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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(3): 177-184, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187776

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Diseñar y validar un modelo predictivo de mortalidad hospitalaria precoz (≤ 48 horas) en pacientes $ 65 años y basado en variables determinadas a nivel prehospitalario. MÉTODO: Estudio multicéntrico de cohorte prospectivo y observacional. Se incluyeron pacientes $ 65 años atendi¬dos por unidades de soporte vital avanzado y trasladados a un servicio de urgencias hospitalario. Se recogieron va-riables demográficas, clínicas y analíticas. Se construyó y validó una escala de puntuación mediante la categoriza¬ción de las variables seleccionadas mediante regresión logística en función de la mortalidad en ≤ 48 horas. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 1.759 pacientes, la edad mediana fue de 79 años (RIC 72-85), 766 eran mujeres (43,5%), y fallecieron 108 pacientes (6,1%) en ≤ 48 horas. El modelo predictivo -escala POAWS (Prehospital Older Adults Warning Score)- incluyó la edad, presión arterial sistólica, temperatura, saturación de oxígeno en relación con la frac¬ción inspirada de oxígeno, escala de coma de Glasgow y ácido láctico en sangre venosa. El área bajo la curva de la característica operativa del receptor para la mortalidad en ≤ 48 horas fue de 0,853 (IC 95%: 0,80-0,91; p < 0,001). La mortalidad en los pacientes de alto riesgo (> 7 puntos en la escala) fue del 69%. CONCLUSIONES: La escala POAWS desarrollada en el presente estudio puede ser de utilidad para estratificar el riesgo de muerte de los patientes de 65 o más años durante las 48 horas siguientes a la atención en el ámbito prehospitalario


OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prehospital risk model to predict early in-hospital mortality (󖽀 hours) in patients aged 65 years or older. METHODS: Prospective multicenter observational study in a cohort of patients aged 65 years or older attended by advanced life support emergency services and transferred to 5 Spanish hospitals between April 2018 and July 2019. We collected demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A risk score was constructed and validated based on the analysis of prehospital variables associated with death within 48 hours. Predictors were selected by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1759 patients were recruited. The median age was 79 years (interquartile range, 72-85 years), and 766 (43.5%) were women. One hundred eight patients (6.1%) died within 48 hours. Predictors in the Prehospital Older Adults Warning Scale (POAWS) were age, systolic blood pressure, temperature, the ratio of oxygen saturation to the fraction of inspired oxygen, score on the Glasgow coma scale, and lactic acid concentration in venous blood. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model to predict early mortality was 0.853 (95% CI, 0.80-0.91; P < .001). Mortality in patients at high risk (POAWS score, > 7) was 69%. CONCLUSIONS: The prehospital POAWS score can be used to stratify risk for death within 48 hours in patients aged 65 years or older


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Aguda/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar/métodos , Prognóstico , Mortalidade Prematura , Doença Aguda/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Intervalos de Confiança , Intervalo Livre de Doença
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(4): 625-630, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195649

