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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 900-903, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484251

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. in Shanghai from 2013 to 2016. Methods: Stool samples collected from diarrhea outpatients were cultured for Campylobacter spp., using the membrane filter method in 23 hospitals under the sentinel programs, from 2013 to 2016. All the strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR. Broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antibiotic resistance of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains that including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, telycin, klinthromycin and flurbenicol. Results: A total of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 10 444 stool samples (1.7%). Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli appeared as the predominant ones (94.4% and 5.6%). The incidence rate was higher in children than that in adults, with peaks of infections mainly from April to June and October to December. Campylobacter jejuni strains seemed highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (96.4%), tetracycline (83.4%) and nalidixic acid (81.7%). The resistant rates appeared higher on Campylobacter coli strains that isolated from patients. Some strains were resistant to multi-drugs. Conclusions: Campylobacter spp. seemed one of the important pathogens that isolated from outpatients with diarrhea, in Shanghai. Both age and season related characteristics of Campylobacter spp. were seen. Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Campylobacter/classificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Vigilância da População
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 924-929, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484255

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the mortality trend of major malignant tumors in Shandong province, from 1970 to 2013. Methods: Data related to cancer mortality were obtained from the Shandong Death Registration System and three nationwide retrospective cause-of-death surveys. Trends of overall mortality and major causes of death were described using the indicators as: mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates, through comparing the three large-scale mortality surveys in Shandong province. Difference decomposing method was applied to estimate the contribution of demographic and non-demographic factors for the change of mortality. Results: From 1970 to 2013, the crude mortality rate of malignant tumors in Shandong was increasing. The age standard mortality rate was increasing and then decreasing. The composition of cancer deaths in the all-cause-deaths was seen increasing and then decreasing as well. Both demographic and non-demographic factors contributed to the increase of crude cancer mortality rate. With the gradual increase of the proportion of population, its role exceeded the non-demographic factors. The age-standardized mortality rate of malignant tumors in 2011-2013 was lower than that in 2004-2005. Lung cancer mortality rose from the fifth to the first place, with an increase of 6.81 times from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013. Ranking of gastric cancer mortality dropped from first to the third place, with esophageal cancer dropped from second to the fourth. After adjusted by China's standard population in 1964, the mortality rate of lung cancer was still rapidly increasing, but the age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer was gradually decreasing. The crude and age-standardized mortality rates of cervical cancer showed a rapid downward trend, reduced 87.00% and 93.00% respectively from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013. Conclusions: Malignant tumors were still major threats to the residents of Shandong province. The changing trend of different malignant tumors presented an inconsistent nature which called for different intervention strategies be carried out, accordingly.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Demografia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 936-940, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484257

RESUMO

Objective: To study the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases who began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2005 to 2015 in Tianjin. Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS cases that receiving ART between 2005 and 2015 in Tianjin, were collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Basic Information Management System. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze data of collection. Life table was used to calculate the survival proportion and Cox proportion hazard regression model was used to analyze the factors associated to the time of survival. Results: A total of 2 057 HIV/AIDS cases were involved, including 51 died from AIDS related disease, ending up with the survival rates of 1, 3, 5 and 10 years as 98.4%, 97.8%, 97.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Results from the multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that when comparing with the cases aged<30 years, aHR (95%CI) of the cases aged 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50 years or above appeared as 4.506 (1.226-9.059), 5.944 (1.479-13.892) and 15.958 (5.309-27.206) respectively. When comparing with the cases having no loss of follow-up during ART process, the aHR of the cases having lost of follow-up during ART was 5.645 (95%CI: 3.124-10.200). When comparing with the cases diagnosed by other institutions, the aHR of the cases diagnosed by hospitals was 3.823 (95%CI: 1.423-10.274). When compared with the cases had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C before ART, aHR of the cases with hepatitis B or C prior to ART was 2.580 (95%CI:1.210-5.502). Compared with the cases receiving ART at Ⅰ/Ⅱ clinical stages, the aHR of the cases at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages was 3.947 (95%CI: 2.167-7.188). Compared with the cases with junior high school education or below, the aHR of the cases with high school education or above was 0.440 (95%CI: 0.238-0.810). Compared with the cases diagnosed before operation, aHR of the cases from special investigation and from counseling and testing (VCT) were 0.111 (0.027-0.456) and 0.182 (0.049-0.674) respectively. Conclusions: The survival rate of HIV/AIDS cases that received ART was high in Tianjin. Risk factors related to the survival of cases would include: old age when started receiving ART, loss of follow-up during ART, diagnosed by hospitals, co-infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C and receiving ART at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages. Meanwhile, protective factors related to the survival of cases would include: having high school or above education, diagnosis was made through other special programs or from VCT services.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pneumologie ; 73(9): 516-522, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Big cities in Europe have the highest incidence rates of TB in otherwise low incidence settings. Understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of TB incidence can support efforts for TB prevention and control in line with the End-TB Strategy of the WHO in such settings for low incidence settings. METHODS: Data from the municipal TB register of Cologne collected between 2006 and 2015 under the infection prevention legislation were retrieved, addresses geographically identified and all notified incident TB cases retrospectively analysed for their spatial and temporal distribution in this large German city using a geographic information system. RESULTS: During the analysed period 1,038 incident cases were reported, equivalent to an incidence rate of 10.03 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Contagious pulmonary TB contributed 57 % of all cases. Distribution patterns changed over time with decreases in 37 and increases in 22 of the 77 urban sub-districts, three of which showing constant high rates of TB incidence. CONCLUSION: The study presents a complementary method to monitor the distribution and development of incident TB cases at a disaggregated level of urban sub-districts. Identification of areas with comparatively high incidence can support identification of clusters respectively their prevention and allow better planning for targeted local TB services.


