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1.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 1): 52-58, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378143

RESUMO

After the first successful blood transfusion, different difficulties of a liquid tissue were overcome; this liquid required special conditions to keep its characteristics with minimal alterations and, thus, to be able to be used in patients who needed it. Subsequently, techniques that also made possible to separate this liquid into its different components for its use were discovered, allowing a more specific treatment of the deficiencies of patients when administering cellular or non-cellular elements. With this, a new area arose within the blood banks to obtaining components. This area became the central point of convergence of all the processes involved in obtaining components, which include the biological qualification of each one of the units, as well as their labeling and release for the different distribution in transfusion services. It is important to highlight that the main source of components is obtained from whole blood; its processing for several decades was an artisanal operator-dependent process; however, with the evolution of technology, now it is possible to carry it out in an automated manner; likewise, today it is possible to obtain components directly from the donor's whole blood by separating it in real time by means of apheresis, which allows obtaining the component of interest and returning the remainder to the donor.


Tras la primera transfusión de sangre exitosa, se fueron superando diferentes dificultades de un tejido líquido que fue requiriendo condiciones especiales para mantener sus características con mínimas alteraciones y así pudiera ser utilizado en los pacientes que lo necesitaran. Posteriormente, se descubrieron técnicas que además posibilitaban separar este líquido en sus diferentes componentes para su empleo, lo cual permitió tratar de manera más específica las deficiencias de los pacientes al administrar los elementos celulares o acelulares. Con esto surgió dentro de los bancos de sangre el área de obtención de componentes. Esta se convirtió en el punto central de convergencia de todos los procesos involucrados en la obtención de componentes, que incluyen la calificación biológica de cada una de las unidades, así como su etiquetado y liberación para la distribución en los diferentes servicios de transfusión. Es importante resaltar que la principal fuente de componentes se obtienen por sangre total; su procesamiento durante varias décadas era un proceso artesanal con operador dependiente, pero con la evolución de la tecnología actualmente es posible llevarla a cabo de manera automatizada; asimismo, es posible obtener componentes directamente de la sangre total del donador por medio de la separación de la misma en tiempo real por medio de aféresis, la cual permite obtener el componente de interés, con lo que se devuelve el remanente al donador.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue
2.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 1): 1-3, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377981

RESUMO

In 2022, 2 years on from the start of the pandemic, the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Mexican Institute for Social Security) has been reorganizing its services at full, out of which blood banks play a key role. In addition, on June 14 it is celebrated the World Blood Donor Day by the World Health Organization and this year Mexico was the host country for the celebration. Therefore, it is important to highlight the work carried out in blood banks, ranging from their main activity, which is the recruitment of blood donors and the blood components production, to the different interventions they have in the field of transplantation, diseases emerging diagnosis and the development of new therapeutic modalities, such as, for example, cell therapy.


En 2022, a dos años de la pandemia por COVID-19, el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social ha estado en plena recuperación de servicios, de la que los bancos de sangre son elementos clave. Además, el 14 de junio se celebró el Día Mundial del Donante de Sangre bajo iniciativa de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y en este año México fue el país anfitrión de la celebración. Por lo tanto, es importante poner de manifiesto el trabajo que se realiza en los bancos de sangre, desde su principal actividad, que es la captación de donadores y la obtención de hemocomponentes, hasta las diferentes intervenciones que tienen en el campo del trasplante, el diagnóstico de enfermedades emergentes y el desarrollo nuevas modalidades terapéuticas, como, por ejemplo, la terapia celular.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Previdência Social , Humanos , Academias e Institutos , Doadores de Sangue , México
3.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 1): 19-27, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378025

RESUMO

Background: The mobile campaigns of altruistic blood donation are one of the main actions of the Blood Bank of the Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez". With the arrival of the new normal, after the COVID-19 pandemic, it was necessary to reactivate these actions according to the population's characteristics. Objective: To identify socio-cultural characteristics that enhance or limit voluntary or altruistic blood donation. Material and methods: Qualitative exploratory research, through a semi-structured interview with stratified sampling, universe of partial population of those attending blood donation; only altruistic donors were considered randomly, and representative proportions of the population subgroup were determined. Results: Most of the donors interviewed were preliminary donors who approached the blood donation tent without focused promotion. Health professionals showed greater identification to altruistic blood donation. Donors declared a lack of donation culture as the main factor limiting this human activity. Finally, they considered the accessibility to the blood donation tent as determinant for altruistic blood donation. Conclusions: Twelve recommendations were established to the Blood Bank, with which the intention is to propose strategies and establish research channels that increase the impact on the promotion of altruistic blood donation in future campaigns.


