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1.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(1): 12-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131737

RESUMO

Despite shifts in societal attitudes, lesbian women who separate and divorce still must cope with recriminating societal messages that blame and condemn them for not conforming to the gendered heteronormative dictate of married motherhood. Guided by feminist theory, we conducted a qualitative analysis of narratives from 17 adoptive lesbian mothers who had dissolved their relationship. The women's narratives revealed five cultural discourses that they variously embraced, resisted, or disrupted: (1) the ideology of the good mother; (2) divorce is bad for children; (3) marriage is the ideal way to live; (4) couples should stay together for the children; and (5) lesbian ex-lovers should be lifelong friends. All women embraced the cultural belief in "the good mother," which is the linchpin of gendered oppression, but they were much more disruptive regarding the remaining four discourses surrounding marriage, divorce, and lesbian relationships. Their assessments of life after separation revealed that divorce can actually be better than marriage for their children; marriage is often overrated; having children can complicate a marriage; and remaining friends with one's ex-partner is not always desirable. The feminist tenet that oppression and agency coexist was revealed as the women both engaged and resisted dominant cultural narratives in order to navigate the dilemmas of crafting a new life for themselves and their children post-divorce.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Homossexualidade Feminina , Casamento , Mães , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Divórcio/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Normas Sociais
2.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(6): 690-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318261

RESUMO

Despite widespread acknowledgment that "frequent, continuing, and meaningful" (Pruett & DiFonzo, 2014) time with both parents is beneficial for children from divorced or separated families, and that interparental conflict (IPC) is associated with increased child mental health problems, the joint effects of parenting time (PT), parenting quality (PQ), and IPC on children's mental health problems are less clear. The current study integrates two theoretical models in multiple mediator analyses to test indirect effects of mothers' and fathers' PQ and IPC to explain the association between PT and children's mental health problems within the same model. Participants were children aged 9-18 years (N = 141) who had one or both parents participate in a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a court-based prevention program for high-conflict divorcing or separating families. Data were collected at pretest and 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed an indirect effect in which fathers' PQ mediated the association between PT and child internalizing problems both concurrently and 9 months later. There were no significant indirect effects involving IPC. Analyses indicated a significant quadratic relation between PT and fathers' PQ, suggesting that although more PT is associated with better father-child relationships, there is a point beyond which more time is not related to a better relationship. We discuss the study findings, research limitations, and implications for public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo
3.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 440-449, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While several internet interventions target severe prolonged grief symptoms after bereavement, no randomised controlled trial investigated interventions for prolonged grief after separation/divorce. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a guided internet-based self-help intervention for prolonged grief symptoms after spousal bereavement or separation/divorce compared to a wait-list control group. Furthermore, we analysed whether the intervention was also efficacious for participants with milder grief symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 110 participants were mainly recruited by newspaper articles. Average age was 51 years, 77% were separated/divorced, 79% were female. Dropout rate was 11%. Compared to the control group, the intervention resulted in significant reductions in grief (d = 0.81), depression (d = 0.59), psychopathological distress (d = 0.39) (primary outcomes), embitterment (d = 0.37), loneliness (d = 0.37) and an increase in life satisfaction (d = -0.41) (secondary outcomes). These gains were maintained over three months. Improvements were similar among widowed and separated/divorced participants as well as among participants with low, medium or high levels of grief at baseline. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the self-selective sample and a rather small number of widowed participants. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that an internet intervention based on models for coping with grief after bereavement was not only beneficial for widowed but also separated or divorced participants. Furthermore, also participants with lower levels of grief at baseline benefitted from the intervention. This corroborates that indicated prevention efforts for grief are efficacious.


Assuntos
Luto , Divórcio/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Internet , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/psicologia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(5): 499-510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730180

RESUMO

Parenting time, interparental conflict, and the quality of parenting a child experiences in the postdivorce family environment have complex relations with child adjustment outcomes. Using person-centered latent profile analyses, the present study examined (a) separate profiles of mothers' (N = 472) and fathers' (N = 353) parenting time, interparental conflict, and quality of parenting following divorce; and (b) associations of mother and father profiles with concurrent child outcomes (48% female, 3- to 18-years-old) as well as child outcomes 3 and 10 months later. Mother and father profiles were primarily differentiated by levels of parenting time and quality of parenting, respectively. Mother and father profiles defined by greater parenting time and lower quality parenting were associated with the poorest child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arizona , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(5): 511-520, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730183

