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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092095

RESUMO

Recent research using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) demonstrated an association between maternal grandmother smoking in pregnancy and the autistic traits of impaired social communication and repetitive behaviour in granddaughters but not grandsons, but of paternal grandmother smoking and early development of myopia in the grandchild. Here we investigate whether grandmaternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with intolerance to loud sounds. ALSPAC collected information during the index pregnancy from the study parents on the smoking habits, social and other features of their own parents. Maternal report when the child was aged 6 and 13 included hating loud sounds; at age 11 the child was tested for volume preference for listening to music through headphones. Statistical analysis compared results for grandchildren in relation to whether a parent had been exposed in utero to maternal smoking, adjusted for their grandparents' social and demographic attributes. We hypothesised that there would be sex differences in the effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking, based on previous intergenerational studies. For 6-year-old children maternal report of intolerance to loud noise was more likely in grandsons if the maternal grandmother had smoked [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03,1.56; P = 0.025], but less likely in girls [AOR 0.82; 95%CI 0.63,1.07] Pinteraction <0.05. If the paternal grandmother had smoked the grandchildren were less likely to be intolerant, especially girls. The objective measure of choice of volume for music through headphones showed that grandsons of both maternal and paternal smoking grandmothers were less likely to choose high volumes compared with granddaughters (P<0.05). In line with our prior hypothesis of sex differences, we showed that grandsons were more intolerant of loud sounds than granddaughters particularly at age 6, and this was confirmed by objective measures at age 11.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Avós , Relação entre Gerações , Som/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
2.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(1): 15-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456245

RESUMO

Functional - or somatoform - symptoms are those that arise with no proven organic pathology. Also known as 'medically unexplained' symptoms, they can present in any medical speciality, including dermatology. Mucocutaneous pain syndromes and functional pruritus are two examples of functional disorders encountered by dermatologists. Patients presenting with somatoform symptoms have paradoxically complex and often subjectively severe symptomatology, yet minimal abnormalities on clinical examination or investigation. Such disparity can be frustrating and distressing for patients and clinicians alike, and there are many pitfalls regarding overinvestigation and misleading communication. However, with an honest and open approach - sometimes requiring collaboration with psychological services - management of functional symptoms can be effective, and patients can be successfully rehabilitated.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Doença Ambiental/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes , Anafilaxia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Prurido/diagnóstico
3.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(1): 20-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468592

RESUMO

Functional disorders within dermatology present as various constellations of skin symptoms, but without evidence of organic pathology. Examples can include mucocutaneous pain syndromes, functional pruritus, somatoform pain disorder and rarer entities, such as undifferentiated somatoform idiopathic anaphylaxis and multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. These conditions can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, and can present challenges in communication, investigation and management. The aetiology of functional disorders is not fully understood, but with an effective collaborative approach, a psychological explanation for these symptoms is often found. A structured approach to assessment can lead to a confident diagnosis, and understanding a patient's belief system and the impact of symptoms on their functioning can give better grounding for successful management. Treatment is dependent on the level of the patient's engagement with healthcare professionals, and often takes a measured and rehabilitative approach. Psychological therapies have been shown to be effective, often alongside both psychopharmacological and topical medications.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Dor Crônica , Doença Ambiental , Prurido , Transtornos Somatoformes , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/terapia , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/terapia , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Doença Ambiental/terapia , Humanos , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/terapia , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2019-12-18.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51782

RESUMO

[Introduction]. Climate change and other environmental changes are among the main factors that have led to the emergence or reemergence of vector-borne diseases. These factors may increase the geographical distribution of these diseases and extend the transmission season, which influences the morbidity and mortality they cause. Infectious diseases have a significant impact on public health in the Region of the Americas. For example, in 2017 a total of 483,208 cases of dengue causing 253 deaths were reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). That same year, more than 180,000 cases of chikungunya were also reported, and there were 583,451 suspected and 223,477 confirmed cases of Zika between 1 January 2015 and 4 January 2018, with 20 confirmed deaths and 3,720 confirmed cases of congenital Zika syndrome. Given this impact, a number of integrated multisectoral approaches must be incorporated into vector surveillance and control strategies. These approaches should include initiatives that promote healthy environments, such as better and safer management of solid waste, water, and sewage to ensure the continuity and quality of service, and the proper management of chemical residues from vector control activities. This publication offers key interventions to promote vector surveillance and control activities that emphasize environmental health, using interprogrammatic and intersectoral approaches.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Doença Ambiental , Controle de Vetores , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Saúde Ambiental , Saneamento , Cidade Saudável , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007851, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730639

