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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(5): 981-986, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030879

RESUMO

Shortly after its inception, the Society for Academic Specialists in General Obstetrics and Gynecology recognized that no data described the composition and faculty activities of "academic generalist divisions." Consequently, in 2018, the Society for Academic Specialists in General Obstetrics and Gynecology appointed a presidential task force and conducted the current surveys of chairs and division directors and key informant interviews to understand the composition and faculty activities in divisions of academic specialists in departments of obstetrics and gynecology and propose criteria for excellence in each mission area to guide development of divisions. In 2014, with Society for Academic Specialists in General Obstetrics and Gynecology's guidance, these divisions were referred to as academic specialists divisions and the faculty within as academic specialists to emphasize that they provide specialized women's health care in academic settings. The divisions comprised approximately 30% of departments' full-time faculty (median 12). In 27% of the departments, these divisions contributed more than half of departmental revenue, and 49% contributed 26-50%. Nearly 90% of divisions provided a sizeable proportion of the department's total teaching efforts. Compensation relied more on clinical productivity than on seniority, quality, academic contributions, or academic rank. Subsequently, five performance domains were identified to help divisions define divisional excellence: clinical, education, research, service & advocacy, and academic environment. Furthermore, excellent divisions were characterized as those with outstanding clinicians and educators who emphasize scholarly productivity. Although academic specialists contribute significantly to their departments' financial, clinical, and educational productivity, many have limited opportunities for scholarly activity. Achieving divisional excellence likely will depend on the ability to recruit and retain faculty with career expectations that align with the division's prioritized performance domains.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Ginecologia/tendências , Obstetrícia/tendências , Especialização/tendências , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Comitês Consultivos , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Feminino , Ginecologia/educação , Ginecologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Obstetrícia/educação , Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Gravidez , Sociedades Médicas
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735593

RESUMO

To examine changes in U.S. medical school basic science faculty over the last 20 years (1998-2018), we undertook an observational study utilizing data from the American Association of Medical Colleges Faculty Roster. Rank (Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor), sex (Female), and race/ethnicity (Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic, and White) were analyzed; this reflected a population of 14,047 (1998) to 18,601 (2018) faculty. Summary percent of faculty in various gender, race/ethnicity origin categories were analyzed across years of the study using regression models. We found that females (24.47% to 35.32%) were underrepresented at all timepoints and a minority of faculty identified as Black or African American (1.57% to 1.99%), Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic (3.03% to 4.44%), or Asian (10.90% to 20.41%). The largest population at all time points was White Male Professors (30.53% to 20.85%), followed by White Male Associate Professors (15.67% to 9.34%), and White Male Assistant Professors (13.22% to 9.75%). Small statistically significant increases were observed among female faculty and faculty at multiple ranks who identified as Black or African American or Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic. We then completed secondary analyses looking at the interaction of race/ethnicity and Gender. We found: (1) a significant increase (p<0.0001) in both genders who identify as Asian although males had a higher rate of increase (6 point difference, p<0.0001); (2) a significant increase for Black or African American females (P<0.01) not found among males; (3) significant increases (p<0.0001) among both genders of faculty who identify as Hispanic, Latino, Spanish Origin, or Multiple Race-Hispanic although females had an approximately 1% higher rate of increase; and (4) among faculty who identify as White, males had a significant decrease (p<0.0001) while females demonstrated an increase (p<0.0001).


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
4.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1483-1484, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675794

RESUMO

Women continue to be underrepresented in academic surgery, especially at the leadership level. Surgical culture has been historically male dominated and recently received negative attention for higher rates of mistreatment, sexual harassment, and attrition of women compared with other medical specialties. The authors examine factors that contribute to challenges in academic surgery, making it a potentially difficult environment for women and underrepresented minorities; these include surgical culture, work-life balance, and historic promotion timelines. Efforts to change social norms and structural biases are critical to improving gender parity in academic surgery.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Cultura Organizacional , Médicas/tendências , Sexismo , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/tendências , Escolha da Profissão , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/organização & administração , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/organização & administração
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502213