Introducción: las campañas móviles de donación altruista de sangre son una de las acciones principales del Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez". Con la llegada de la nueva normalidad, después de la pandemia por COVID-19, fue necesario reactivar estas acciones conforme a las características de la población. Objetivo: identificar características socioculturales que potencien o limiten la donación voluntaria o altruista de sangre. Material y métodos: investigación exploratoria de corte cualitativo mediante entrevista semiestructurada, con muestreo estratificado, universo de población parcializado de los asistentes a donación de sangre; se consideraron únicamente donantes altruistas de forma aleatoria y se determinaron proporciones representativas del subgrupo poblacional. Resultados: la mayoría de los donantes entrevistados fueron donantes preliminares que acudieron a la campaña itinerante sin promoción focalizada. Los profesionales de la salud mostraron mayor identificación con la donación de sangre de tipo altruista. Los donantes declararon una falta de cultura de la donación como el factor principal que limita esta actividad humana. Finalmente, consideraron la accesibilidad del módulo itinerante como determinante para la donación altruista de sangre. Conclusiones: se establecieron doce recomendaciones al Banco de Sangre, con las que se busca plantear estrategias y establecer canales de investigación que incrementen el impacto en el fomento de la donación altruista de sangre en campañas futuras.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Altruísmo , Doadores de Tecidos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Motivação
4.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 1): 46-51, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378106

RESUMO

Medicine has had a vertiginous advance in the last two centuries. After the first successful transfusions, transfusional medicine and blood banks arose. The ladder perform vital functions, from donor screening to the studies for the analysis of blood that are carried out before its use for transfusion and the follow-up of patients who receive blood components. Molecular biology is highly relevant in these activities, since it has allowed the reduction of window periods for the detection of diseases transmissible by blood; it has allowed the complete study of the typing of blood groups and HLA molecules, and it has allowed the adequate phenotypic interpretation of patients and donors by being able to have their genotype. The most relevant impact of the implementation of molecular biology techniques was the screening for the detection of transfusion-transmissible diseases in blood donors, which has allowed improving the safety of the components obtained. Molecular biology techniques applied in the study of the donor-recipient have allowed better care of patients who have required a transfusion or transplant. In this work, it is reviewed the importance of molecular biology in blood banks, with which the care for the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social beneficiaries has improved, as well as for the blood donors who are mostly not insured.


La medicina ha avanzado vertiginosamente en los últimos dos siglos. Después de las primeras trasfusiones exitosas, surgió la medicina transfusional en conjunto con los bancos de sangre. Estos últimos desempeñan funciones vitales, desde la valoración de los donadores hasta los estudios actuales para analizar la sangre antes de su uso transfusional y el seguimiento de los pacientes que reciben componentes sanguíneos. La biología molecular tiene una gran relevancia en estas actividades, pues ha permitido el acortamiento de los periodos ventana para detectar enfermedades transmisibles vía sanguínea; ha posibilitado completar el estudio de la tipificación de grupos sanguíneos y las moléculas de HLA, y ha permitido la adecuada interpretación fenotípica de los pacientes y donadores al estar en condiciones de tener a la mano su genotipo. El impacto más relevante del uso de técnicas de biología molecular fue el cribado o tamizaje para la detección de enfermedades transmisibles por transfusión en los donantes de sangre, con lo que ha mejorado la seguridad de los componentes obtenidos. Estas técnicas aplicadas en el estudio del donador-receptor han posibilitado una mejor atención a los pacientes que requieren una trasfusión o trasplante. En este trabajo se revisa la importancia que ha tenido esta herramienta en los bancos de sangre, con lo que ha mejorado la atención a los derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, así como a los donadores de sangre que en su mayoría no son derechohabientes.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Humanos , Transfusão de Sangue , Seleção do Doador , Biologia Molecular
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277650, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378657