Assuntos
Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1224-1228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489858

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between vitamin D and thyroid antibodies with thyroid benign-malign neoplasms. Materials and Methods: The vitamin D vitamin and thyroid antibodies of 179 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodule were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.97 ± 14.139. Vitamin D levels were 14.473 ± 4.9999 ng/ml in women and 19.584 ± 6.1981 ng/ml in men and the mean was 15.016 ± 5.3579 ng/ml. There was a significant relationship between sex and vitamin D level (P < 0, 05). Antithyroglobulin antibody (anti-TGB) had been detected in 95 patients and Antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti TPO) in 58 patients. There was no significant relationship between vitamin D levels (P: 0, 65), anti-TPO positivity (P: 0, 86), and anti-TGB (P: 0, 12) with benign-malignant neoplasm of thyroid. There was no relationship between vitamin D and metastatic disease (P: 0, 30) as well. In addition, no association was found between malignancy and metastasis (P = 0.068, P = 0.14, P: 0, P = 0, respectively) with thyroid antibody positivity (anti TPO and/or anti TGB) in severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml) and deficiency (<20 ng/ml) of vitamin D. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency or thyroid autoantibodies did not have any significant effect on thyroid malignancies or metastatic disease separately or together.


Assuntos
Adenoma Oxífilo/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Colecalciferol/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adenoma Oxífilo/cirurgia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
6.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 433-436, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532152

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To investigate the characteristics and patterns of factors such as victims' information, injury tools and time of occurrence of intentional injury cases in southwest China. Methods One thousand three hundred and forty intentional injury cases from several places in southwest China from 2014 to 2016 assessed as minor injury level Ⅱ and above had been randomly selected. Data on victims' information, motives, injury tools, sites of occurrence, time of occurrence, injured parts and degrees of injury were classified and gathered, and then association analyses of motives and types of injury tools as well as degrees of injury and injury tools were made. Results Most of the victims were young adults between 20-50 years (65.2%), male (82.3%), rural household registration (62.8%); the motives were mainly dispute (45.8%). Injury tools were mostly blunt (54.6%) or sharp (36.0%). Specifically, injuries were mostly made bare-handed (36.9%) and by cutting tools (33.2%); the cases mainly occurred in public areas (59.0%). Cases occurred more frequently in January (11.3%), February (13.1%), March (11.6%) and from 22:00 to 01:00 every night. Injuries mainly involved the craniofacial region. The wounds were mainly assessed as minor injury level Ⅱ (61.6%). There was statistical significance in the difference of types of injury tools among cases with different motives (P<0.05). There was statistical significance in the difference of the distribution of injury tools among cases with different degrees of injury (P<0.05). Conclusion The occurrence of intentional injury cases in southwest China has potential patterns and relevant influencing factors. Prevention and analysis of such cases need to be comprehensively considered from the aspects such as victims' information, injury tools and time of occurrence.