RESUMO

The teaching of professional roles in medical education is an interdisciplinary concern. However, surgeons require specific standards of professionalism for certain context-based situations. In addition to communication, studies require collaboration, leadership, error-/conflict-management, patient-safety and decision-making as essential competencies for surgeons. Standards for corresponding competencies are defined in special chapters of the German National Competency-based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM; chapter 8, 10). The current study asks whether these chapters are adequately taught in surgical curricula. Eight German faculties contributed to analysing mapping data considering surgical courses of undergraduate programs. All faculties used the MERlin mapping platform and agreed on procedures for data collection and processing. Sub-competency and objective coverage, as well as the achievement of the competency level were mapped. Overall counts of explicit citations were used for analysis. Collaboration within the medical team is a strongly represented topic. In contrast, interprofessional cooperation, particularly in healthcare sector issues is less represented. Patient safety and dealing with errors and complications is most emphasized for the Manager/Leader, while time management, career planning and leadership are not addressed. Overall, the involvement of surgery in teaching the competencies of the Collaborator and Manager/Leader is currently low. However, there are indications of a curricular development towards explicit teaching of these roles in surgery. Moreover, implicitly taught roles are numerous, which indicates a beginning awareness of professional roles.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Ensino/normas , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Liderança , Aprendizagem , Segurança do Paciente , Comportamento Social , Cirurgiões/psicologia
6.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 211-218, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, efforts have been made to ensure that the teachers of the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis (FMT) cite their affiliation to the FMT and the University of Tunis El Manar in addition to their hospital institutions and their research structure in their publications. AIMS: In this study, we proposed to evaluate the FMT's membership in the publications of its teachers, to identify the different types of publications and to estimate the real number. METHODS: In this bibliometric cross-sectional study, we retrieved the FMT publications indexed in medline/pubmed database (1964-June2019). We have chosen the keywords corresponding to the publications of group1 (referenced FMT) and group2 (referenced FMT or annexed hospital-university institutions). Next, we calculated the rate of group1 on group2 and sorted the different types of items in group2. Finally, We estimated, after randomization, the actual number of FMT publications for a 99% confidence interval (99% CI). RESULTS: For groups 1 and 2, 1477 and 5194 publications were retrieved, respectively. The FMT membership rate averaged 28% ranging from 4% (1990-2010) to 44% (2011-2019). Of the FMT publications, 30% were free of charge and 55% were original articles. After a draw for 300 group2 publications, the estimated number of total FMT publications was between 4519 and 4934 for a 99% CI. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to mention its affiliation to «the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis¼ and to «the University of Tunis El Manar¼ in order to improve the visibility and ranking of our two academic institutions.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/tendências , Editoração , Adulto , Bibliometria/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Educação Médica/história , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/história , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Publicações/história , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Editoração/história , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Editoração/provisão & distribução , Editoração/tendências
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 844-852, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year 2017 marked the first year women comprised a majority of U.S. medical school matriculants. While more women are pursuing surgical training, within plastic surgery, there is a steady attrition of women advancing in leadership roles. The authors report the current status of women in academic plastic surgery, from trainees to chairwomen and national leadership positions. METHODS: The Electronic Residency Applications Service, San Francisco Match, National Resident Matching Program, Association of American Medical Colleges, American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons, Plastic Surgery Education Network, and professional websites for journals and national societies were accessed for demographic information from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: The number of female integrated pathway applicants remained stable (30 percent), with an increased proportion of female residents from 30 percent to 40 percent. There was an increase in female faculty members from 14.6 percent to 22.0 percent, an increase of less than 1 percent per year. Twelve percent of program directors and 8.7 percent of department heads were women. Nationally, major professional societies and administrative boards demonstrated a proportion of female members ranging from 19 percent to 55 percent (average, 27.7 percent). The proportion of female committee leaders ranged from 0 percent to 50 percent (average, 21.5 percent). Only six societies have had female presidents. No major journal had had a female editor-in-chief. The proportion of female editorial board members ranged from 1 percent to 33 percent (average, 16.1 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The authors' study shows a leak in the pipeline at all levels, from trainees to faculty to leadership on the national stage. This report serves as a starting point for investigating reasons for the underrepresentation of talented women in plastic surgery leadership.


Assuntos
Liderança , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/tendências , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/tendências , Cirurgia Plástica/organização & administração , Cirurgia Plástica/tendências , Estados Unidos
8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(3): 280-287, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913403