RESUMO

A large body of research has shown that parental divorce is linked to youths' psychological adjustment in Western societies, but less is known about how this life event may impact on adolescents living in the Chinese cultural context, which highlights losing face and dignity. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between parental autonomy support and psychological adjustment in middle to late adolescents from divorced and intact families in China, postulating moderation by grit. Participants were 210 adolescents (67.1% girls) from divorced families and 420 adolescents (58.6% girls) from intact families, aged between 14 and 18 years, who completed a questionnaire survey. Results indicated that adolescents from divorced families reported more problem behavior and less prosocial behavior than their peers from intact families. In regression analyses, grit moderated the association between parental autonomy support and prosocial behavior. Specifically, gritty adolescents were engaged in more prosocial activities than their nongritty peers when autonomy support was high. Furthermore, adolescents from divorced families fared less well when autonomy support was low. Chinese families may benefit from interventions focusing on the enhancement of both parental autonomy support and adolescents' self-regulatory skills to boost psychological adjustment in postdivorce settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Adolescente , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Neuropsychiatr ; 33(2): 61-71, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The symptoms following a traumatic event as well as the coping strategies can be culture specific. The objective of the present study was to analyse the transcultural differences of psychologically traumatized children and adolescents with and without migration background. METHODS: The medical files of 199 psychologically traumatized children and adolescents (99 native Austrian, 100 Turkish-speaking) who were treated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Vienna were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: The most frequently observed causes of trauma in patients with Turkish migration background were intra-familial conflicts, forced separation from parent(s), and conforming to a new environment. In native Austrian patients, forced separation from parent(s) and divorce or separation of parents were the leading causes of trauma. Trauma-related symptoms like changed mood, cognitive and perceptual disturbance, social withdrawal, sleeping problems, somatisation and behavioural problems were similarly observed in both groups; "sleeping problems" were more often observed in Austrian patients, and "behavioural problems" were more often observed in Turkish patients. More Austrian patients (32.7%) obtained psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment. Turkish-speaking patients mostly obtained psychiatric treatment only. Patients with migration background were more compliant compared to indigenous patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both study groups differed in type, causes and symptoms of trauma, and in preferred therapy. Turkish-speaking patients were more compliant with therapy, as they received culture and language-sensitive medical advice and treatment in their mother tongue. Considering the cultural background of patients can optimize service delivery and therapy outcomes among children and adolescents with stressful and traumatic experiences.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Comparação Transcultural , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Adolescente , Ansiedade de Separação , Áustria , Criança , Divórcio/psicologia , Humanos , Pais , Trauma Psicológico/etiologia , Psicoterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0207981, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707702