Assuntos
Motivação , Violência , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height in the identification of health risk compared with the correlation matrix between the anthropometric parameters body mass index and waist circumference. METHODS: A population-based study presenting a transversal cut in a representative sample of the Brazilian adult and older population. The combination of the body mass index with the waist circumference resulted in health risk categories, and the cutoff points of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height as anthropometric indicator were used for classification of low and increased risk. Poisson regression was used to verify the association of systemic arterial hypertension with the health risk categories. RESULTS: The results showed 26% of adult men, 10.4% of adult women and more than 30% of the older adults of both genders classified as without risk by the combination matrix between body mass index and waist circumference presented a ratio between the waist circumference and height that showed increased risk. All risk categories continued to be associated with hypertension after control for confounding factors, being almost two times higher for adults with moderate and high risk according to both methods. When the waist-to-height ratio was used as a risk indicator, the prevalence of hypertension ratios for the older adults was 1.37 (95%CI 1.16-1.63) and 1.35 (95%CI 1.12-1.62) for men and women, respectively, being these values close to the combination matrix body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: The waist-to-height ratio identified more individuals at early health risk than the combination matrix between the body mass index and the waist circumference and showed comparable ability to identify health risk, regardless of gender and age, regarding the prevalence ratios for systemic arterial hypertension.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS: The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


Assuntos
Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study covering all Brazilian municipalities evaluated by the second cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, 2013-2014. The dependent variables were based on prenatal care access: prenatal care appointments, and HIV and syphilis tests during prenatal care. The independent variables were compared with demographic and social characteristics. Bivariate analysis was performed assessing the three outcomes with the independent variables. Variables with significant associations in this bivariate analysis were fit in a Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance to obtain adjusted estimates. RESULT: Poisson regression analysis showed a statistically significant association with the variables "less than eight years of study" [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.31; 95%CI 1.19-1.45; p < 0.001] and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.72-0.88; p < 0.001) for the outcome of "having less than six prenatal care appointments" and individual variables. A statistically significant association was found for "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.19-1.72; p < 0.001) regarding the outcome from the comparison between HIV testing absence during prenatal care and demographic and social characteristics. The absence of syphilis testing during prenatal care, and demographic and social characteristics presented a statistically significant association for the education level variable "less than eight years of study" (PR =1.75; 95%CI 1.56-1.96; p < 0.001) and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07-1.36; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The individual factors were associated with prenatal care appointments and HIV and syphilis tests in Brazilian pregnant women. They show missed opportunities for diagnosing HIV and syphilis infection during prenatal care and indicate weaknesses in the quality of maternal health care services to eliminate mother-to-child transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e090, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531553

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16676, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415360

RESUMO

There is no known study regarding the usefulness of each blood pressure (BP) component based on stratification by age and sex for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events among hypertensive populations without chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was performed to investigate the association of BP components and CV events in a Korean hypertensive population according to age and sex. A total of 22,853 Korean hypertensive participants without CKD and DM were stratified into six groups according to age [40-49, 50-59, and 60 years or older] and sex. In each group, multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to reveal the associations of BP components [systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)] with CV events. The increase in PP and decrease in DBP were significantly associated with increase of CV events in males, but neither BP component was significantly associated with risk of CV events in females. When subjects were stratified by age and sex, an increase of SBP or PP was significantly related to the increased risk of CV events in 40's male group, and only the elevation of PP was significantly associated with increase in incidence of CV events in 50's male group, while a decrease in DBP was significantly associated with increased risk of CV events in older male group. In addition, there were no the significant associations with the incidence of CV events in MAP, after stratification according to age and sex. In conclusion, this study suggests that, in hypertensive populations, BP management may need to be performed after full consideration of age and sex.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 752-756, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405422