RESUMO

Importance: Faculty diversity has important implications for improving the cultural competency and diversity of medical students and residents. However, dermatology is one of the least diverse fields in medicine. Objectives: To measure faculty diversity by sex, race, and ethnicity in academic dermatology departments in US medical schools and to evaluate how this representation compares with the diversity of the US population, medical students, department chairs, and faculty in other clinical departments. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster were evaluated to differentiate full-time faculty by sex and designation as a minority underrepresented in medicine (URM; currently including black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander individuals). Trends in female and URM representation among academic dermatology departments were analyzed from 1970 to 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The numbers and proportions of US dermatology department faculty by sex, race, and ethnicity. Results: The number of full-time US dermatology department faculty increased from 167 in 1970 to 1464 in 2018. The number of female faculty increased from 18 (10.8%) in 1970 to 749 (51.2%) in 2018; the number of URM faculty grew from 8 (4.8%) in 1970 to 109 (7.4%) in 2018. Proportions of female and white dermatology department faculty were similar to the US population in 2018; however, like other clinical departments, the proportion of URM faculty was lower than in the general population. There was an inverse association between increasing faculty rank and the proportion of female faculty overall, but this was not the case among URM faculty. At every rank, there was a proportionately low number of URM faculty represented. Across all specialties, department chairs were least diverse, with white individuals representing 79.7% (n = 2856 of 3585) of all chairs in 2018 and women representing 19.4% (n = 694 of 3585) of all chairs. Conclusions and Relevance: Expansion of faculty in US dermatology departments over the past half century has led to greater female representation, now similar to that in the general population. Higher-ranking faculty is associated with lower diversity. Although dermatology department faculty diversity by sex, race, and ethnicity has partially improved over the past 49 years, continued attention to the lagging representation of URM faculty should be a priority for the field of academic dermatology.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/educação , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Competência Cultural , Diversidade Cultural , Dermatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
9.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 241-247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tenure status has important implications for medical school faculty recruitment and retention and may affect educational quality, academic freedom, and collegiality. However, tenure trends in academic family medicine are unknown. This study aimed to describe trends in tenure status of family medicine faculty overall and by gender and status of minorities underrepresented in medicine (URM) in Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools. METHOD: Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster data were used to describe trends in tenure status of full-time family medicine faculty, 1977 to 2017. Bivariate and trend analyses were conducted to assess associations and describe patterns between tenure status and gender, race, and ethnicity. Interdepartmental variations in tenure trends over the years were also examined. RESULTS: Among family medicine faculty, the proportions of faculty tenured or on a tenure track dropped more than threefold from 1977 (46.6%; n = 507/1,089) to 2017 (12.7%; n = 729/5,752). Lower proportions of women and URM faculty were tenured or on a tenure track than male and non-URM faculty, respectively. But the gaps among them were converging. Compared with other clinical departments, family medicine had the highest proportion of faculty (74.6%; n = 4,291/5,752) not on a tenure track in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Proportion of tenure positions significantly decreased among family medicine faculty in U.S. medical schools. While gaps between male and female faculty and among certain racial/ethnic groups remained for family medicine tenure status, they have decreased over time, mainly because of a substantial increase in nontenured positions.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
10.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815169

RESUMO

The Faculty of Medicine of the Ruhr University Bochum (RUB) introduced a model study course in medicine (MSM) in the winter semester 2003. For 9 consecutive years, 42 out of 280 first year students at the Ruhr University Bochum had the opportunity to begin their studies in the model study course in medicine. The places were allocated amongst the applicants internally through a raffle. The MSM was consistently problem-, practice- and patient-oriented and largely did away with lectures, broke with the distinction between a pre-clinical and clinical phase and tested basic knowledge in equivalent integrated exams focusing on clinical application. Following a comparative evaluation of the standard degree course (RSM) and the MSM, the faculty merged the two degree courses into the Integrated Reformed Medical Curriculum (IRMC), which has been on offer since 2013 and is characterized by a topic-oriented hybrid curriculum. This article examines experiences relating to the origins, conception and introduction of the MSM.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
11.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815170

RESUMO

Objective: The Aachen model study course in medicine was developed in response to a negative appraisal of the Faculty of Medicine of the RWTH Aachen University by the Science Council in 2000. The aim is to create graduates who are capable of further training and can work in evidence-based and patient-centered health care while incorporating scientific findings. Methodology: In 2003 the medical degree was fully switched over to the model study course format. This means an annual cohort size of about 280 students. These go through a modularized and integrated curriculum, which is designed as a learning spiral. This requires a special interdisciplinary collaboration of teachers and curriculum planners. In addition to the modules, longitudinal elements such as workplace-based examinations, communication or practical skills are embedded in the curriculum. Results: The state exam results of the Aachen graduates have already improved significantly even for the first cohort and the university has been able to maintain an almost uninterrupted high level from 2008 to 2018. The students satisfaction with the model course is not only evident in the student course assessment and qualitative group discussions but also in various national rankings. Conclusion: The complete redesign of the course starting from the first semester onwards posed major challenges for all those involved in the faculty. The implementation of a completely reformed curriculum, such as the model study course, can only succeed through constructive cooperation of the various stakeholders at a faculty. The reorientation was able to address the major flaws of the 2002 report by the Science Council, student dissatisfaction and the poor performance in the nationwide state exams.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
12.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815171