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the probability of marriage and divorce among Swedish military veterans deployed to Afghanistan relative to non-deployed matched comparators. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Matched cohort study in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Military veterans were identified through Swedish military personnel registers regarding foreign deployments, and comparators from the Military Service Conscription Register (1969-2013). Of 1,882,411 eligible conscripts, 7041 had served in Afghanistan at some point in time between 2002 and 2013. To each military veteran, up to 5 non-deployed comparators who underwent conscription were matched by age, sex, psychological assessment, cognitive ability, psychiatric history and social characteristics. After matching there were 4896 (82%) unmarried and 1069 (18%) married deployed military veterans. The main outcome was marriage or divorce after deployment to Afghanistan. Data on marital status were retrieved from Statistics Sweden until December 31, 2014. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.1 years after deployment of married individuals, 124 divorces were observed among deployed military veterans and 399 in the matched non-deployed comparator cohort (277 vs. 178 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95%CI 1.31-1.97). During a median follow-up of 4.7 years after deployment in the unmarried cohort, 827 new marriages were observed among deployed military veterans and 4363 in the matched non-deployed comparators cohort (399 vs. 444 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.89, 95%CI 0.83-0.96). CONCLUSION: Military veterans were more likely to divorce and less likely to marry after deployment compared with matched non-deployed comparators.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Guerra/psicologia , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies exist on the resilience of divorced women. Furthermore, relevant instruments for assessing the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women are rare. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop and examine a new Resilience Scale-Chinese version (RS-C) that is specific to divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan. METHODS: The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, 20 items were used to evaluate face and content validities. In phase 2, a cross-sectional study was conducted. In total, 118 immigrant women participated in this study and were recruited from three nongovernmental organizations providing services for immigrants in Taipei City and Miaoli and Chiayi Counties. Psychometric properties of the instrument (i.e., internal consistency, test-retest reliability, item-to-total correlation, construct validity, and convergent validity) were examined. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests. RESULTS: The final 16-item RS-C resulted in a three-factor model. The three factors, namely personal competence, family identity, and social connections, were an acceptable fit for the data and explained 54.60% of the variance. Cronbach's α of the RS-C was 0.85, and those of its subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.82. The correlation value of the test-retest reliability was 0.87. The RS-C was significantly associated with the General Self-Efficacy scale and the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12. CONCLUSION: The RS-C is a brief and specific self-report tool for evaluating the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women and demonstrated adequate reliability and validity in this study. This RS-C instrument has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions. However, additional research on the RS-C is required to further establish its reliability and validity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Traduções , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 521-524, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704582
10.
Gerontology ; 65(3): 275-287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical events in the second half of life, such as divorce, pose a significant threat to well-being. Individuals undergoing divorce often experience feelings of social loneliness and may benefit differently from available resources depending on how much time has passed since the event. Personality traits have been found to be related to adaptation, with particularly strong effects immediately after the critical event. Other resources, such as identity-stabilizing mechanisms (i.e., valued social groups and self-continuity), may play a role only later in adaptation. However, little is known about the benefits of these resources and their potentially time-dependent effects on social loneliness when one is overcoming later-life divorce. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the role of psychological (e.g., personality, self-continuity, multiple important group memberships) and social resources (e.g., new partner, having someone to help deal with divorce) for social loneliness in two post-divorce phases, using a married group as the reference, controlling for sociodemographic aspects and health. METHODS: A representative sample of 850 divorced (aged 40-79 years) and 869 married individuals (aged 40-78 years) living in Switzerland were compared, using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Differential predictive patterns for social loneliness between the two divorced groups and the married group were observed. For the short-term divorced (up to 2 years after divorce), higher extroversion and agreeableness and lower neuroticism were associated with lower levels of loneliness. For the long-term divorced (2-5 years after divorce) and for those who remained married, extroversion was similarly important for loneliness. Additionally, higher levels of self-continuity and multiple group memberships predicted lower loneliness, but the short-term divorced did not benefit from them. Having someone to help overcome the divorce benefited members of both divorced groups. A new partner was related to less loneliness, but only in the long-term divorced group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the effects of psychological and social resources on social loneliness vary by adaptation phase. Although extroversion is beneficial for all divorced and married individuals, other personality traits play a more decisive role in the initial adaptation phase. Identity-promoting resources (i.e., multiple group memberships, perceived self-continuity) are beneficial only later in the adaptation process. To be successful, professional interventions must be tailored as needed.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Geriatria , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Popul Stud (Camb) ; 73(1): 37-56, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632912

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess whether children's age at their parents' divorce is associated with depression in early and mid-adulthood, as indicated by medication purchase. A sibling comparison method was used to control for unobserved factors shared between siblings. The data were extracted from the Norwegian Population Register and Norwegian Prescription Database and included about 181,000 individuals aged 20-44 who had experienced parental divorce and 636,000 who had not. Controlling for age in 2004, sex, and birth order, children who were aged 15-19 when their parents divorced were 12 per cent less likely to purchase antidepressants as adults in 2004-08 than those experiencing the divorce aged 0-4. The corresponding reduction for those aged 20+ at the time of divorce was 19 per cent. However, the association between age at parental divorce and antidepressant purchases was only evident among women and those whose mothers had low education.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(2): 307-312, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Marital disruption is a commonly identified sequela of genital fistula in developing countries. This study is aimed at identifying factors that correlate with marital outcomes. METHODS: All new patients presenting to Evangel VVF Centre in Jos, Nigeria, between August 2015 and August 2017, were retrospectively reviewed with regard to demographics, medical history, and fistula details to identify variables correlating with marital status, particularly whether currently married or presently divorced, separated, or divorced and remarried (cumulatively the "divorce group"). RESULTS: Among 581 new patients, 66% were married and 18% experienced marital disruption. Presence of living children in the home and having attended any level of formal education were found to be protective of marriage (p values <0.0001 and 0.0045 respectively). Patients in the divorce group were more likely to have delivered a baby before the age of 18, be of Muslim background, and have a longer time since fistula formation (p values all <0.0001), as were those married younger than 18 and those whose fistula followed a vaginal delivery (p values 0.0015 and 0.0017 respectively). CONCLUSION: Several factors correlate with disruption of the marriage relationship. Patients at highest risk for marital disruption should be identified early and provided with interventions aimed at protecting their marriage and social support system.