RESUMO

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is associated with chronic undernutrition. Efforts to identify minimally invasive biomarkers of EED reveal an expanding number of candidate analytes. An analytic strategy is reported to select among candidate biomarkers and systematically express the strength of each marker's association with linear growth in infancy and early childhood. 180 analytes were quantified in fecal, urine and plasma samples taken at 7, 15 and 24 months of age from 258 subjects in a birth cohort in Peru. Treating the subjects' length-for-age Z-score (LAZ-score) over a 2-month lag as the outcome, penalized linear regression models with different shrinkage methods were fitted to determine the best-fitting subset. These were then included with covariates in linear regression models to obtain estimates of each biomarker's adjusted effect on growth. Transferrin had the largest and most statistically significant adjusted effect on short-term linear growth as measured by LAZ-score-a coefficient value of 0.50 (0.24, 0.75) for each log2 increase in plasma transferrin concentration. Other biomarkers with large effect size estimates included adiponectin, arginine, growth hormone, proline and serum amyloid P-component. The selected subset explained up to 23.0% of the variability in LAZ-score. Penalized regression modeling approaches can be used to select subsets from large panels of candidate biomarkers of EED. There is a need to systematically express the strength of association of biomarkers with linear growth or other outcomes to compare results across studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Doença Ambiental/patologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/patologia , Bioestatística , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Peru
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-09-23.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51563

RESUMO

[Introducción]. El clima y otros cambios ambientales son algunos de los principales factores que han concurrido para que aparecieran o reaparecieran enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETV). Estos factores pueden expandir la distribución geográfica de dichas enfermedades y extender la temporada de transmisión, con lo que influyen en la morbilidad y mortalidad de estas enfermedades. Las enfermedades infecciosas tienen una repercusión importante en la salud pública de la Región de las Américas. Por ejemplo, en 2017 se notificó a la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) que hubo un total de 483.208 casos de dengue y 253 muertes por esta causa. Ese mismo año también se notificaron más de 180.000 casos de chikunguña, y el número acumulado de casos presuntos o confirmados de zika en el período comprendido entre 1 de enero 2015 y el 4 de enero de 2018 fue de 583.451 y 223.477, respectivamente, con 20 muertes confirmadas y 3.720 casos confirmados de síndrome congénito por el virus de Zika. Considerando estos impactos, será necesario incorporar múltiples enfoques integrales y multisectoriales en las estrategias de vigilancia y control de vectores. En dichos enfoques se deberán tomar en cuenta iniciativas que promuevan entornos saludables, por ejemplo, mediante la mejora de la gestión de los residuos sólidos, la gestión segura del agua y el saneamiento a fin de garantizar la continuidad y la calidad de los servicios, y el manejo adecuado de los residuos químicos que se usan en el control de vectores, entre otros. En esta publicación se presentan algunas orientaciones clave para promover acciones de vigilancia y control de vectores que pongan énfasis en las intervenciones en materia de salud ambiental, utilizando enfoques interprogramáticos e intersectoriales.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Saúde Ambiental , Doença Ambiental , Controle de Vetores , Saneamento , Higiene , Cidade Saudável , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental
8.
Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor ; 26(4): 243-246, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191041