RESUMO

Introduction: The University of Witten/Herdecke (UW/H) was founded in 1982 as the first privately run German university. In addition to economics, dentistry, a center for life sciences and the institute for general studies, the main focus from the inception of the University was the development of a model course in medical studies. Methodology: A description of the history of the development of medical studies in relation to the reasons for its founding, its founding ideals and their implementation; phases of development, transformations and influencing factors are presented in detail. External assessments are also used for this purpose. Result: The "Herdecke Model" was first implemented with the initial group of medical students in 1983. In the past 36 years the curriculum for medical education in Witten/Herdecke has evolved to meet internal and external requirements. The goals of the founders for a reform of medical studies and the founding ideals of the UW/H have continued to lead the University through a continuous reform process of medical training. From the first model of a reform degree course at UW/H 1983 to the current Model Study Course/Modellstudiengang (MSG 2018plus), these reforms have manifested themselves in four major phases spanning a 15 year period. Landmarks of the reforms include the first systematic introduction of problem-oriented learning in Germany, and clinical and practical training with real patients in both clinical and general medical elective blocks that far surpass the Medical Licensure Act's requirements. Additionally noteworthy are the introduction of PY training wards and the active participation and co-design role students may hold. Discussion: Due to the small size of UW/H, reforms can be tested quickly and implemented with ease and flexibility. This facilitates a "laboratory setting" for the testing of future-oriented innovations. The small size has allowed various concepts to be able to be used as models, thus serving as stimuli for larger change in medical studies in Germany.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
13.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815172

RESUMO

The Reformed Medical Curriculum (RMC) at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin was launched in autumn 1999, while medical schools in Canada, the United States, Scotland, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia already had adapted educational reforms in medical education many years before [1], [2]. For eleven years, 63 medical students per year trained at the Faculty in accordance with international standards governing the RMC. It was the first and perhaps most revolutionary reformed medical curriculum at a German university after the commencement of "Modellklausel", a new section in the Licensing Regulations for Doctors (Approbationsordnung für Ärztinnen und Ärzte) in 1999 that paved the way for fundamental reforms within undergraduate medical education in Germany. The idea was to establish and test a "pilot project of a fundamental reform of medical education in Germany" [3], thus aligning Germany with international developments and establishing a model for other reform initiatives. The first part of the article will provide an overview of how the RMC were able to emerge. It reports who initiated the project and why, who kept it running and encountered opposition and what were the social and political conditions. The second part of the article describes the principles that were fundamental for the development of the RMC. The third part illustrates the quality assurance measures, and the final section covers the termination of the RMC.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
14.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815173

RESUMO

Based on a six-year degree in medical studies which was characterized by a series of lectures without an over-arching concept, Basel decided to embark on reforms in 1995. The first wave of reforms (1998-2003) produced a hybrid curriculum structure with PbL teaching units, organized according to organ systems, in years 1-4 of medical studies, which met the demand for "clinical content in the pre-clinical phase". A focus on General Practice medicine was achieved by implementing the "One to one tutorial" in the 3rd and 4th year of studies. Fixed weekly schedules provided space for instruction in the three learning dimensions - cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning - implemented in four longitudinal competence strands. The compulsory elective subject area "Early patient contact" was integrated into the elective degree courses of the Bachelor's degree by creating projects. From 2006 to 2012, the demands of the Bologna Declaration were implemented and a Bachelor's and a "consecutive" Master's degree program developed and then implemented. The PbL teaching units which had come in for criticism were replaced in the Master's Degree by the "Clinical Case" and in the Bachelor's degree by the "Tutorial on Scientific and Clinical Reasoning". To strengthen scientific competences, the "Science Month" and the compulsory elective subject area "Scientific Competences - Flexible Offers (WIKO.flex)" were introduced. Further curricular adjustments resulted in the development of an externally accredited integrated emergency curriculum, the establishment of feedback OSCEs and the intensification of the Skills Lab offer. In addition to content, organizational framework conditions for curricular development were key: Thus, the massive expansion of places on medical degree courses also had an impact on curriculum structure and examinations. In 2017, PROFILES, the new Swiss competence framework, was published, which presents curriculum planning with new challenges as a result of the introduction of the EPA concept. Due to the flexible structure of the curriculum, the faculty feels confident it will be able to handle these challenges. The re-accreditation of the degree program in 2018 provided important stimuli for the strengthening of interprofessional teaching and a focus on the competent handling of an increasing number of patients asking for complementary medical treatments.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
15.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(5): Doc64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815174

