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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) - characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg in the presence of HBV DNA - represents a potential threat for blood safety. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the serological and molecular characterization of occult HBV infection (OBI) among blood donors in Mozambique. METHODS: 1,502 blood donors were tested for HBsAg. All HBsAg-negative individuals were tested for HBV DNA. Antibodies against HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg) were measured in HBV DNA positive individuals. FINDINGS: 1435 serum samples were HBsAg negative and 16 positive for HBV DNA, 14 confirmed to have OBI, corresponding to a frequency of 0.98%. Of the 14 OBI infections identified, 13/14 (92.8%) were positive for anti-HBc, 4/14 (28.5%) for anti-HBs, and no samples were reactive for HBeAg. Of the 14 OBI cases, nine samples (64.2%) were sequenced for the S/P region. Eight samples (88.9%) belonged to genotype A1 and one (11.1%) to genotype E. One escape mutation (T123A) associated with OBI and various amino acid substitutions for genotype A1 and E were observed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the importance of using nucleic acid amplification test to detect occult hepatitis B infection in blood donors in Mozambique.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Moçambique , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(37): 1588-1598, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894739

RESUMO

The aims of the National Blood Donation and Blood Saving Program are to support the rational and judicious utilization of blood products and abolish irrational transfusion policy to improve patient safety. In addition to the general principles, this program has got some special obstetrical aspects. Obstetrical, especially the postpartum haemorrhages belong to the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. In developed countries, a trend in increasing incidence can be observed. Preparing for delivery includes some important elements such as optimization of hemoglobin level, routinely applied prophylactic or therapeutic iron supplementation and early screening and comprehensive care of patients with high risk of obstetrical bleeding. The main causes of peripartum bleeding are abruptio placentae, placenta praevia, uterine atony, retained tissue in the uterus, trauma during delivery, and haemostatic disorders or their combinations. To prevent postpartum bleeding, it is important to use the active management of the third stage of labour including prophylactic utilization of uterotonics as an essential element. Utilization of blood salvage techniques with adequate indications may be considered in cases of cesarean section or postpartum haemorhage. In cases of obstetrical haemorrhage, management of surgical bleeding has the main priority by the obstetrician. Secondary coagulopathy associated with massive bleeding should be managed by viscoelastic test-guided, individualized and factor concentrate-based algorithm, however, pregnancy-specific reference and target ranges must be used that are different from the non-pregnancy values. Obstetrical bleedings belong to the potentially preventable causes of death. Hopefully, the implementation of the National Blood Donation and Blood Saving Program in the field of obstetrics can decrease the associated morbidity and mortality further. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(37): 1588-1598.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Obstetrícia , Recuperação de Sangue Operatório , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Gravidez
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(37): 1606-1616, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: In the last decade, guidelines and trainings promoted haemostasis point-of-care tests, availability and application of factor products, while they led to a decrease in blood product consumption. The aim of this study is to examine protocols, conditions in terms of facilities, equipment, personnel of anaesthesia-intensive care units (A-ICU) to improve healthcare services and patient safety. METHOD: In 2019, self-reported questionnaires were sent in e-mail to A-ICUs. Application of guidelines and local protocols, education, haemostasis diagnostic tools, availability of allogeneic transfusion products, stable factor and drug products for restoring haemostasis were evaluated. RESULTS: 49% of A-ICUs filled out 46 questionnaires. 91.3% applied guidelines, 43.5% had local protocols. The lack of haemostasis and Patient Blood Management (PBM) trainings was indicated by 6 and 17 A-ICUs, respectively. Applying MAITT guidelines decreased red blood cell concentrate (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and thrombocyte consumption by 65.1%, 67.4% and 30.2%. The availability of laboratory and viscoelastic tests is limited except for blood count, INR, APTI, fibrinogen. Where viscoelastic tests were available, RBC 2.9, FFP 1.7, thrombocyte 2.5 times more physicians per A-ICU beds participated in haemostasis trainings. 32% of A-ICUs can provide the required amount of factor products in the case of massive bleeding. CONCLUSION: Haemostasis and PBM trainings improve the quality of healthcare services if necessary equipment, factor and haemostasis drug products are provided. In order to promote PBM programmes and to improve patient safety, rearrangement of service and financing structure is needed, which must be accompanied by consulting perioperative professionals, general practitioners, and other related experts. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(37): 1606-1616.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Recuperação de Sangue Operatório , Segurança do Paciente , Hemostasia , Humanos , Hungria
4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2295-2301, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844323