RESUMO

Lithuania has a long history of remunerated donations. The first steps towards voluntary, non-remunerated blood and blood component donations started in 2004. Lithuania achieved 99.98% voluntary non-remunerated donations (VNRDs) in 2020. This study aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious (TTI) disease markers for remunerated donations in comparison with VNRDs in Lithuania from 2013 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Lithuanian Blood Donor Register. The prevalence was calculated as the rate between the number of confirmed positive results for all TTI disease markers (serological anti-HCV, HBsAg, Ag/anti-HIV 1 and 2, and syphilis, and/or HCV, HBV, and HIV-1 NAT) per 100 donations. The relative risk of infectious disease markers for remunerated donations was then estimated. In total, 796310 donations were made. Altogether, 2743 donations were positive for TTI markers as follows: HCV, 1318; HBV, 768; syphilis, 583; and HIV 1 and 2, 74. The prevalence of confirmed TTI markers were 2.86, 0.97, 0.18, and 0.04 per 100 first-time remunerated donations, first-time VNRDs, repeat remunerated donations, and repeat VNRDs, respectively. Remunerated first-time and repeat donations had a statistically higher prevalence of TTI disease markers than VNRDs. First-time and repeat remunerated donations had statistically significantly higher relative risks of confirmed TTI disease markers than VNRD. In conclusion, the risks of TTI disease markers for remunerated first-time and repeat blood and its component donations are significantly higher than those for VNRDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Sífilis , Reação Transfusional , Humanos , Doadores de Sangue , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027924, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389837

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the duration and breadth of antibodies elicited by inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations in healthy blood donors. Methods: We performed serological tests on 1,417 samples from 658 blood donors who received two (n=357), or three (n=301) doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. We also accessed the change in antibody response before and after booster vaccination in 94 participants and their neutralization breadth to the current variants after the booster. Results: Following vaccination, for either the 2- or 3-dose, the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) peaked with about 97% seropositivity approximately within one month but subsequently decreased over time. Of plasmas collected 6-8 months after the last immunization, the nAb seropositivities were 37% and 85% in populations with 2-dose and 3-dose vaccinations, respectively. The nAbs of plasma samples (collected between 2-6 weeks after the 3rd dose) from triple-vaccinated donors (n=94) showed a geometric mean titer of 145.3 (95% CI: 117.2 to 180.1) against the ancestral B.1, slightly reduced by 1.7-fold against Delta variant, but markedly decreased by 4-6 fold in neutralizing Omicron variants, including the sub-lineages of BA.1 (5.6-fold), BA.1.1 (6.0-fold), BA.2 (4.2-fold), B.2.12.1 (6.2-fold) and BA.4/5 (6.5-fold). Conclusion: These findings suggested that the 3rd dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine prolongs the antibody duration in healthy populations, but the elicited-nAbs are less efficient in neutralizing circulating Omicron variants.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinação
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367895

RESUMO

In the last decade, Australia has experienced an overall decline in red cell demand, but there has been an increased need for phenotyped matched red cells. Lifeblood and mathematicians from Queensland universities have developed a probabilistic model to determine the percentage of the donor panel that would need extended antigen typing to meet this increasing demand, and an estimated timeline to achieve the optimum required phenotyped (genotyped) panel. Mathematical modelling, based on Multinomial distributions, was used to provide guidance on the percentage of typed donor panel needed, based on recent historical blood request data and the current donor panel size. Only antigen combinations determined to be uncommon, but not rare, were considered. Simulations were run to attain at least 95% success percentage. Modelling predicted a target of 38% of the donor panel, or 205,000 donors, would need to be genotyped to meet the current demand. If 5% of weekly returning donors were genotyped, this target would be reached within 12 years. For phenotyping, 35% or 188,000 donors would need to be phenotyped to meet Lifeblood's demand. With the current level of testing, this would take eight years but could be performed within three years if testing was increased to 9% of weekly returning donors. An additional 26,140 returning donors need to be phenotyped annually to maintain this panel. This mathematical model will inform business decisions and assist Lifeblood in determining the level of investment required to meet the desired timeline to achieve the optimum donor panel size.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Modelos Teóricos
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19165, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357435

