With the use of a suitable available sample composed of a total of 430 medical students, 400 had successfully completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 24 software. Results: The sample included 400 medical students with a mean age of 18.7 years, 311 (77.7%) were females, and 89 (22.3%) were males. The prevalence of smokers in the sample was 110 (27.5%). For the health status of over half the students, 211 (52.8%) were excellent. The total HPLP-II score for smoking students resulted to be significantly lower in comparison to nonsmoking students (131.2 versus 135.7). This significant difference was clear in the interpersonal relation subscale (25.6 versus 26.8) for smoking and nonsmoking students, respectively. The score differences in other subscales were generally lower in smoking students. However, these differences were not consistent with statistical significance. Conclusion: The significant lower total Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II score in smoking students necessitates the urgent need for awareness programs, not only towards smoking but also on how to enhance student health-promoting lifestyle behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adulto Jovem
10.
Bull Cancer ; 108(5): 481-489, 2021 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845994

RESUMO

Confinement within the framework of Covid 19 required organizations in cancer centers, in particular with postponing certain treatments. We interviewed 6080 patients who had a scheduled appointment during this period. 2478 patients gave their opinion regarding access and organization of care, teleconsultation, their concerns and their reasons for satisfaction. While 83 % of them say they are satisfied with the organization of care, 25 % of respondents say they have given up care that they consider essential in 1/3 of cases. The concern related to the follow-up of the cancerous disease takes precedence over that of being infected with the Sars-cov-2 virus, unlike the general population, and relationships with their loved ones are spontaneously cited as a reason for satisfaction. This method captures the experience of patients, despite certain limitations. Such an approach could be used to set up a specific system during normal periods.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer , Neoplasias/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Adulto , Idoso , Agendamento de Consultas , COVID-19/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Consulta Remota
11.
Radiologia ; 63(4): 324-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to analyze the relationship between the initial chest X-ray findings in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and eventual clinical worsening and to compare three systems of quantifying these findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the clinical and radiological evolution of 265 adult patients with COVID-19 attended at our center between March 2020 and April 2020. We recorded data related to patients' comorbidities, hospital stay, and clinical worsening (admission to the ICU, intubation, and death). We used three scoring systems taking into consideration 6 or 8 lung fields (designated 6A, 6B, and 8) to quantify lung involvement in each patient's initial abnormal chest X-ray and to classify its severity as mild, moderate, or severe, and we compared these three systems. We also recorded the presence of alveolar opacities and linear opacities (fundamentally linear atelectasis) in the first chest X-ray with pathologic findings. RESULTS: In the χ2 analysis, moderate or severe involvement in the three classification systems correlated with hospital admission (p=0.009 in 6A, p=0.001 in 6B, and p=0.001 in 8) and with death (p=0.02 in 6A, p=0.01 in 6B, and p=0.006 in 8). In the regression analysis, the most significant associations were 6B with alveolar involvement (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.1.-4.7; p=0.025;) and 8 with alveolar involvement (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.01.-4.25; p=0.046). No differences were observed in the ability of the three systems to predict clinical worsening by classifications of involvement in chest X-rays as moderate or severe. CONCLUSION: Moderate/severe extension in the three chest X-ray scoring systems evaluating the extent of involvement over 6 or 8 lung fields and the finding of alveolar opacities in the first abnormal X-ray correlated with mortality and the rate of hospitalization in the patients studied. No significant difference was found in the predictive ability of the three classification systems proposed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Radiografia Torácica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alvéolos Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/classificação , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 63, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of mitral valve replacement (MVR) in pediatrics especially in the patients weighing less than 10 kg are not always favorable. This study aimed to measure long-term outcomes of MVR in our institution. METHODS: Nine young children weighing less than 10 kg underwent MVR with mechanical prostheses were enrolled in this retrospectively study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for the prediction of freedom from death and adverse events. Chi-square test was performed to compare outcomes for patients with different ratios of mechanical prosthesis size and body weight. Fourteen related literatures were also reviewed to support our study. RESULTS: All patients received bileaflet mechanical prostheses replacement. The surgical technique varied among the patients with prostheses implanted in the intra-annular (n = 5), supra-annular (n = 1), or with a Dacron conduit segment in the supra-annular position (n = 3). The valve size/weight ratio ranged from 2.11 to 5.00. There were two early death and one late death post-operation. The mean follow-up period was 80.67 ± 63.37 months, the transvalvular gradient was 10.5 ± 1.76 mmHg (range 8 to 12) and the peak gradient of LVOT was 5.00 ± 0.64 mmHg. One (11.1%) patient underwent an immediate revision MVR after initial MVR due to the periprosthetic leak. No patients required surgical reintervention or permanent pacemaker placement during long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The tailored surgical strategy utilized for MVR in infants resulted in reliable valve function and excellent survival. Although revision is inevitable due to somatic growth, the bileaflet mechanical prostheses displayed appropriate durability.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 2: S450-S453, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849223

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the relationship between work shifts and level of fatigue among workers. This study used descriptive correlation methods with a cross-sectional approach. Data were collected through a questionnaire of 80 respondents. The majority of respondents (n=64, 80%) were 20-40 years of age and had less than 10 years of work experience (n=54, 67.5%), workers experienced fatigue (n=12, 15%) and exhaustion (n=64, 80%). A chi-square test showed no correlation between work shift and the level of fatigue (p=.235). This study recommends that companies pay attention to middle-adult workers because they may experience higher levels of fatigue and require a lighter workload. Occupational health nurses should educate workers on exercise, stretching, and relaxation techniques to help reduce worker fatigue. It is important to have 15-30min of rest after working 4h.