RESUMO

Early detection of individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is important to manage iron levels and prevent future organ damage. Although the HFE mutations that cause most cases of HH have been identified, their geographic distribution is highly variable, and their contribution to iron overload is not fully understood. All new registered blood donors at the Sahlgrenska University hospital between 1998 and 2015 were included in the study. Donors with signs of iron overload at baseline and subsequent follow-up testing were recommended genotyping of the HFE gene. Of the 50,493 donors that were included in the study, 950 (1.9%) had signs of iron overload on both test occasions. Of the 840 donors with iron overload that performed HFE genotyping, 117 were homozygous for C282Y, and 97 were compound heterozygotes. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity was 0.23%. Iron overload screening effectively detects individuals at risk of carrying the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and enables early treatment to prevent HH complications.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Seleção do Doador/métodos , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Hemocromatose/diagnóstico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Hemocromatose/sangue , Hemocromatose/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1386-1390, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the reasons causing the false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors of Jiangsu province so as to provide reference data for the return of blood donors. METHODS: Serological test: HBsAg ELISA parallel detection was performed on 319 444 samples of blood donors from 2014 to 2017; the ECLIA was employed to confirm the single-ELISA-reactive (S/CO≥0.5) samples, the nucleic acid test was used to detect the HBV DNA on the all single-ELISA-reactive samples in 6/8 people mixed/single. Reagent evaluation: the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic curve (ROCC) was drawn by the ECLIA/NAT results as the gold standard, and the diagnostic performance of reagents A and B under different cut-off was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 227 (0.71‰) single-ELISA-reactive samples were detected among 319 444 blood donors, including 39 cases (17.2%) of positive HBsAg and 12 cases (5.3%) of positive HBV DNA; Under the maximum YI, the COI (1.0) employed by the manufacturer recommendation has a better diagnostic value than laboratory COI (0.5), and the capability of reagent A was better than that of reagent B (AUC: 0.661 vs 0.632; Youden: 0.329 vs 0.297), but the specificity of both reagents was restricted (<60%). Under the maximum YI, the best cut-off value of reagents A and B were 2.4 and 1.4 COI, respectively. Compared with the cut-off value of manufacturer, the sensitivity of reagents A decreased by 33% and the false positive rate decreased by 60% while the sensitivity of reagent B increased by 140% and the false positive rate increased by 36%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors is caused by the limited specificity of ELISA reagent and the setting of COI values. According to ROCC maximum YI method, the COI can be set as 2.4 COI and (0.5-1.4) COI for reagent A and B to reduce false positive rate.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Doadores de Sangue , DNA Viral , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1391-1396, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reentry situation of HBsAg single reagent reactive blood donors in Anhui province, and to verify the rationality and effectiveness of reentry strategy of blood donors in Anhui province. METHODS: Shielded blood donors who were HBsAg single reagent reactive might voluntarily apply for returning to the team of blood donors after the shield of 6 months. Blood bankstaff that shielded those donors should draw blood and conduct screening tests. Samples from donors who were HBsAg negative should be delivered to Anhui Blood Center to conduct the reentry detections. Shielded blood donors were allowed to return to the team if the results of HBsAg test, neutralization test, HBcAb test and nucleic acid test were negative. RESULTS: 109 person-portions of samples for returning to team from September 2013 to December 2016 were delivered to Anhui Blood Center. After reentry tests, 60 of them were negative, 8 cases were positive, while 41 cases were undetermined, and the qualified rate was 55.05%.25 negative donors were from Hefei, 20 of them donated blood again and were negative. CONCLUSION: The shielding and reentry strategy of blood donors with HBsAg single reagent reactive in Anhui province is rational and effective. However, there are still some deficiencies in trace of donors and information transmission, which needs to be further improved.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Doadores de Sangue , DNA Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 617, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of lives around the world are being saved annually through blood transfusion. However, blood transfusion is among the essential vehicles for transmitting infections. The overall prevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors differs around the world, reflecting the variation in the prevalence of these infections. This study aims to assess the prevalence and trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among blood donors in Qatar. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing donation records of 5 years from January 2013 to December 2017. We included in the study results for all screening and confirmatory tests for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Syphilis and Malaria. RESULTS: Among the 190,509 donations received at the donation centre during the study period, about 91% of donations were received from males and 9% from females. The overall positivity rate for all tests was 1.87, 2.23, 1.78, 2.31, 2.67% for the years 2013 through 2017, with an increasing yearly trend by 6% each year. The overall positivity rates for Hepatitis C Virus, Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria (2013-2017) were 0.60, 0.18, 0.30, 0.43 and 0.20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall positivity rate of all tests combined for the Transfusion Transmissible Infections demonstrated a gradually increasing trend from 2013 to 2017. However, the trend for each infection (Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Syphilis and Malaria) was fluctuating except for Human T-lymphotropic Virus-I/II, which was increasing. Supporting the development of effective prevention and control strategies requires further comprehensive investigations for better estimation of the burden of these infections.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 372, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID19 has caused a global and ongoing pandemic. The need for population seroconversion data is apparent to monitor and respond to the pandemic. Using a lateral flow assay (LFA) testing platform, the seropositivity in 63 New York Blood Center (NYBC) Convelescent Plasma (CP) donor samples were evaluated for the presence of COVID19 specific IgG and IgM. RESULTS: CP donors showed diverse antibody result. Convalescent donor plasma contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. Weak antibody bands may identify low titer CP donors. LFA tests can identify antibody positive individuals that have recovered from COVID19. Confirming suspected cases using antibody detection could help inform the patient and the community as to the relative risk to future exposure and a better understanding of disease exposure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Coloide de Ouro , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Plasma , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Soroconversão
9.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 9(2): 82-89, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1121154