RESUMO

Machine learning methods are a novel way to predict and rank donors' willingness to donate blood and to achieve precision recruitment, which can improve the recruitment efficiency and meet the challenge of blood shortage. We collected information about experienced blood donors via short message service (SMS) recruitment and developed 7 machine learning-based recruitment models using PyCharm-Python Environment and 13 features which were described as a method for ranking and predicting donors' intentions to donate blood with a floating number between 0 and 1. Performance of the prediction models was assessed by the Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score in the full dataset, and by the accuracy in the four sub-datasets. The developed models were applied to prospective validations of recruiting experienced blood donors during two COVID-19 pandemics, while the routine method was used as a control. Overall, a total of 95,476 recruitments via SMS and their donation results were enrolled in our modelling study. The strongest predictor features for the donation of experienced donors were blood donation interval, age, and donation frequency. Among the seven baseline models, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Support vector machine models (SVM) achieved the best performance: mean (95%CI) with the highest AUC: 0.809 (0.806-0.811), accuracy: 0.815 (0.812-0.818), precision: 0.840 (0.835-0.845), and F1 score of XGBoost: 0.843 (0.840-0.845) and recall of SVM: 0.991 (0.988-0.994). The hit rate of the XGBoost model alone and the combined XGBoost and SVM models were 1.25 and 1.80 times higher than that of the conventional method as a control in 2 recruitments respectively, and the hit rate of the high willingness to donate group was 1.96 times higher than that of the low willingness to donate group. Our results suggested that the machine learning models could predict and determine the experienced donors with a strong willingness to donate blood by a ranking score based on personalized donation data and demographical details, significantly improve the recruitment rate of blood donors and help blood agencies to maintain the blood supply in emergencies.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Intenção , Surtos de Doenças
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115438, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327632

RESUMO

The impact of COVID-19 represents a specific challenge for voluntary transfusional systems sustained by the intrinsic motivations of blood donors. In general, health emergencies can stimulate altruistic behaviors. However, in this context, the same prosocial motivations, besides the personal health risks, could foster the adherence to social distancing rules to preserve collective health and, therefore, discourage blood donation activities. In this work, we investigate the consequences of the pandemic shock on the dynamics of new donors exploiting the individual-level longitudinal information contained in administrative data on the Italian region of Tuscany. We compare the change in new donors' recruitment and retention during 2020 with respect to the 2017-2019 period (we observe 9511 individuals), considering donors' and their municipalities of residence characteristics. Our results show an increment of new donors, with higher proportional growth for older donors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the quality of new donors, as proxied by the frequency of subsequent donations, increased with respect to previous years. Finally, we show that changes in extrinsic motivations, such as the possibility of obtaining a free antibody test or overcoming movement restrictions, cannot explain the documented increase in the number of new donors and in their performance. Therefore, our analyses indicate that the Tuscan voluntary blood donation system was effective in dealing with the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Humanos , Altruísmo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Emergências
10.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105324, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of the life-threatening diseases, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Following implementation of antenatal screening in Japan, novel transmission of HTLV-1 in adolescent and adult generations is expected to replace vertical transmission as the main route for transmission. OBJECTIVES: To obtain the current status of HTLV-1 horizontal infection and to assess the fluctuation of transmission occurring among adolescents and adults in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: We followed-up 5,017,916 eligible repeat blood donors for 8 years from 2013 to 2021. We evaluated HTLV-1 transmission rate by age group (16-69 years-old), and calculated the total number of novel transmissions in Japan using demographic statistics published by the government of Japan. RESULTS: We identified 457 seroconverters (men, 203; women, 254) in a total of 19,244,604 person-years during the study period. The number of seroconversions per 100,000 person-years was 1.54 for men and 4.21 for women. An increase in the number of novel infections was observed in both sexes in adolescent and young adult generations despite the health bias of blood donors. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that more than 2,800 new HTLV-1 infections occur annually in Japan. It is a serious concern that without immediate measures against new HTLV-1 infections, such as guideline formulation, an inclusion of HTLV as routine screening in sexual health services, an information campaign, and surveillance of the general population, novel HTLV-1 infection could continue to increase in Japan and be a source of global transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Leucemia de Células T , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue
11.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366422