Assuntos
Fadiga , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 272, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem. China has the second highest TB burden in the world. With a growing TB population with diabetes mellitus (DM), the TB control system faces mounting challenges. To date, evidence remains inconclusive regarding the association between TB-DM co-morbidity and delayed diagnosis of TB patients. This study aims to assess the diagnostic delay of TB patients with known DM and identify the factors associated with this delay. METHODS: Data was collected from China's Tuberculosis information management system in two counties of Zhejiang province, China. Patient delay, health system delay and total diagnostic delay are defined as follows: 1) the interval between the onset of TB symptoms and first visit to any health facility; 2) from the first visit to the health facility to the confirmed TB diagnosis in the designated hospital; 3) the sum of patient and health system's respective delays. Comparison of these delays was made between TB patients with and without DM using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing delays among TB patients with DM. RESULTS: Of 969 TB patients, 67 (7%) TB patients had DM co-morbidity. Compared with TB patients without DM, TB patients with DM experienced significantly shorter health system delays (p < 0.05), and there was a significantly lower proportion of patients whose health system delayed> 14 days (7.0% vs. 18%, p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between both patient categories regarding patient delay and total diagnostic delay. The multivariate regression analysis suggested that TB patients with DM who were aged < 60 years (AOR = 3.424, 95%CI: 1.008-11.627, p < 0.05) and non-severe cases (AOR = 9.725, 95%CI: 2.582-36.626, p < 0.05) were more likely to have a total diagnostic delay of> 14 days. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that DM does not contribute to further diagnostic delay as expected. Instead, we observed significantly improved health system delay among TB patients with DM. The findings indicate the importance of early screening and diagnosis for TB among diabetic patients and of strengthening the integrated control and management of TB and diabetic programs.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
15.
J Safety Res ; 76: 36-43, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study we explore the added value of bicycle crash descriptions from open text fields in hospital records from the Aarhus municipality in Denmark. We also explore how bicycle crash data from the hospital complements crash data registered by the police in the same area and time period. METHOD: The study includes 5,313 Danish bicycle crashes, of which 4,205 were registered at the hospital and 1,078 by the police. All crashes occurred from 2010 to 2015. We performed an in-depth analysis of the open text fields on hospital records to identify factors associated with each crash using four categories: bicyclist, road, bicycle, and the other party. We employed the chi-squared test to compare the distribution of variables between crashes registered at the hospital and by the police. A binary logit model was used to estimate the probability that a crash factor is identified, and that each crash factor is associated with a single-bicycle crash. RESULTS: The open-ended text fields in hospital records provide detailed information about crash factors not available in police records, including riding speed, inattention, clothing, specific road conditions, and bicycle defects. The factors alcohol and curb had the highest odds of being identified in relation to a single-bicycle crash. Crash data registered at the hospital included a larger number of bicycle crashes, particularly single-bicycle crashes and crashes with slight injuries only. CONCLUSION: Crash information registered at the hospital in Aarhus Municipality contributes to a better understanding of bicycle crashes due to detailed information about crash-associated factors as well as information about a larger number of bicycle crashes, particularly single-bicycle crashes. Practical implication: Efforts to improve access to detailed information about bicycle crashes are needed to provide a better basis for bicycle crash prevention.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652968