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos hematológicos en donantes preseleccionados a plaquetoferesis sanguínea en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (HNERM) de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo y transversal, realizado entre Mayo-Julio 2019. Se incluyeron hemogramas de donantes que resultaron ̈Aptos ̈ a la entrevista médica, con resultado ̈Negativo ̈ a marcadores serológicos y que fueron diferidos en donar por presentar alteración hematológica. Los datos fueron recolectados del sistema informático del servicio de medicina transfusional del HNERM. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y analítica (U de Mann Whitney y Chi-cuadrado de Pearson) considerándose un valor p<0,05 como significativo. Resultados: Se analizaron los hemogramas de 330 donantes preseleccionados diferidos, entre los cuales el recuento absoluto de eosinófilos (14,2%), el hematocrito (14,2%) y el recuento de plaquetas (33,9%) fueron las de mayor presencia. Asimismo, en las observaciones la fórmula leucocitaria invertida (20,6%) fue la más frecuente. Además, se observó diferencia estadística significativa (p<0,05) entre la hemoglobina, el hematocrito, la hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM) y la fórmula leucocitaria invertida de acuerdo al sexo del donante. Conclusiones: La alteración hematológica observada más frecuentemente en esta población fue la plaquetopenia. Además, algunos parámetros de la serie roja y la distribución leucocitaria en el hemograma estuvieron asociados con el género del donante. (AU)