RESUMO

To characterize both emergency room (ER) and hospital discharge dispositions of patients presenting with farm-related injuries. The 2012 National Trauma Data Bank was queried in August 2017 for injuries occurring on a farm. Patients were stratified by gender, age group, race, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and injury type. We performed logistic regression analysis to correlate parameters with likelihood of discharge home or death. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Five thousand six hundred thirty-one patients were identified, the majority of whom were male (72%) and white (85%). The most common mechanisms of injury included animal-related (29%), followed by falls, vehicles, and other causes. The highest ISSs were seen in vehicular injuries (11% ISS of 25+) and the greatest fatality rate was seen in machinery injuries (4%). Four thousand seven hundred fifty-three (84%) patients were admitted to the hospital, and 4056 (72%) were discharged home from the ER or after hospitalization. One hundred thirty patients (2%) died of their farm-related injury. Most patients presenting to the ER with farm-related injuries survive, are admitted to the hospital, and are ultimately discharged home. Few patients die of their injuries. Animal injury is most common and machinery injury most lethal of farm trauma patients presenting to the ER.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendas , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1001-1006, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analyze data regarding total knee arthroplasty (TKA) carried out by the Public Health System (SUS) in the state of São Paulo from 2003 to 2010 and determine the projections expected for 2030. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (observational). We analyzed 10,952 patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (PTKA) and revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) in the state of São Paulo between 2003 and 2010. The collection of data based on ICD-10 and HAA (Hospital Admission Authorization) were provided by the Tabnet and Sigtap software (Management System for the Table of Procedures, Medications, and OPM by SUS). The following variables were analyzed: gender, number of PTKAs and RTKAs, and their projections. The information collected formed a database developed in Excel® for Windows, and the statistical analysis was performed by the Stata® 11 SE and Minitab 16 software. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the prevalence of TKA between genders (p<0.0001); most of the patients were females (7,891; 72%). The projection for 2030 when compared with the first year of the series, 2003, indicates a growth of 428% for PTKA and 1,380% for RTKA, with a greater increase percentage of RTKA in males than in females (1,558% and 1,318%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The proportions of the RTKA projection are much greater than those of PTKA by 2030, with a greater percentage of increase of RTKA in males than in females.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/tendências , Distribuição por Idade , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e082, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460608

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the internal configuration of the maxillary molars of a population from the Northeast region of Brazil. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams from 512 patients (1501 teeth) were evaluated regarding the anatomical configuration of the root canal system, according to Vertucci's classification. The images were obtained using a Prexion 3D scanner operating at 90 kVp and 4 mA. The voxel size was 0.125 mm and the cut thickness was 1 mm. The images were then analyzed in the Prexion 3D Viewer software. The data were analyzed statistically by Pearson's chi-square test, with 5% of significance. The first and second molars presented three roots in 99.14% and 87.27% of the cases, respectively. In relation to the number of canals, the first and second molars had a significantly higher frequency of three and four root canals respectively, presenting a higher prevalence of types I and II (p < 0.001). The second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) was observed in 48.21% and 22.72% of the first and second molars, respectively (p < 0.001). The identification of the MB2 canal was greater in young and adult patients (p < 0.001), presenting a higher prevalence in male patients (p < 0.001). The internal configuration of the MB root was influenced by gender and by age, presenting a higher prevalence of the MB2 in male patients younger than 50 years of age.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 402-410, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The increased prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, has gained attention worldwide, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been pointed out as a possible link. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the possible association between angiotensinogen (AGT) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphisms with overweight and obesity in adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The present investigation was a population-based cross-sectional study including 1,567 individuals from an urban area in Brazil. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated, and all individuals were genotyped for the ACE I/D and AGT M/T polymorphisms. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was higher among men, whereas obesity was more prevalent among women. However, the frequency of ACE or AGT polymorphisms was similar among body mass index (BMI) categories. In addition, the mean age-adjusted BMI averages did not change significantly for ACE or AGT polymorphisms, regardless of sex or BMI category. The age-adjusted BMI average for the combination of ACE and AGT genotypes evidenced no significant differences regardless of sex or BMI categories. Results were similar when BMI was replaced by waist circumference (WC). CONCLUSIONS: We were not able to find any associations between BMI and WC (overweight/obesity) and ACE and AGT polymorphisms, indicating that the RAS system might not be involved in overweight and obesity, at least based on genetic backgrounds. However, further studies must measure RAS components to elucidate this question.