RESUMO

Introduction: To date, hardly any reports exist that outline the reforms in medical studies in Switzerland from the first partial reforms in the 1970s until today. Methods: This article outlines the recent history of medical curricula, their reforms in the early 1970s and, based on these, the key reasons for the major curricular reforms of the 2000s from the perspective of the authors. Results: The various projects, initiatives and legislative elements at the national level include the introduction of new quality control instruments - federal examination and programme accreditation, the introduction of a national catalogue of learning objectives and its two follow-up editions, as well as the implementation of the Bologna reform in undergraduate medical curricula. Examples of the key new elements found in all medical training in Switzerland include: the interdisciplinary orientation of learning content in organ and functional system-oriented subject areas or modules, the enhanced valorisation of practical clinical training, as well as the introduction of problem-oriented formats and the integration of partly formative, partly summative exams according to the format of the objective structured practical examination (OSCE). Characteristics unique to the four medical faculties and their medical training programme are also highlighted. Discussion: The described projects, initiatives and legislative elements have led to a dynamic, continuous development of medical curricula in Switzerland. The close cooperation between the faculties and the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) has also resulted in a redefinition of the roles and responsibilities of universities and the Federal Government according to the new Law on Medical Professions. This guarantees the medical faculties a great deal of autonomy, without neglecting quality assurance.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Melhoria de Qualidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Suíça
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134 Suppl 1: 34S-39S, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the changing landscape in nontenured faculty, stratified by sex and underrepresented in medicine status, for obstetrician-gynecologists at all U.S. medical schools. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we used data from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster to identify trends in career pathways of full-time faculty at all U.S. MD-granting medical schools from 1978 to 2017. Proportions of nontenured faculty were compared with other clinical departments, according to sex and race-ethnicity. Two-sample t-testing and simple linear regression were used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: The number of full-time obstetrics and gynecology faculty increased from 1,688 to 6,347, with most being nontenured (from 535 to 4,951; 9.3-fold increase) rather than tenured (from 457 to 587; 1.3-fold increase) or tenure-eligible (from 397 to 514; 1.3-fold increase). The proportions of all faculty who were nontenured increased from 29.6% to 72.5% (a 2.5-fold increase; P<.010) for men and from 43.4% to 81.4% (a 1.9-fold increase; P<.01) for women. The proportion who were nontenured increased similarly for faculty who were underrepresented in medicine (from 27.4% to 83.5%; a 3.0-fold increase; P<.01) and for those who were not underrepresented in medicine (from 32.0% to 77.1%; a 2.4-fold increase; P<.01). Trends in the increased proportions of nontenured obstetrics and gynecology faculty were similar with those in other major clinical departments. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial rise in the number of obstetrics and gynecology faculty was largely among those who were nontenured, regardless of sex or underrepresented in medicine status. This finding signals the essential need for examining career development and academic accomplishment for promoting nontenured faculty.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Ginecologia/educação , Ginecologia/tendências , Humanos , Obstetrícia/educação , Obstetrícia/tendências , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(4): 869-873, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To monitor demographics and factors associated with quality of life among obstetrics and gynecology clerkship directors. A secondary goal was to compare current demographics and survey responses to a 1994 survey of clerkship directors. METHODS: A 36-item electronic survey was developed and distributed to the 182 U.S. clerkship directors with active memberships with the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Items queried respondents on demographics, attitudes about being a clerkship director, quality of life, and burnout. RESULTS: A total of 113 of the 182 (62%) clerkship directors responded to the survey. The mean full-time time equivalent allocated for clerkship director responsibilities was 25%. When compared with clerkship directors from 1994, current clerkship directors are younger, work fewer total hours per week, spend more time on patient care, and less time on research. Notably, 78% (87) of respondents were female compared with 21% (31) of respondents in 1994. Overall, most current clerkship directors responded optimistically to quality of life and burnout measures, with 25% (28) reporting symptoms of high emotional exhaustion and 17% (19) reporting symptoms of depersonalization. Clerkship directors' perception of support from their medical school was significantly correlated with increased personal fulfilment and positive quality of life, as well as decreased burnout and emotional exhaustion measures. CONCLUSION: The gender demographics of obstetrics and gynecology undergraduate medical education leadership have dramatically shifted over the past 25 years; however, many of the changes are not correlated with quality of life and burnout. The association between perceived support from the medical school and multiple quality of life measures point to the vital importance of support for our medical educators.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional , Estágio Clínico , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
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