RESUMO

Introduction. Iclaprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibiotic for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) due to Gram-positive pathogens.Aim. This analysis evaluates patients with wound infections from two Phase 3 trials of ABSSSI.Methodology. Six-hundred-two patients with wound infections from two Phase 3, double-blinded, randomized, multicenter, active controlled trials (REVIVE-1/-2) were evaluated in a post hoc analysis of iclaprim 80 mg compared with vancomycin 15 mg kg-1 administered intravenously every 12 h for 5-14 days. The primary endpoint was to determine whether iclaprim was non-inferior (10 % margin) to vancomycin in achieving a ≥20 % reduction from baseline in lesion size 48-72 h after starting study drug (early clinical response [ECR]). Safety was assessed.Results. In REVIVE-1, ECR was 83.5 % with iclaprim versus 79.7 % with vancomycin (treatment difference 3.77%, 95 % CI -4.50%, 12.04%). In REVIVE-2, ECR was 82.7 % with iclaprim versus 76.3 % with vancomycin (treatment difference 6.38%, 95 % CI -3.35%, 16.12%). In the pooled dataset, iclaprim had similar ECR rates compared with vancomycin among wound infection patients (83.2 % vs 78.2 %) with a treatment difference of 5.01 % (95 % CI -1.29%, 11.32%). The safety profile was similar in iclaprim- and vancomycin-treated patients, except for a higher incidence of diarrhea with vancomycin (n=17) compared with iclaprim (n=6) and fatigue with iclaprim (n=17) compared with vancomycin (n=8).Conclusion. Based on early clinical response, iclaprim achieved non-inferiority to vancomycin with a similar safety profile in patients with wound infections suspected or confirmed as caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Iclaprim may be a valuable treatment option for wound infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 59(2): 255-264, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute lower limb ischaemia (ALI) as a result of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) thrombosis represents a significant problem. The aim of this study was to investigate outcome of intra-operative intra-arterial thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischaemia due to PAA thrombosis in terms of major adverse limb events (MALE), overall survival, and intrahospital complications, especially those associated with bleeding. METHODS: A total of 156 patients with Rutherford grade IIa and IIb acute ischaemia resulting from PAA thrombosis were admitted between 1 January 2011 and 1 January 2017. The patients were divided into two groups, those who underwent additional treatment with intra-operative intra-arterial thrombolysis (20 patients), and those who did not (136 patients). By using covariables from baseline and angiographic characteristics, a propensity score was calculated for each patient. Each patient who underwent intra-operative thrombolysis was matched to four patients from the non-thrombolysis group. Thus, comparable patient cohorts (20 in the thrombolysis and 80 in the non-thrombolysis group) were identified for further analysis. The primary end point was MALE and the secondary endpoint all cause mortality. RESULTS: After a median follow up of 55 months, the estimated MALE rate was significantly lower in the thrombolysis group (30% vs. 65%, chi square = 10.86, p < .001, log rank test). Also, patients in the thrombolysis group had a significantly lower mortality rate (20% vs. 42.65%, chi square = 3.65, p = .05, log rank test). The thrombolysis group had wound/haematoma related interventions performed more commonly (25% in thrombolysis vs 8%, in non-thrombolysis group), but the difference was not significant (p=.013). There were no cases of major (intracranial and gastrointestinal) bleeding in either group. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that intra-operative thrombolysis in the treatment of selected patients with ALI due to PAA thrombosis has long term MALE and overall survival benefits, without a significant risk of major, life threatening bleeding complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/cirurgia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/terapia , Artéria Poplítea/patologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombose/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Doença Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Aneurisma/complicações , Aneurisma/mortalidade , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 65-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A waste disposal crisis occurred in Lebanon leading to the accumulation of garbage in the streets of Beirut. It is not clear whether such a limited crisis of improper waste disposal will lead to more diarrhea illnesses. The purpose of this study is to compare the rates of admissions due to diarrhea and characterize the illness among adults and children before, during and after the garbage crisis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is an observational retrospective in-patient chart review extending over four time intervals: pre-crisis, major crisis, minor crisis, and post-crisis periods. Hospital admissions due to diarrhea or gastroenteritis were included. Descriptive analysis of the following was done: characteristics of the present illness at the time of admission, stool and lab tests ordered and management of the diarrhea illness. RESULTS: There was an increase in admission rates due to diarrhea in the months of the crisis as compared to pre and post-crisis months. The severity of diarrheal illness and the management of admitted patients were almost the same across the four periods. Rota virus diarrheal outbreak was noted during the major crisis among children less than 2 years old, and adults above 18 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in the rates of admissions due to diarrhea during the garbage crisis, the severity of the diarrhea illness did not differ. This may indicate that physicians and patients were more worried and utilized more health services. However, Rota outbreaks may be more prominent with improper garbage disposal.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/economia , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Resíduos de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/economia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(1): 48-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313290