RESUMO

Although blood transfusion is an important therapeutic resource, transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are still a cause for concern. Measures to mitigate this risk involve improvement of donor screening criteria and improvements in laboratory tests, especially the use of nucleic acid test (NAT). In this retrospective study we evaluated HIV, HTLV, HCV and HBV infection rates in blood donors of the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (Hemoba), Brazil, through serological and NAT results and the characteristics of donors. From February/2008 to December/2017, 777,446 blood donations were made. Most donors were male, aged 25-44 years, black and mixed race, and single or divorced. The density-type incidence (DTI; per 100,000) for each virus was 91.1 for HBV; 66.5 for HCV; 54.3 for HIV; and 33.9 for HTLV, with a decreasing trend observed over the period studied, except in the last biennium. NAT detected only 1 donor in immunological window for HIV (0.46/100,000 donations) and 3 donors in immunological window for HBV (1.8/100,000 donations). Serological positivity for all viruses studied was higher in the metropolitan region of Salvador, the state capital. Conclusion: DTI rates show a decreasing trend over the years studied, with a predominance of HBV infection. NAT allowed the detection of donors in immunological window periods, having an important role in improving transfusion safety.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doadores de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto
12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366432

RESUMO

With the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in late 2021, Canadian public health case/contact testing was scaled back due to high infection rates with milder symptoms in a highly vaccinated population. We monitored the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (anti-N) and spike protein (anti-S) antibodies in blood donors across Canada from September 2021 to June 2022 in 202,123 randomly selected samples. Multivariable logistic regression of anti-N positivity with month, age, sex, racialization, region, material and social deprivation (based on postal code) identified as independent predictors. Piece-wise logistic regression analysed the association between anti-S concentration and month, and anti-N/anti-S positivity. Infection-related seroprevalence (anti-N positive) was 4.38% (95% CI: 3.96, 4.81) in September reaching 50.70% (50.15, 52.16) in June; nearly 100% were anti-S positive throughout. Anti-N positivity was associated with younger age, male sex, the Alberta and Prairies regions, greater material deprivation and less social deprivation (p < 0.001). Anti-S concentration was high initially (3306 U/mL, IQR 4280 U/mL), increased to (13,659 U/mL, IQR 28,224 U/mL) by June (p < 0.001), following the pattern of deployment of the third and fourth vaccine doses and was higher in those that were anti-N positive (p < 0.001). Despite already high vaccination-related seroprevalence, infection-related seroprevalence increased dramatically with the emergence of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Alberta
13.
Clin Lab ; 68(11)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I gene, the B locus, allele 27, HLA-B*27 is one of the most fascinating risk factors that is strongly associated with developing spondyloarthropathies (SpA). HLA-B27 testing has been routinely available in the diagnosis of those diseases. This study aimed to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR and to compare it with PCR-SSP to detect the HLA-B*27 allele among Thai blood donors. METHODS: A total of 391 DNA samples were obtained from Thai blood donors at Thammasat University Hospital and tested for HLA-B*27 allele detection. A new real-time PCR was developed and validated to identify this allele and subsequently compared with those results tested with PCR-SSP. The sensitivity of detection was performed using known HLA-B*27-positive and -negative samples with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 ng/µL. Additionally, HLA-B27 subtyping was performed by DNA sequencing containing second and third exons of this gene among all the HLA-B*27-positive donors. RESULTS: The validity of real-time PCR using known DNA controls and the results obtained by PCR-SSP techniques were in 100% concordance. The method was sensitive even at low DNA concentrations (1 ng/µL). Of 391 donors, 24 (6.14%; 95% CI, 3.97 - 9.00) were found to have the HLA-B*27 allele, while the remaining 367 (93.86%; 95% CI, 91.00 - 96.03) did not have this allele. Donors presented HLA-B*27-positive, HLA-B*27:06, the most common allele, followed by HLA-B*27:04, -B*27:05, and -B*27:07. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-B*27 using fluorogenic real-time qualitative PCR was found to be superior compared with that of PCR-SSP. The method is rapid, accurate, reliable, and sensitive for detection. In addition, this method provides convenience in the early treatment of SpA patients and relieves their suffering.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígeno HLA-B27 , Humanos , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Antígeno HLA-B27/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tailândia , Alelos , DNA/genética
14.
Clin Lab ; 68(11)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-dependent patients in Saudi Arabia are numerous because of the existence of life-threatening inherited diseases such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Thus, analysis of the frequencies of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) phenotypes is vital. This study sought to evaluate the frequencies of the ABO and Rh phenotypes among male blood donors in Hail region. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six (126) blood samples were collected from male donors living in Hail region and were screened for ABO and Rh phenotypes. The collected data were statistically analyzed using GraphPad Prism (version 9.3.1). RESULTS: Among 126 blood donors, 43.6% were classified into the O blood group. Additionally, Rh antigen e was predominantly detected in this study (99.2%). A total of 103 blood donors exhibited D antigen, whereas 23 were negative for D antigen. The DCe/dce (R1r) phenotype was observed in 29.1% of RhD positive donors, while 73.9% of RhD negative blood donors expressed the dce/dce (rr) phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The O phenotype and e antigen were most frequently observed in male blood donors from Hail province. RhD positive samples took advantage of total blood donor samples over RhD negative samples. CcDee (R1r) phenotype was commonly identified in the RhD positive population, whereas ccddee (rr) phenotype was consis¬tently detected in the RhD negative male donors.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Masculino , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética , Fenótipo , Transfusão de Sangue
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(5): 996-998, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216319