RESUMO

El síndrome de sensibilidad química múltiple (SQM), también conocido como intolerancia ambiental idiopática (IAI), entre otros, es un desorden complejo y mal definido que produce diversos síntomas en respuesta a diferentes estímulos. No hay estudios válidos que establezcan la patogénesis de este síndrome. El manejo anestésico de estos pacientes es un reto para los anestesiólogos, dado que no hay unas pautas de actuación establecidas. Se presenta un caso de cirugía exitosa en una paciente afecta de SQM realizándose una anestesia total intravenosa (TIVA) convencional a la que se añadió una premedicación exhaustiva y la aplicación del protocolo de alergia al látex


The multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS), also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance (IAI), among others, is a complex and poorly defi ned disorder that produces various symptoms in response to various stimuli. There is a lack of valid studies that establish the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The anesthetic management of these patients is a challenge for anesthesiologists, due to the fact that there are no established guidelines. We present a case of successful surgery in a patient that suffers from MCS by performing a conventional TIVA enhanced with a thorough premedication and the latex allergy protocol


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/complicações , Anestesia/métodos , Histerectomia/métodos , Anexos Uterinos/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Doença Ambiental/complicações , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anexos Uterinos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Hipersensibilidade ao Látex/prevenção & controle
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264922

RESUMO

Main purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of selected heavy elements (As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Co, Cr and Ni) in the street dust samples (n = 49) collected from seven districts located in suburban/urban zone of Tianjin in order to estimate their possible sources and degree of environmental pollution as well as human health risk. Mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of As (19.3), Cd (0.60), Pb (28.4) and Cu (62.7) were above their corresponding soil background values. According to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, the accumulation of As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr in street dust was affected by anthropogenic activities, while the contents of Ni and Co were associated with natural sources. Pollution degree by geo-accumulation index had the following trend: Cd > Cu > As > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Dust contamination with Cd ranged from unpolluted to highly polluted. Potential ecological risk indicated low (Pb, Cu, Cr, Co and Ni) to high (Cd) risk, while potential risk index showed moderate and very high risks. Non-carcinogenic risk of the studied elements was below safe level (<1). Data obtained in this investigation gave the additional values to the knowledge needed for future monitoring and risk assessment, relating the presence of heavy elements studied in suburban/urban areas.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Solo/química , População Suburbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização
10.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 219(5): 260-265, jun.-jul. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186562

RESUMO

El cambio climático consiste fundamentalmente en el calentamiento del planeta, que tiene lugar como consecuencia del llamado efecto invernadero. Ese efecto lo ocasionan determinados gases, entre los que destaca el anhídrido carbónico (CO2), producido principalmente durante la combustión de las fuentes de energía fósiles, como el carbón o el petróleo. El calentamiento del planeta supone una grave amenaza para la población del futuro, ya que puede ocasionar una considerable elevación del nivel del mar, una mayor frecuencia e intensidad de fenómenos meteorológicos extremos, e incluso la desaparición de determinadas especies de animales y plantas. En el terreno de la salud es previsible que provoque un gran aumento de la incidencia de enfermedades como los golpes de calor o las infecciones trasmitidas por vectores, tal y como ya se está empezando a observar. Por ello todos los países del mundo deben adoptar las medidas necesarias para reducir drásticamente las emisiones de gases productores del efecto invernadero. Además, los profesionales de la salud debemos adoptar un papel activo, que ayude a concienciar a nuestra sociedad sobre la gravedad del problema, y que haga que los sistemas sanitarios estén suficientemente preparados para afrontar el incremento de enfermedades que es previsible que se produzca. En ese sentido, la Sociedad Española de Medina Interna ha decidido dar un paso al frente, con su incorporación al proyecto plurinacional Lancet Countdown. La Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna es la primera entidad española en sumarse a esa iniciativa


Climate change consists mainly of global warming, a result of the so-called greenhouse effect, which is caused by certain gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), produced mainly through the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. Global warming is a severe threat for future populations because it can cause a considerable rise in sea levels, a greater frequency and intensity of extreme meteorological phenomena and even the extinction of certain animal and plant species. In the field of health, global warming is predicted to cause a considerable increase in the incidence of diseases such as heat stroke and vector-borne infections, the start of which has already been observed. All countries of the world must therefore adopt the necessary measures to drastically reduce the emission of gases that produce a greenhouse effect. Additionally, healthcare practitioners should assume an active role in helping to raise awareness in our society about the severity of the problem and ensuring that healthcare systems are duly prepared to address the increase in disease rates predicted for global warming. The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) has decided to step forward, with its incorporation into the multinational project Lancet Countdown. SEMI is the first Spanish organisation to join this initiative