RESUMO

AIM: To give evidence-based recommendations on the application of ketogenic diet parenteral nutrition (KD-PN) in emergency situations. METHOD: An international group of experts (n=14) researched the literature and distributed a survey among 150 expert centers. International accepted guidelines (European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition) and handbooks for parenteral nutrition were considered general standards of care. RESULTS: In the literature, we identified 35 reports of patients treated by KD-PN. International guidelines and handbooks provided some conflicting information. Twenty-four expert teams from nine countries responded to the survey, reflecting the limited clinical experience. INTERPRETATION: This paper highlights 23 consensus-based recommendations for safe and effective KD-PN (e.g. diet initiation, calculation, application, monitoring, and evaluation) based on the best evidence available and expert opinions. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: In acute settings, ketogenic diet therapy (KDT) can be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration of KDT should be started only at the intensive care unit. Initiate ketogenic parenteral nutrition stepwise to the highest ratio possible with the lowest level of complications. Evaluate the risk-benefit ratio of parenteral administration continuously. Restart enteral feeding as soon as appropriate.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Dieta Cetogênica/normas , Nutrição Parenteral/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Criança , Humanos
8.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 168-175.e6, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a large, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of early colonoscopy on outcomes of patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (ALGIB). METHODS: We performed an open-label study at 15 hospitals in Japan of 170 patients with ALGIB randomly assigned (1:1) to groups that underwent early colonoscopy (within 24 hours of initial visit to the hospital) or elective colonoscopy (24-96 hours after hospital admission). The primary outcome was identification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Secondary outcomes were rebleeding within 30 days, endoscopic treatment success, need for transfusion, length of stay, thrombotic events within 30 days, death within 30 days, and adverse events. RESULTS: SRH were identified in 17 of 79 patients (21.5%) in the early colonoscopy group vs 17 of 80 patients (21.3%) in the elective colonoscopy group (difference, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, -12.5 to 13.0; P = .967). Rebleeding within 30 days of hospital admission occurred in 15.3% of patients in the early colonoscopy group and 6.7% of patients in the elective colonoscopy group (difference, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 18.7); there were no significant differences between groups in successful endoscopic treatment rate, transfusion rate, length of stay, thrombotic events, or death within 30 days. The adverse event of hemorrhagic shock occurred during bowel preparation in no patient in the early group vs 2 patients (2.5%) in the elective colonoscopy group. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled study, we found that colonoscopy within 24 hours after hospital admission did not increase SRH or reduce rebleeding compared with colonoscopy at 24-96 hours in patients with ALGIB. ClinicalTrials.gov, Numbers: UMIN000021129 and NCT03098173.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Doença Aguda/mortalidade , Doença Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Colo/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Japão , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(1)2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provision of high-quality care to acutely ill and injured children is a challenge to US hospitals because many have low pediatric volume. Delineating national trends in definitive pediatric acute care would inform improvements in care. METHODS: We analyzed emergency department (ED) visits by children between 2008 and 2016 in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a weighted sample of 20% of EDs nationally. For each hospital annually, we determined the Hospital Capability Index (HCI) to determine the frequency of definitive acute care, defined as hospitalization instead of ED transfer. Hospitals were classified annually according to 2008 HCI quartiles to understand shifts in pediatric capability. RESULTS: The national median HCI was 0.06 (interquartile range: 0.01-0.17) in 2008 and 0.02 (interquartile range: 0.00-0.09) in 2016 (P < .001). Definitive care became less common regardless of annual pediatric volume, urban or rural designation, or condition frequency. In 2016, 2171 EDs (49.0%) had HCIs <0.013, which represented the lowest 25% of ED HCIs in 2008. Pediatric visits to EDs categorized in the bottom 2008 capability quartile more than doubled from 2.5 million in 2008 to 5.3 million in 2016. Despite decreasing capability, centers with higher annual pediatric volume and urban centers provided more definitive inpatient care and had fewer inter-ED transfers than lower-volume and rural centers. CONCLUSIONS: Across the United States from 2008 to 2016, hospital provision of definitive acute pediatric care decreased, and ED visits to the hospitals least likely to provide definitive care increased. Systems improvements are needed to support hospital-based acute care of children.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/provisão & distribução , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Hospitais/tendências , Transferência de Pacientes/tendências , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
10.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44: 0-0, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186896

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir las características y la evolución de los pacientes con bronquiolitis ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Comparar el tratamiento administrado pre y pospublicación de la guía de práctica clínica de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo y observacional realizado entre septiembre de 2010 y septiembre de 2017. Configuración: Unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Menores de un año con bronquiolitis grave. Intervenciones: Se compararon 2 períodos (2010-14 y 2015-17), antes y después de la modificación del protocolo de manejo de la bronquiolitis en el hospital, según las guías de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Principales variables: Sexo, edad, comorbilidades, gravedad, etiología, tratamiento administrado, infecciones bacterianas, soporte respiratorio e inotrópico, estancia y mortalidad. Resultados: Se recogieron 706 pacientes, 414 (58,6%) varones, con una mediana de edad de 47 días (RIC 25-100,25). Mediana de escala de gravedad de bronquiolitis (BROSJOD) al ingreso: 9 puntos (RIC 7-11). La etiología por virus respiratorio sincitial se dio en 460 (65,16%) pacientes. El primer período (2010-14) incluyó 340 pacientes y el segundo (2015-17), 366 pacientes. En el segundo período se administraron más nebulizaciones de adrenalina y suero salino hipertónico, y más tratamiento con corticoides. Se usó más ventilación no invasiva y menos ventilación mecánica convencional y precisaron menos soporte inotrópico, sin diferencias significativas. La tasa de antibioterapia disminuyó de forma estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,003). Conclusiones: Pese a la disminución en la antibioterapia, se debería limitar la utilización de nebulizaciones y corticoides en estos pacientes, como recomienda la guía