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Israel, caused mainly by Leishmania major (L. major) and L. tropica. In addition, returning travelers import another leishmanial species such as L. braziliensis. Although we are dealing with a skin disease, the blood bank in Israel does not accept blood donations from people infected with CL in cases of multiple lesions due to the possibility of transfusion. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania in the blood of patients with active or previous CL. This pilot study screened patients with active or previous CL for parasites in their blood. All patients were infected in Israel or were returning travelers with leishmaniasis acquired in Latin America. Patients were seen at the Sheba Medical Center. In addition, patients were seen at their homes in L. tropica and L. major endemic regions in Israel. Blood samples were taken from each patient for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Altogether 62 blood samples were examined (L. tropica = 26, L. major = 33, and L. braziliensis = 3). Twenty-seven patients had an active disease and 35 were recovered. All blood cultures and PCR were negative for parasites except one blood sample that was PCR positive for L. braziliensis. The findings of our study, although a small sample, suggest that people with active or recent CL caused by L. major and L. tropica, do not harbor parasites in their blood. Thus, their exclusion from blood donation should be revisited. Further studies are needed with larger sample size and highly sensitive tests.


Assuntos
Leishmania major , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Humanos , Doadores de Sangue , Projetos Piloto , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia
16.
Clin Lab ; 68(10)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic detection of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses in any blood donor has been in effect at the University hospital of Kinshasa since 2005. However, no data on the monitoring of blood donors is available today. The purpose of this thesis was to draw up the sero-epidemiological assessment of the afore-mentioned virus during the period 2014 - 2018. METHODS: This is an observational study conducted in the University Hospital of Kinshasa donor population. RESULTS: A total of 9,128 blood donors were admitted to the Kinshasa University Clinics Blood Bank during the period from 01/01/2014 to 12/31/2018 for 11,054 blood donations. The highest attendance (50%) of blood donors was observed in 2014 and 2015. On the other hand, 2018 (11.9%; n = 1,085) was that of the lowest frequency of blood donors. The mean age of the blood donors was 34.72 ± 10.66 years. The minimum and maximum age corresponded to 16 years and 65 years, respectively. The median age was 34 years (interquartile range (IQR): 27 - 40 years). The majority of the study population (75%; n = 6,841) were at most 40 years old. There were significantly more male blood donors (77.3%; n = 7,060) than female blood donors (22.7%; n = 2,066). The difference between the two gender proportions was statistically significant (p < 0.0001) at risk α = 5%. The male/female gender ratio was 3:4. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and Treponema pallidum was estimated at 2.6% (n = 237), 4.7% (n = 429), 3.3% (n = 297) and 0.4% (n = 33), respectively. A total of 927 (10.16%) donors were infected with at least one agent transmissible by blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The present surveillance proves that infectious transfusion safety in Kinshasa is still very low.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 502, 2022 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic therapeutic cells may be rejected if they express HLA alleles not found in the recipient. As finding cell donors with a full HLA match to a recipient requires vast donor pools, the use of HLA homozygous cells has been suggested as an alternative. HLA homozygous cells should be well tolerated by those who carry at least one copy of donor HLA alleles. HLA-A-B homozygotes could be valuable for HLA-matched thrombocyte products. We evaluated the feasibility of blood donor biobank and HLA imputation for the identification of potential cell donors homozygous for HLA alleles. METHODS: We imputed HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles from genotypes of 20,737 Finnish blood donors in the Blood Service Biobank. We confirmed homozygosity by sequencing HLA alleles in 30 samples and by examining 36,161 MHC-located polymorphic DNA markers. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventeen individuals (1.5%), representing 41 different haplotypes, were found to be homozygous for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles. Ten most frequent haplotypes homozygous for HLA-A to -DQB1 were HLA-compatible with 49.5%, and three most frequent homozygotes to 30.4% of the Finnish population. Ten most frequent HLA-A-B homozygotes were compatible with 75.3%, and three most frequent haplotypes to 42.6% of the Finnish population. HLA homozygotes had a low level of heterozygosity in MHC-located DNA markers, in particular in HLA haplotypes enriched in Finland. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that HLA imputation in a blood donor biobank of reasonable size can be used to identify HLA homozygous blood donors suitable for cell therapy, HLA-typed thrombocytes and research. The homozygotes were HLA-compatible with a large fraction of the Finnish population. Regular blood donors reported to have positive attitude to research donation appear a good option for these purposes. Differences in population frequencies of HLA haplotypes emphasize the need for population-specific collections of HLA homozygous samples.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doadores de Sangue , Marcadores Genéticos , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos
18.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298818