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Prevenção de Doenças , Estratégias Mundiais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global/tendências
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177909

RESUMO

Preschool children have a higher respiratory rate per unit body weight than adults, and their respiratory systems are not mature. Hence, children may have more health risks associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, we assessed the exposure of preschool children and their caregivers to PM and the resulting health risks. The PM concentrations at heights of 60-80 cm (preschool children) and 150 cm (adults) were measured at ten indoor and eight outdoor sites in the Taipei metropolitan area from March 2015 to February 2017. Four PM2.5 and seven PM10 indoor measurements exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan, whereas only two PM2.5 outdoor measurements exceeded the ambient air quality standard. The outdoor PM concentrations were related to traffic emissions, whereas the indoor PM concentrations were associated with ventilation rate and occupant density. The chronic daily PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 intakes of preschool children were notably higher than those of adults. In addition, the hazard quotient resulting from PM2.5 exposure indicated a significant health risk for preschool children (93.74% greater than 1). Consequently, reducing the exposure of preschool children to PM2.5 is an emerging issue in the Taipei metropolitan area.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Therapie ; 74(6): 611-625, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several publications have highlighted the adverse effects of chlordecone on human and animal species. The possible long-term consequences continue to be explored as chlordecone still contaminates Caribbean soils. The objective of this literature review is to determine the long-term effects of chlordecone on human health. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We searched for the keyword "chlordecone" on different scientific databases: Medline®, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EM Premium. We have enriched our research with first degree references, related articles on PubMed and grey literature. RESULTS: Of the 192 articles analyzed, 12 responded to the impact of chlordecone on human health in the French West Indies. In obstetrics, exposure to chlordecone was associated with a lower incidence of gestational hypertension. In pediatrics, these studies have shown an association between prenatal exposure to chlordecone and increased risk of prematurity, decreased birth weight (especially when the mother gained excessive weight during pregnancy), decreased fine cognitive and motor acquisition, and changes in circulating concentrations of certain thyroid hormones. In oncology, exposure was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly if there was a family history of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: While the effects of acute exposure to chlordecone at high doses are well described (Kepone Shake syndrome at the time of the Hopewell accident), the effects at environmental doses are becoming clearer even if they remain complex to identify.


Assuntos
Clordecona/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
13.
Rev Med Interne ; 40(10): 645-653, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional somatic syndromes, grouping somatic symptoms without an organic explanation, are defined either by their predominant symptoms or by an attribution to an, often hypothetical, cause. Due to many similarities, some authors consider that there is only one FSS due to a general phenomenon of "somatization". The objective of this work was to compare two functional somatic syndromes, one defined by its symptoms, fibromyalgia, and the other by a specific contested attribution, electro-hypersensitivity. METHOD: Fibromyalgia or electro-hypersensitive participants (EHS) were recruited from September 2016 to April 2017 through associations of patients in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. Home interviews included the collection of medical, psychopathological, and symptom histories. The assessment of psychological distress, quality of life and the search for other functional somatic syndromes was performed through structured questionnaires, self-administrated scales, and clinical examination. RESULTS: Sixteen fibromyalgia subjects and sixteen EHS subjects were included. There are differences in symptomatology, although many symptoms are common to both conditions. Lifetime history of psychiatric disorders and current psychological distress and psychopathology are frequent in both groups but more prevalent in fibromyalgia subjects. The experience of the symptoms, their interpretation, the diagnostic itineraries and the therapeutic behaviours differ radically according to the group, even if for all socio-professional impact is high and quality of life are altered. CONCLUSION: The health status of fibromyalgia persons is overall worse than the health status of electro-hypersensitive individuals in this small sample. Despite the overlap in symptoms and a similar impact on daily functioning, this exploratory study suggests that heterogeneous mechanisms of "somatization" may be at stake in functional somatic syndromes.