Objective: To describe the characteristics and evolution of patients with bronchiolitis admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit, and compare treatment pre- and post-publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guide. Design: A descriptive and observational study was carried out between September 2010 and September 2017. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients: Infants under one year of age with severe bronchiolitis. Interventions: Two periods were compared (2010-14 and 2015-17), corresponding to before and after modification of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the management of bronchiolitis in hospital. Main variables: Patient sex, age, comorbidities, severity, etiology, administered treatment, bacterial infections, respiratory and inotropic support, length of stay and mortality. Results: A total of 706 patients were enrolled, of which 414 (58.6%) males, with a median age of 47 days (IQR 25-100.25). Median bronchiolitis severity score (BROSJOD) upon admission: 9 points (IQR 7-11). Respiratory syncytial virus appeared in 460 (65.16%) patients. The first period (2010-14) included 340 patients and the second period (2015-17) 366 patients. More adrenalin and hypertonic saline nebulizations and more corticosteroid treatment were administered in the second period. More noninvasive ventilation and less conventional mechanical ventilation were used, and less inotropic support was needed, with no significant differences. The antibiotherapy rate decreased significantly (P = .003). Conclusions: Despite the decrease in antibiotherapy, the use of nebulizations and glucocorticoids in these patients should be limited, as recommended by the guide


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Bronquiolite/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença Aguda/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias e Institutos/normas , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Algoritmos
11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1851-1858, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806943

RESUMO

Purpose: Early readmission rate has been regarded as an indicator of in-hospital and post-discharge quality of care. Evaluating the contributing factors is crucial to optimize the healthcare and target the intervention. In this study we evaluated the potential for preventing 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of older patients and identified possible risk factors for readmission. Patients and methods: Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) codes of patients consecutively hospitalized for acute disease in the Geriatrics Unit of the University Hospital of Pisa within a 1-year window were recorded. All the patients had received a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Crossing and elaboration of the DRG codes was performed by the Potentially Preventable Readmission Grouping software (3M™ Corporation). DRG codes were classified as stand-alone admissions (SA), index admissions (IA) and potentially preventable readmissions (PPR) within a time window of 30 days after discharge. Results: In total, 1263 SA and 171 IA were identified, with an overall PPR rate of 11.9%. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in IA and PPR than SA (p<0.05). The more frequent readmission causes were acute heart failure, pulmonary edema, sepsis, pneumonia and stroke. In acute heart failure a nonlinear U-shaped readmission trend (with nadir at 5 days of hospitalization) was observed while, in all the other DRG codes, the PPR rate increased with increasing length of hospitalization. Comprehensive geriatric assessment showed a significantly lower degree of disability and comorbidity in SA than IA patients. At stepwise regression analysis, a high degree of disability and comorbidity as well as the diagnosis of sepsis emerged as independent risk factors for PPR. Conclusion: Addressing PPR is crucial, especially in older patients. The adequacy of treatment during hospitalization (especially in cases of sepsis) as well as the setting of a comprehensive discharge plan, accounting for comorbidity and disability of the patients, are essential to reduce PPR.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Intern Med ; 58(22): 3213-3217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735735