RESUMO

The efficacy of different screening scenarios in reducing hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission risk as compared to the risk without screening was modeled in 9,337,110 donations from four geographical regions that had been subjected to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and individual donation nucleic acid amplification testing (ID-NAT). We used the Weusten models for estimating infectivity risk for Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusions in eight HBV infection stages and then evaluated multiple screening strategies based on minipool (MP) and ID-NAT options of different sensitivity for their efficacy in reducing this risk. The efficacy in reducing HBV transmission risk by screening scenarios across the regions varied between 81% (HBsAg only) and 99.2% (ID-NAT and anti-HBc). Highly sensitive ID-NAT alone achieved a slightly higher risk reduction (97.6-99.0%) than minipool of 6 donations (MP6)-NAT in combination with HBsAg and anti-HBc (96.3-98.7%). In ID-NAT screened lapsed and repeat donors, the additional risk removed by HBsAg testing was minimal (<0.1%). The modeling outcomes in this and two previous reports using this multi-regional database suggest that one could consider an ID-NAT alone testing scenario as an alternative to MP-NAT and serology-based testing algorithms and restrict serologic testing to first-time donors only.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Torque teno virus , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Doadores de Sangue , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e02392022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response plays a significant role in the outcome of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: We investigated plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations in non-infected (NI), asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected blood donors (AS), and patients with severe COVID-19 (SC). RESULTS: The SC group showed significantly higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and CCL5 than the AS and NI groups. The SC and AS groups had considerably greater CXCL9 and CXCL10 concentrations than the NI group. Only NI and infected people showed separate clusters in the principal component analysis. CONCLUSIONS: SC, as well as AS was characterized by an inflammatory profile.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Doadores de Sangue , Quimiocinas , Citocinas
20.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(10): e1063, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281739

RESUMO

The limited availability of red cells with extremely rare blood group phenotypes is one of the global challenges in transfusion medicine that has prompted the search for alternative self-renewable pluripotent cell sources for the in vitro generation of red cells with rare blood group types. One such phenotype is the Rhnull , which lacks all the Rh antigens on the red cell membrane and represents one of the rarest blood types in the world with only a few active blood donors available worldwide. Rhnull red cells are critical for the transfusion of immunized patients carrying the same phenotype, besides its utility in the diagnosis of Rh alloimmunization when a high-prevalence Rh specificity is suspected in a patient or a pregnant woman. In both scenarios, the potential use of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived Rhnull red cells is also dependent on ABO compatibility. Here, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ABO gene edition strategy for the conversion of blood type A to universal type O, which we have applied to an Rhnull donor-derived hiPSC line, originally carrying blood group A. This work provides a paradigmatic example of an approach potentially applicable to other hiPSC lines derived from rare blood donors not carrying blood type O.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética , Edição de Genes , Doadores de Sangue
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