Objective: To describe the hematological findings in preselected donors to blood plateletpheresis at the Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital (HNERM) in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out between May-July 2019. Blood counts were included from donors that were ̈Approved ̈ to the medical interview, with a ̈Negative ̈ result for serological markers and that were deferred in donating for present hematological alteration. The data was collected from the computer system of the HNERM transfusion medicine service. Descriptive and analytical statistics (Mann Whitney's U and Pearsonʼs Chi-square) were used, considering a p<0.05 as significant. Results: The blood counts of 330 delayed preselected donors were analyzed, among which the absolute eosinophil count (14.2%), the hematocrit (14.2%) and the platelet count (33.9%) were those with the highest presence. Likewise, in observations, the inverted white blood cell formula (20.6%) was the most frequent. In addition, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and the inverted leukocyte formula according to the sex of the donor. Conclusions: The hematological alteration most frequently observed in this population was plateletpenia. In addition, some parameters of the red series and the leukocyte distribution on the blood count were associated with the gender of the donor. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Doadores de Sangue , Plaquetoferese , Doenças Hematológicas , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 581, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) remains a major safety concern for blood supplies. Despite many HTLV positive cases being reported in southeastern China, the detection of HTLV has not been prioritized in routine blood screening. Additionally, data on the prevalence of HTLV infection among blood donors is also limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HTLV among blood donors in three Chinese provinces through their representative blood centers, to evaluate the feasibility of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for blood screening. METHODS: From November 2018 to March 2019, blood plasma samples were collected from Hebei, Changsha, and Shenzhen blood centers and were screened for the HTLV-1/2 antibody using a CLIA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This was followed by confirmatory tests using INNO-LIA HTLV I/II. RESULTS: A total of 59,929 blood donations were collected and screened for HTLV-1/2. The reactive rate of CLIA and ELISA among donations in the Shenzhen blood center (0.0943%, 27/28,621) was higher than Hebei (0.0248%, 4/16,144), and Changsha (0.0198%, 3/15,164) (p < 0.05). After confirmation, 3 samples were confirmed as indeterminate for HTLV antibodies, and only one sample from the Shenzhen blood center was confirmed as HTLV-1. The overall prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 1.67 per 100,000 (1/59,929). The HTLV-infected blood came from a 32-year-old first-time female donor with a high school degree, who belonged to the SHE ethnic minority and was born in the Fujian province. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in the three blood centers in China remains relatively low. However, blood donations with positive or indeterminate results for HTLV antibodies reminded us of the importance of HTLV screening among blood donors in China.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Saúde da População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/etnologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/etnologia , Infecções por HTLV-II/virologia , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847031

RESUMO

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Imunização/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
14.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859121

RESUMO

Natural killer cells are important in the control of viral infections. However, the role of NK cells during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has previously not been identified. Peripheral blood NK cells from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects were evaluated for their activation, degranulation, and interferon-gamma expression in the presence of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. K562 and lung epithelial cells were transfected with spike proteins and co-cultured with NK cells. The analysis was performed by flow cytometry and immune fluorescence. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins did not alter NK cell activation in a K562 in vitro model. On the contrary, SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein (SP1) intracellular expression by lung epithelial cells resulted in NK cell-reduced degranulation. Further experiments revealed a concomitant induction of HLA-E expression on the surface of lung epithelial cells and the recognition of an SP1-derived HLA-E-binding peptide. Simultaneously, there was increased modulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A/CD94 on NK cells when SP1 was expressed in lung epithelial cells. We ruled out the GATA3 transcription factor as being responsible for HLA-E increased levels and HLA-E/NKG2A interaction as implicated in NK cell exhaustion. We show for the first time that NK cells are affected by SP1 expression in lung epithelial cells via HLA-E/NKG2A interaction. The resulting NK cells' exhaustion might contribute to immunopathogenesis in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Doadores de Sangue , Brônquios/citologia , Degranulação Celular/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células K562 , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/química , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transfecção
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e756-e764, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628911