RESUMO

Objective Acute cholangitis is occasionally life-threatening and requires immediate treatment. For the management of acute cases, globally accepted diagnostic criteria and the use of severity grading, as defined in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18), are recommended. This study was performed to explore the association between acute cholangitis and the level of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in blood as determined with a simple measurement method. Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients admitted for acute cholangitis and 14 healthy individuals were enrolled. Based on the TG18, the patients were categorized according to the degree of severity as Grade I, II, or III. We measured the amount of ATP in blood samples using a bioluminescence meter and evaluated the correlation with the degree of severity. Results The ATP/total hemoglobin (tHgb) level showed a significant decline in association with an increase in severity, as that in the healthy controls was 236.60 ± 8.10 and in the Grade I, II, and III groups was 238.56 ± 6.98, 186.88 ± 7.62, and 154.60 ± 11.01, respectively (p<0.01). While no significant difference was observed between the healthy controls and Grade I patients (p=0.649), there was a statistically significant difference between Grade I and Grade II (p<0.01) in the ATP/tHgb level. According to a receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve for ATP/tHgb, used as an index for predicting the need for emergency biliary drainage (Grade II, III cases), was the highest among various examined factors. Conclusion The present novel measurement method was found to be simple to perform and useful for detecting acute cholangitis patients with a low ATP level who may require emergency biliary drainage.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Colangite/sangue , Colangite/diagnóstico , Colangite/terapia , Drenagem/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tóquio
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 739, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because there is heterogeneity in disease types, competition among hospitals could be influenced in various ways by service provision for diseases with different characteristics. Limited studies have focused on this matter. This study aims to evaluate and compare the relationships between hospital competition and the expenses of prostatectomies (elective surgery, representing treatments of non-acute common diseases) and appendectomies (emergency surgery, representing treatments of acute common diseases). METHODS: Multivariable log-linear models were constructed to determine the association between hospital competition and the expenses of prostatectomies and appendectomies. The fixed-radius Herfindahl-Hirschman Index was employed to measure hospital competition. RESULTS: We collected data on 13,958 inpatients from the hospital discharge data of Sichuan Province in China from September to December 2016. The data included 3578 prostatectomy patients and 10,380 appendectomy patients. The results showed that greater competition was associated with a lower total hospital charge for prostatectomy (p = 0.006) but a higher charge for appendectomy (p <  0.001). The subcategory analysis showed that greater competition was consistently associated with lower out-of-pocket (OOP) and higher reimbursement for both surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: Greater competition was significantly associated with lower total hospital charges for prostatectomies, while the opposite was true for appendectomies. Furthermore, greater competition was consistently associated with lower OOP but higher reimbursement for both surgeries. This study provides new evidence concerning the heterogeneous roles of competition in service provision for non-acute and acute common diseases. The findings of this study indicate that the pro-competition policy is a viable option for the Chinese government to relieve patients' financial burden (OOP). Our findings also provide references and insights for other countries facing similar challenges.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Doença Aguda/economia , Idoso , China , Doença Crônica/economia , Assistência à Saúde , Competição Econômica , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde
14.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(3): 224-230, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643170

RESUMO

Berberine (BRB) is a compound belonging to the group of isoquinoline alkaloids of plant origin that has long been used in traditional chinese medicine (TMC). Due to, among others anti-inflammatory properties BRB is a potential therapeutic in the treatment of acute pancreatitis (OZT). In a study in the mouse model of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis, we showed that BRB administered by the intravenous route at 0.1 and 0.5 mg / kg body weight significantly reduces the level of myeloperoxidase activity (an indicator of inflammation) in the pancreas and lungs. Promising results point to the need for larger, randomized studies to assess the long-term efficacy and side effects of BRB therapy.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 766, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address deficits in the delivery of acute services in Ireland, the National Acute Medicine Programme (NAMP) was established in 2010 to optimise the management of acutely ill medical patients in the hospital setting, and to ensure their supported discharge to primary and community-based care. NAMP aims to reduce inappropriate hospital admissions, reduce length of hospital stay and ensure patients receive timely treatment in the most appropriate setting. It does so primarily via the development of Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) for the rapid assessment and management of medical patients presenting to hospitals, as well as streamlining the care of those admitted for further care. This study will examine the impact of this programme on patient care and identify the factors influencing its implementation and operation. METHODS: We will use a multistage mixed methods evaluation with an explanatory sequential design. Firstly, we will develop a logic model to describe the programme's outcomes, its components and the mechanisms of change by which it expects to achieve these outcomes. Then we will assess implementation by measuring utilisation of the Units and comparing the organisational functions implemented to that recommended by the NAMP model of care. Using comparative case study research, we will identify the factors which have influenced the programme's implementation and its operation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to guide data collection and analysis. This will be followed by an estimation of the impact of the programme on reducing overnight emergency admissions for potentially avoidable medical conditions, and reducing length of hospital stay of acute medical patients. Lastly, data from each stage will be integrated to examine how the programme's outcomes can be explained by the level of implementation. DISCUSSION: This formative evaluation will enable us to examine whether the NAMP is improving patient care and importantly draw conclusions on how it is doing so. It will identify the factors that contribute to how well the programme is being implemented in the real-world. Lessons learnt will be instrumental in sustaining this programme as well as planning, implementing, and assessing other transformative programmes, especially in the acute care setting.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Irlanda , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
Haemophilia ; 25(6): 1066-1072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The research was conducted at a UK teaching hospital and Haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC) as part of a research programme investigating physiotherapy for acute bleed management. AIM: The aim of the study was to understand the perspectives of people with haemophilia (PWH) on validated outcome measures (OM) and whether these measures capture changes relevant to them whilst recovering from an acute bleed episode. METHODS: Any person with haemophilia registered to the CCC who reported an acute bleed within the past 2 years was invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews or workshops (activity-focused discussions with small groups) were conducted with PWH who had received physiotherapy treatment in the previous two years. These were used to explore opinions of PWH of commonly used outcome measures. RESULTS: Eight male PWH participated, mean age 61 years, ranging between 39 and 71. Seven participants had severe haemophilia A and 1 had von Willebrands. Participants described numerical rating scales of pain as abstract and expressed a preference for verbal or visual descriptors. In relation to function, the men generally found haemophilia-specific OM to be more relevant. The EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ5D-5L) and Haemophilia and Exercise Project Test Questionnaire (HEP-Test-Q) were considered as good measures due to brevity and ability to capture relevant changes promptly. CONCLUSION: Participants in this study reported a preference for short OMs that allow them to reference their ability during the acute bleed episode in comparison with their normal function.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/complicações , Hemofilia B/complicações , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Afeto , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Dor/complicações , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(6): 1223-1235, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505937