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the free sugars intake, identify the primary food sources of free sugars, and explore the relationship between free sugars intake and dental caries among Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1517 middle-school students aged 12-14 years in Changsha city, China. Adolescents completed a 12-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and oral health assessment. The students' dental caries experience was available as DMFT score (number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). Statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression model. The average intake of free sugars was 53.1 g/d in adolescents, and 43.2% of the students consumed more than 50 g of free sugars daily. The primary contributor to free sugars was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Age, boarders, and high family income were risk factors for excessive free sugars intake (p < 0.05), and increased free sugars intake was a risk factor for dental caries (odds ratio, OR = 1.446, 95% confidence interval: 1.138-1.839). Both the free sugars intake and dental caries prevalence in Chinese adolescents were high. Targeted interventions are urgently needed to address the excessive consumption of free sugars and improve Chinese adolescents' oral health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Testes de Atividade de Cárie Dentária , Diagnóstico Bucal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Safety Res ; 76: 197-204, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quasi-induced exposure (QIE) technique has been popularly applied in the field of traffic safety research for decades. One of the basic assumptions of QIE theory is that the not-at-fault driving parties (D2s) involved in the crashes are the random selection of overall driving population at the event of crash occurrence. Very few literatures, however, can be identified to validate the assumption for crashes with specific injury severities that may not be satisfied in reality. METHOD: The study aims to check the validity of the assumption categorized by crash injury severity with the use of Michigan crash data. Latent class analysis is employed to generate several latent classes for the crashes with specific injury outcomes. Chi-square test is adopted to identify the significance of the similarity of D2 distributions among the latent classes. RESULTS: The results indicate that: (a) for fatal crashes the statistical tests do not identify the significant discrepancies for D2 distributions of driver gender, age, and vehicle type between latent classes; (b) for injury crashes, both D2 driver gender and age have the similar distributions between/among various classes, while the D2 vehicle types show the inconsistent distributions; and (c) with respect to property damage only crashes, the distributions of three vehicle-driver characteristics are significantly different among the latent classes. It implies that the underlying assumption may not entirely hold true for all the injury severities and driver-vehicle characteristics. Practical Applications: The findings pinpoint the applicability of the QIE technique under specific scenarios and highlight the importance of validating the underlying assumption of QIE prior to its application.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(1): 158-169, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707999

RESUMO

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to evaluate the offensive success of a soccer team (e.g. penalty box entries) or player (e.g. pass completion rate). However, knowledge transfer from research to applied practice is understudied. The current study queried practitioners (n = 145, mean ± SD age: 36 ± 9 years) from 42 countries across different roles and levels of competition (National Team Federation to Youth Academy levels) on various forms of data collection, including an explicit assessment of twelve attacking KPIs. 64.3% of practitioners use data tools and applications weekly (predominately) to gather KPIs during matches. 83% of practitioners use event data compared to only 52% of practitioners using positional data, with a preference for shooting related KPIs. Differences in the use and value of metrics derived from positional tracking data (including Ball Possession Metrics) were evident between job role and level of competition. These findings demonstrate that practitioners implement KPIs and gather tactical information in a variety of ways with a preference for simpler metrics related to shots. The low perceived value of newer KPIs afforded by positional data could be explained by low buy-in, a lack of education across practitioners, or insufficient translation of findings by experts towards practice.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Ciência de Dados , Humanos , Tutoria , Esportes Juvenis
19.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(7): 1481-1488, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749036

RESUMO

We examined relationships between pattern of team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood (ie, non-participants, initiators, discontinuers, sustainers) and indicators of mental health. Data on team sport participation and mental health from high school to young adulthood were drawn from the longitudinal NDIT study. After controlling for demographics, physical activity, and previous mental health, one-way MANCOVA and ANCOVAs indicated that pattern of team sport participation was associated with stress, F(2,706) =8.28, p < .01, and coping, F(2,706) = 10.66, p < .01 in young adulthood. Compared to non-participants (24% of sample) or those who discontinued team sport after adolescence (51%), individuals who sustained team sport participation from adolescence to young adulthood (22%) reported lower stress and better coping levels. Bivariate regression analysis indicated that, compared to non-participants, team sport sustainers were less likely to experience panic disorder symptoms (OR =0.57, 95% CI [0.34, 0.94], p = .03). There were too few team sport initiators (2%) to be included in analyses. Sustained team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may promote better mental health. Further research is needed to ascertain causality and develop strategies to encourage individuals to join sport teams during adolescence and sustain participation while transitioning to young adulthood.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Esportes de Equipe , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/psicologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108615, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Federally funded health centers (HCs) provide care to the most vulnerable populations in the U.S., including populations with disproportionately higher smoking prevalence such as those with lower incomes. METHODS: This study compared characteristics of adult HC patients, by cigarette smoking status, and assessed smoking cessation-related behaviors using 2014 Health Center Patient Survey data; analysis was restricted to adults with data on cigarette smoking status (n = 5583). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Overall, 28.1 % were current smokers and 19.2 % were former smokers. Current smokers were more likely to report fair/poor health (48.2 %) and a high burden of behavioral health conditions (e.g., severe psychological distress 23.9 %) versus former and never smokers. Most current smokers reported wanting to quit in the past 12 months (79.0 %) and receiving advice to quit from a healthcare professional (78.7 %). In a multivariable model, age <45, non-white race, COPD diagnosis, and past 3-month marijuana use were significantly associated with desire to quit. Few former smokers (15.2 %) reported using cessation treatment, though use was higher among those who quit within the previous year (30.6 %). CONCLUSIONS: Although most current smokers reported a desire to quit, low uptake of evidence-based treatment may reduce the number who attempt to quit and succeed. Given the burden of tobacco use, future efforts could focus on identifying and overcoming unique personal, healthcare professional, or health system barriers to connecting them with cessation treatments. Increasing access to cessation treatments within HCs could reduce smoking-related disparities and improve population health.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Hospitais Federais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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