Assuntos
Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fístula Vaginal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Divórcio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia
13.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(2): 201-211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198727

RESUMO

Commitment to school, commitment to learning, and educational expectations have been shown to contribute to positive outcomes among youth in the general population. However, it is an underexamined phenomenon among youth in care. This study examines the contribution of mother and father support and the moderating role of parents' marital status to commitment to school and learning among youth in residential care settings (RCSs) in Israel. The study was based on the reports of a random cluster sample of 1,409 adolescents (Grades 8 to 12) in 16 educational RCSs for youth from underprivileged backgrounds, who completed structured questionnaires. In line with social capital theories, the findings showed that, after controlling for youth background characteristics and grades at school, both father and mother support were linked positively with youth commitment to school and learning among the whole sample. The findings showed that although there was a positive significant relationship between father support and commitment to school and learning among youth in married-parent families, the link was insignificant among adolescent children of divorced parents. However, the interaction between divorce and mother support was insignificant. These findings highlight the importance of nurturing parent-youth relationships in RCSs and suggest circumstances in which father support is at risk to be less beneficial to youth in RCSs-a risk that should be considered by the care system as a target for prevention and intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Educação , Aprendizagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Tratamento Domiciliar , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 771-788, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227899

RESUMO

Children of alcoholics (COAs) are at risk for elevated internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Yet, little is known about the familial and behavioral adjustments of COAs following parental separation. Using an ecological-transactional framework, we examined how multiple risk factors contributed to the formation of different alcoholic family structures and how living in heterogeneous family structures affected COAs' behavioral problems. The Michigan Longitudinal Study, a multiwave study on initially intact alcoholic and control families with preschool-age children (n = 503), was used to evaluate outcomes of offspring, when families either remained intact or were separated when the child was aged 12-14. Alcoholic families who later transitioned into stepfamilies were characterized with higher paternal antisociality, marital aggression, and serious family crises than alcoholic families that remained intact. COAs in stepfamilies (but not in single-parent families) exhibited higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preadolescence compared with those in alcoholic intact families, in part because of elevated behavioral risk at age 3. Structural equation modeling indicated that the aggregated risk of stepfamily residence directly related to COAs' internalizing and indirectly related to COAs' externalizing problems, partially mediated by family stressors. Findings suggest targeting COAs in separated families for early intervention.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento , Pais , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sleep ; 42(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452761

RESUMO

We utilized the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing longitudinal dataset to evaluate associations among a maternal relationship dissolution, childhood sleep, and child development, specifically externalizing and internalizing symptoms, attention and social difficulties, as well as cognitive ability, when children were ages 5 (n = 3590) and 9 (n = 3062). A maternal relationship dissolution was related to poorer child sleep quality at ages 5 and 9. There was evidence of an indirect relation from a maternal relationship dissolution to child development through poor sleep quality when the child was 5 and 9 years old. The implications of this work are discussed.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(2): 143-153, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489131

RESUMO

Stepfamily relationships remain important over the life course to both children and parents. Unfortunately, limitations in availability of longitudinal data that include useful measures of stepfamily relations remain, thereby scholars must rely mostly on cross-sectional examinations. As a way to more rigorously test some of the mixed cross-sectional findings related to the links among stepcouple stability and parent-adult child relationships (closeness, involvement) for three parent-child subsystems (mother-child, father-child, stepparent-child), we used an alternative modeling strategy to test three plausible models. Multiple group analyses also were used to compare associations for stepmother and stepfather families. Stepfamilies (N = 330) from the National Survey of Families and Households with data from both adult children and primary respondents (resident parent or stepparent) were included. All three models fit the data. The best-fitting model suggests the most probable order of association is that parental involvement is associated with parent-child closeness which, in turn, is associated with stepcouple stability. Results also suggest that multiple parent-child relationships and stepcouple relationship stability are generally positively linked for both stepmother and stepfather households, although some differences emerged. Taken together, findings underscore the influence of cross-household stepfamily relationships even when children are adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gerontology ; 65(4): 407-418, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Later decades of the life course have undergone rapid transformations due to demographic changes in ageing societies, such as more frequent occurrences of later-life marital transitions. Adaption to these transitions, even when welcomed, brings novel chances and challenges in negotiating new social roles in old age, which could reinforce preexisting disparities in the acquisition and mastery of resources, social ties, and coping strategies. OBJECTIVES: Because the ability to weather later-life marital transitions may depend on the long arm of education acquired earlier in the life course, the present study aims to identify and track trends in the prevalence of marriage, divorce/separation, and widowhood among sociodemographic subgroups; link the occurrence of those transitions with mental health; and test the influence of educational attainment on these associations. METHODS: We employ an intraindividual, within-person approach to quantify the occurrence of marital transitions and their impact using data from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 22,013; 1992-2010). Measures of transition occurrence, depressive symptoms, and educational attainment were available across up to 10 biennial assessments. RESULTS: Individuals with less than a high school diploma displayed the highest likelihood of losing their significant other through divorce/separation or death. Marital loss was associated with increasing, and marital gain with decreasing, depressive symptoms. Compared to those with less than a high school diploma, individuals with a high school or general equivalency diploma exhibited larger increases in depressive symptoms associated with widowhood, even though their average levels of depressive symptoms were lower in the absence of this transition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed a predictable educational gradient for the occurrence of marital transitions and later-life mental health. Yet higher, formalized education did not protect the participants from increased depression in the presence of a loss-related transition, which could suggest that the strains of spousal loss may to some degree function as a leveler of the preexisting social inequalities of stratified life courses. We conclude that the benefits conferred by education are not necessarily ubiquitous, and its impact on the adaptation to spousal loss may be more complex and nuanced depending on the range of prior experiences and available coping strategies.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Escolaridade , Viuvez/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(1): 23-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394761