RESUMO

Western medicine is routinely used in developed nations as well as in Eastern countries, where traditional medicine is frequently used by a selection of patients or family member as a complement to mainstream Western medicine. Chinese medicine plays an important role in the treatment of chronic diseases, especially when Western medicine is not very effective. Many published reports have shown that Chinese medicine could also be successfully used in the management of acute and critical illnesses. Chinese medicine has a holistic view of the human body, and emphasizes individualization based on body balance and mind-body interaction and employs herbal medicines and acupuncture. This review paper gives a brief overview of Chinese medicine theory and therapeutic modality and then addresses the application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute and critical medical conditions, including epidemics. Using this ancient therapy as a complementary medicine, the management of serious medical conditions, such as SARS, acute heart diseases, and ischemic cerebral stroke, are presented. In order to promote more widespread application of Chinese medicine, well-designed controlled clinical trials are urgently needed to prove its safety and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Terapia por Acupuntura , Artrite Gotosa/terapia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Pancreatite/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
18.
Am Fam Physician ; 100(6): 350-356, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524361

RESUMO

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, otorrhea, anorexia, and sometimes vomiting or lethargy. AOM is diagnosed in symptomatic children with moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane or new-onset otorrhea not caused by acute otitis externa, and in children with mild bulging and either recent-onset ear pain (less than 48 hours) or intense erythema of the tympanic membrane. Treatment includes pain management plus observation or antibiotics, depending on the patient's age, severity of symptoms, and whether the AOM is unilateral or bilateral. When antibiotics are used, high-dose amoxicillin (80 to 90 mg per kg per day in two divided doses) is first-line therapy unless the patient has taken amoxicillin for AOM in the previous 30 days or has concomitant purulent conjunctivitis; amoxicillin/clavulanate is typically used in this case. Cefdinir or azithromycin should be the first-line antibiotic in those with penicillin allergy based on risk of cephalosporin allergy. Tympanostomy tubes should be considered in children with three or more episodes of AOM within six months or four episodes within one year with one episode in the preceding six months. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccines and exclusive breastfeeding until at least six months of age can reduce the risk of AOM.


Assuntos
Otite Média/terapia , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ventilação da Orelha Média/métodos , Otite Média/diagnóstico , Otite Média/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e16618, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of probiotics and synbiotics for acute diarrhea (AD) in children and investigated probiotic formulations, types of interventions, and country factors. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effects of probiotics or synbiotics on AD were analyzed. We followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risks of systematic errors (bias) and random errors were assessed, and the overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 34 studies with 4911 patients. Five and 29 studies presented the results of synbiotic and probiotic interventions, respectively. After intervention, the durations of diarrhea (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -16.63 [-20.16; -12.51]) and hospitalization (risk ratio (RR) = 0.59 [0.48; 0.73]) were shorter, the stool frequency on day 3 (WMD = -0.98 [-1.55; -0.40]) was decreased, and the incidence of diarrhea lasting 3 days was lower in the probiotic and synbiotic groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, in the subgroup analyses, synbiotics were more effective than probiotics at reducing the durations of diarrhea and hospitalization, and Saccharomyces and Bifidobacterium were more effective than Lactobacillus at reducing the duration of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis supports the potential beneficial roles of probiotics and synbiotics for AD in children. Further research is needed to determine problems associated with probiotic/synbiotic mixtures and appropriate dosages.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos , Doença Aguda/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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