Assuntos
Radiação Eletromagnética , Doença Ambiental/psicologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Doença Ambiental/terapia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/terapia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Síndrome
14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 97(9): 296-322, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273429

RESUMO

Rates of allergy-test positivity vary by country and by regions within countries. Several studies have looked at allergy test results to determine the most common allergens. Many of these studies have been based on surveys or on studies of small numbers of tests. Positivity rates for allergy tests are poorly defined in the northern midwestern region of the United States. We conducted a study to identify the rates of positive allergy tests for both inhalant/respiratory allergens and food allergens in the upper Midwest. We extracted from our laboratory database the results of all test samples sent for one of eight allergen panels that had been analyzed between Sept. 1, 2014, and Sept. 1, 2015. All testing was performed at The Cleveland Clinic with the Phadia ImmunoCAP system. The percentage of positive tests, the distribution of the most frequently positive tests, and the class of in vitro responses were identified. A total of 148,628 test results for 63 different allergens were identified. Of the 125,190 tests for inhalant/respiratory allergens, the most frequently positive were dog dander (24% of tests), cat dander (23%), dust mites (23% for both Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), and June grass (21%). Of the 23,438 food tests, the most frequently positive test results were for milk (18%), peanut (17%), wheat (16%), and egg white (15%). Most of the results fell into classes 1 through 3, although there was still a notable number of very high responses (class 5 and 6). These findings suggest that there is wide variability in the positivity of in vitro allergy tests and that the likelihood of a positive result in screening panels can be estimated. Evaluating such rates will help identify the most and least common allergens and will help to cost-effectively refine allergy screening panels.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Gatos , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Cães , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Poaceae/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae , Testes Cutâneos , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/epidemiologia
15.
Cell ; 175(1): 277-291.e31, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241608

RESUMO

Human health is dependent upon environmental exposures, yet the diversity and variation in exposures are poorly understood. We developed a sensitive method to monitor personal airborne biological and chemical exposures and followed the personal exposomes of 15 individuals for up to 890 days and over 66 distinct geographical locations. We found that individuals are potentially exposed to thousands of pan-domain species and chemical compounds, including insecticides and carcinogens. Personal biological and chemical exposomes are highly dynamic and vary spatiotemporally, even for individuals located in the same general geographical region. Integrated analysis of biological and chemical exposomes revealed strong location-dependent relationships. Finally, construction of an exposome interaction network demonstrated the presence of distinct yet interconnected human- and environment-centric clouds, comprised of interacting ecosystems such as human, flora, pets, and arthropods. Overall, we demonstrate that human exposomes are diverse, dynamic, spatiotemporally-driven interaction networks with the potential to impact human health.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Ecossistema , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Humanos
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1622018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040294

RESUMO

The effects of air pollution on health have been generating attention for years. A large number of pulmonologists have recently expressed concerns about this in an open letter to Dutch Members of Parliament. Air pollution arises mainly in all kinds of combustion processes; in addition, atmospheric chemical reactions play a role in the formation of ozone and particulate matter. Health effects are both acute (increase in daily mortality and morbidity after days with increased concentrations of air pollution) as well as chronic (shortened life span and increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in areas with elevated concentrations of air pollution). These effects already occur at concentrations that are clearly lower than those currently observed in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Doença Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
J Proteomics ; 187: 106-125, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017948