RESUMO

Although studies on romantic relationships are abundant, cumulative experiences in intimate relationship dissolution (i.e., dissolution of cohabitation and marriage) during young adulthood is not yet completely understood. Using a nationally representative sample of 9,275 young adults, we investigated heterogeneity in timing and frequency of relationship dissolution during young adulthood, as well as its developmental precursors to dissolution. Results indicated four distinct relationship-dissolution classes that ranged from those who maintained stable romantic relationships to those who experienced multiple cohabitation dissolutions and divorces from ages 18 to 30 years. Early socioeconomic adversity predicted relationship-dissolution trajectories directly and indirectly through psychosociodemographic mechanisms in adolescence, including disrupted transitions to adulthood, conflict in dating relationships, and low levels of future orientation. Our findings highlight the heterogeneous romantic relationship trajectories of young adults and support the importance of the person-centered approach in elucidating developmental pathways underlying the longitudinal transitions in romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(1): 112-120, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544098

RESUMO

A contemporary model for the pathogenesis of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive disorders) involves gene-environmental interaction, with genetic predisposition, epigenetic regulation, and environmental effects. Among multiple environmental factors, the experience of childhood trauma can be connected with the pathogenesis, course and the treatment of mood disorders. Patients with mood disorders have the greater frequency of childhood trauma compared with the general population, and adverse childhood experiences can exert a negative impact on their clinical course. In this article, the neurobiological mechanisms of childhood trauma are presented. The influence of negative childhood experiences on the central nervous system can result in many structural and functional changes of the brain, including such structures as hippocampus and amygdala, associated with the development of bipolar and depressive illnesses. Interaction of several genes with childhood trauma to produce pathological, clinical phenomena in adulthood has been demonstrated, the most important in this respect being the serotonin transporter gene and the FKBP5 gene playing an important role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Neurobiological effects can also involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation which can exert an effect on brain function over long-term periods. Somatic effects of childhood trauma include disturbances of stress axis and immune-inflammatory mechanisms as well as metabolic dysregulation. Negative childhood experiences may also bear implications for the treatment of mood disorders. In the article, the impact of such experiences on the treatment of mood disorders will be discussed, especially in the context of treatment -resistance to antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs.


Assuntos
Afeto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Luto , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Divórcio/psicologia , Emoções , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am Psychol ; 73(9): 1098-1108, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525786

RESUMO

This article reviews evidence from several lines of work to describe how marriage and divorce can provoke health-relevant immune alterations, including ways that marital closeness can be perilous for health and divorce can be beneficial. The multiple stresses of a troubled relationship are depressogenic, and the development of a mood disorder sets the stage for psychological and biological vulnerability. Depression provides a central pathway to immune dysregulation, inflammation, and poor health; gender-related differences in depression and inflammation can heighten risk for women compared to men. Sleep and obesity can simultaneously feed off depression as they promote it. In addition, spousal similarities in health behaviors, gene expression, immune profiles and the gut microbiota offer new ways to consider the health advantages and risks of marriage and divorce, providing new perspectives on couples' interdependence, as well as new directions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Sistema Imunitário , Casamento/psicologia , Depressão/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia
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