Assuntos
Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Distribuição por Sexo , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190042, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological profile of dental caries for Indigenous Peoples is complex and heterogeneous. The oral health of the Kaingang people, third largest Indigenous population from Brazil, has not been investigated so far. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries, in addition to the associated factors of the need of dental extraction among Kaingang adult Indigenous. METHODS: A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted among Kaingang adults aged from 35 to 44 years old living in the Guarita Indigenous Land, Rio Grande do Sul. Clinical exams were performed to analyze the conditions of dental crown and treatment needs. RESULTS: A total of 107 Indigenous adults were examined. Mean DMFT score was 14.45 (± 5.80). Two-thirds of the DMFT score accounted for missing teeth. Anterior lower dentition presented the highest rates of sound teeth, whereas the lower first molars had the lowest. Need for dental extraction was observed in 34.58% and was associated with village location, time of last dental visit, and higher number of decayed teeth. CONCLUSION: The high frequencies of caries and missing teeth observed in this population indicate a lack of adequate assistance. It is essential to discuss health care models in order to combat avoidable social and health injustices.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Extração Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sociológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190047, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tocantins is the most hyperendemic state for leprosy in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics and temporal trends of leprosy indicators in children under 15 years old in Tocantins between the years of 2001 and 2012. METHODOLOGY: Data analysis of the Notification of Injury Information System (SINAN). New cases under the age of 15 have been included in the state. The indicators were calculated and the temporal trends were analyzed through the join-point regression. RESULTS: There were 1,225 cases in children, mean age of 10.8 years, and male predominated (52%). The mode of detection by spontaneous demand prevailed (55.8%) and more than 9% had some physical disability. Detection in < 15 years was significantly increased between 2001 and 2008 (anual percent change - APC = 3.8%; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 0.1 - 7.6), and showed significant decline between 2008 and 2012 (APC = -9.4%; 95%CI -17.2 - -0.8). There was stability for the detection of grade 2 cases (APC = 4.2%; 95%CI -6.7 - 16.3), proportion of grade 2 cases (APC = 4.1%; 95%CI 6.7 - 16.3), proportion of grade 1 cases (APC = 1.3%; 95%CI -6.2 - 9.3), multibacillary ratio (APC = 2.9%; 95%CI -1.7 - 7.7), and proportion of paucibacillary (APC = 2.9%; 95%CI -1.7 - 7.7). CONCLUSION: Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Tocantins, with active transmission and persistence of transmission foci. The stability of the indicators points out the permanence of the late diagnosis and the repressed demands.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190050, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460665

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The excessive sitting time involved in activities of low energy expenditure (sedentary behavior) can contribute to the development of chronic diseases. Assessing factors related to this behavior in a population is important to identify its most vulnerable segments. OBJECTIVE: To describe sitting time distribution in the adult population of São Paulo City according to sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and health conditions. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 2,512 individuals, aged 20 to 65 years, who participated in the Health Survey in the City of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo - ISA-Capital) 2015. Data relating to sitting time were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), initially analyzed continuously, and, afterward, dichotomized by the median to analyze categorical variables. RESULTS: The total sitting time median in the sample was 180 min/day. The variables that, after adjustments, remained related to sedentary behavior were: schooling (prevalence ratio - PR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI 1.35 - 1.48); marital status (PR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.02 - 1.08); neighborhood safety (PR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93 - 0.99); age (PR = 0.91; 95%CI 0.87 - 0.95); income (PR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.00 - 1.15); self-rated health (PR = 1.03; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.07), and gender (PR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.94 - 0.99). CONCLUSION: The most vulnerable groups to sedentary behavior in this population are: younger males, with higher schooling and income, who live in neighborhoods considered safe, unmarried, and with negative self-rated health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tattooing has become very popular in recent years. In this context, socio-demographic information and health orientation is important. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of the prevalence of tattoos over the last thirteen years and the social and economic background of people with tattoos. Three national representative surveys were compared for this purpose; men and women residing in Germany were included. Additionally, the purpose of the study was to assess socio-demographic information and the health orientation of respondents with tattoos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three national, representative surveys were conducted on German participants (2016: n = 2510, 2009: n = 2512, 2003: n = 2043). The number of tattoos and socio-demographic information were investigated. The Health Regulatory Focus Scale (HRFS) assessing the individual's health orientation was used in 2016. RESULTS: Currently, one out of five Germans (≥14 years) has at least one tattoo. In Germany, tattoos are most prevalent among younger adults of both sexes aged 25 to 34 years. People with all levels of education have tattoos, although there were weak correlations with a lower education level and unemployment. Only men with several tattoos showed a significantly lower health orientation than non-tattooed ones. CONCLUSION: The fact that nearly one fifth of the German population has tattoos suggests that this permanent body art is becoming more and more accepted in German society. As a result, a need for better health risk information on the topic for both tattooists and the people getting tattoos appears evident because of the high prevalence of tattoos in younger generations as well as the lower health orientation in men with several tattoos.


Assuntos
Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Tatuagem/psicologia
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