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to heavy metals such as Pb, As, and MeHg can be associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Our in vitro bioassays results showed the potency of heavy metals in the order of Pb < As < MeHg on hippocampal cells. The main objective of this study was combining in vitro label free proteomics and systems biology approach for elucidating patterns of biological response, discovering underlying mechanisms of Pb, As, and MeHg toxicity in hippocampal cells. The omics data was refined by using different filters and normalization and multilevel analysis tools were employed to explore the data visualization. The functional and pathway visualization was performed by using Gene ontology and PathVisio tools. Using these all integrated approaches, we identified significant proteins across treatments within the mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, ubiquitin proteome dysfunction, and mRNA splicing related to neurodegenerative diseases. The systems biology analysis revealed significant alterations in proteins implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current proteomics analysis of three metals support the insight into the proteins involved in neurodegeneration and the altered proteins can be useful for metal-specific biomarkers of exposure and its adverse effects. SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics techniques have been claimed to be more sensitive than the conventional toxicological assays, facilitating the measurement of responses to heavy metals (Pb, As, and MeHg) exposure before obvious harm has occurred demonstrating their predictive value. Also, proteomics allows for the comparison of responses between Pb, As, and MeHg metals, permitting the evaluation of potency differences hippocampal cells of the brain. Hereby, the molecular information provided by pathway and gene functional analysis can be used to develop a more thorough understanding of each metal mechanism at the protein level for different neurological adverse outcomes (e.g. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases). Efforts are put into developing proteomics based toxicity testing methods using in vitro models for improving human risk assessment. Some of the key proteins identified can also potentially be used as biomarkers in epidemiologic studies. These heavy metal response patterns shed new light on the mechanisms of mRNA splicing, ubiquitin pathway role in neurodegeneration, and can be useful for the development of molecular biomarkers of heavy metals exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Doença Ambiental/induzido quimicamente , Doença Ambiental/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/patologia , Hipocampo/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica
18.
Thorax ; 73(11): 1026-1040, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Improved biomass cookstoves may help reduce the substantial global burden of morbidity and mortality due to household air pollution (HAP) that disproportionately affects women and children in low and middle income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of (quasi-)experimental studies identified from 13 electronic databases (last update: 6 April 2018), reference and citation searches and via expert consultation. SETTING: LMICs PARTICIPANTS: Women and children INTERVENTIONS: Improved biomass cookstoves MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, perinatal mortality, paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and COPD among women. RESULTS: We identified 53 eligible studies, including 24 that met prespecified design criteria. Improved cookstoves had no demonstrable impact on paediatric lower ARIs (three studies; 11 560 children; incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.24)), severe pneumonia (two studies; 11 061 children; IRR=0.88 (95% CI 0.39 to 2.01)), LBW (one study; 174 babies; OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.66)) or miscarriages, stillbirths and infant mortality (one study; 1176 babies; risk ratio (RR) change=15% (95% CI -13 to 43)). No (quasi-)experimental studies assessed preterm birth or COPD. In observational studies, improved cookstoves were associated with a significant reduction in COPD among women: two studies, 9757 participants; RR=0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.90). Reductions in cough (four studies, 1779 participants; RR=0.72 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.87)), phlegm (four studies, 1779 participants; RR=0.65 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.80)), wheezing/breathing difficulty (four studies; 1779 participants; RR=0.41 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.59)) and conjunctivitis (three studies, 892 participants; RR=0.58 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.78)) were observed among women. CONCLUSION: Improved cookstoves provide respiratory and ocular symptom reduction and may reduce COPD risk among women, but had no demonstrable child health impact. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42016033075.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Criança , Culinária/instrumentação , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental , Saúde da Mulher , Países em Desenvolvimento , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Doença Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 32(3): 283-297, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779582

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that alter the structure and function of the endocrine system and may be contributing to disorders of the reproductive, metabolic, neuroendocrine and other complex systems. Typically, these outcomes cannot be modeled in cell-based or other simple systems necessitating the use of animal testing. Appropriate animal model selection is required to effectively recapitulate the human experience, including relevant dosing and windows of exposure, and ensure translational utility and reproducibility. While classical toxicology heavily relies on inbred rats and mice, and focuses on apical endpoints such as tumor formation or birth defects, EDC researchers have used a greater diversity of species to effectively model more subtle but significant outcomes such as changes in pubertal timing, mammary gland development, and social behaviors. Advances in genomics, neuroimaging and other tools are making a wider range of animal models more widely available to EDC researchers.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Ambiental/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/patologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doença Ambiental/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/fisiologia
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