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has major implications for blood transfusion. There are uncertain patterns of demand, and transfusion institutions need to plan for reductions in donations and loss of crucial staff because of sickness and public health restrictions. We systematically searched for relevant studies addressing the transfusion chain-from donor, through collection and processing, to patients-to provide a synthesis of the published literature and guidance during times of potential or actual shortage. A reduction in donor numbers has largely been matched by reductions in demand for transfusion. Contingency planning includes prioritisation policies for patients in the event of predicted shortage. A range of strategies maintain ongoing equitable access to blood for transfusion during the pandemic, in addition to providing new therapies such as convalescent plasma. Sharing experience and developing expert consensus on the basis of evolving publications will help transfusion services and hospitals in countries at different stages in the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Sangue/provisão & distribução , Transfusão de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Preservação de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Seleção do Doador , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Hemoglobinopatias/complicações , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul.1,2020. 36 p. ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1104399

RESUMO

El presente documento reúne los criterios de selección del donante de plasma convaleciente COVID-19 recolección, procesamiento, almacenamiento y distribución para estandarizar a nivel nacional. Y establecer las disposiciones técnicas para la promoción, recolección, procesamiento, almacenamiento y distribución de plasma obtenido de pacientes convalecientes de COVID-19


This document meets the selection criteria for the convalescent plasma donor COVID-19 collection, processing, storage and distribution to standardize at the national level. And establish the technical provisions for the promotion, collection, processing, storage and distribution of plasma obtained from convalescent patients of COVID-19


Assuntos
Plasma , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008438, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have occurred in the Americas and the Pacific involving mosquito-borne and sexual transmission. ZIKV has also emerged as a risk to global blood transfusion safety. Aedes aegypti, a mosquito well established in north and some parts of central and southern Queensland, Australia, transmits ZIKV. Aedes albopictus, another potential ZIKV vector, is a threat to mainland Australia. Since these conditions create the potential for local transmission in Australia and a possible uncertainty in the effectiveness of blood donor risk-mitigation programs, we investigated the possible impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission of ZIKV in Australia on local blood transfusion safety. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated 'best-' and 'worst-' case scenarios of monthly reproduction number (R0) for both transmission pathways of ZIKV from 1996-2015 in 11 urban or regional population centres, by varying epidemiological and entomological estimates. We then estimated the attack rate and subsequent number of infectious people to quantify the ZIKV transfusion-transmission risk using the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool. For all scenarios and with both vector species R0 was lower than one for ZIKV transmission. However, a higher risk of a sustained outbreak was estimated for Cairns, Rockhampton, Thursday Island, and theoretically in Darwin during the warmest months of the year. The yearly estimation of the risk of transmitting ZIKV infection by blood transfusion remained low through the study period for all locations, with the highest potential risk estimated in Darwin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the increasing demand for plasma products in Australia, the current strategy of restricting donors returning from infectious disease outbreak regions to source plasma collection provides a simple and effective risk management approach. However, if local transmission was suspected in the main urban centres of Australia, potentially facilitated by the geographic range expansion of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus, this mitigation strategy would need urgent review.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue/normas , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700672

RESUMO

Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 are mild or asymptomatic. Therefore, many cases remain unrecorded. We determined seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 3,186 regular blood donors in three German federal states between 9 March and 3 June 2020. The IgG seroprevalence was 0.91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.24) overall, ranging from 0.66% (95% CI: 0.13-1.19) in Hesse to 1.22% (95% CI: 0.33-2.10) in Lower-Saxony.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700670

RESUMO

Serological reactivity was analysed in plasma from 436 individuals with a history of disease compatible with COVID-19, including 256 who had been laboratory-confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 99% of laboratory-confirmed cases developed a measurable antibody response (254/256) and 88% harboured neutralising antibodies (226/256). Antibody levels declined over 3 months following diagnosis, emphasising the importance of the timing of convalescent plasma collections. Binding antibody measurements can inform selection of convalescent plasma donors with high neutralising antibody levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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