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1.
Kardiologiia ; 60(12): 125-132, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522477

RESUMO

In this manual, the authors focused on the principal methods for diagnosis of peripheral artery disease in cardiological patients, from the interview and physical examination to functional tests and vascular visualization. Diagnostic and prognostic value of each method, its potentialities for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE), including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke (IS) or extremity amputation in critical ischemia, and overall mortality are discussed. The authors provided current information about a possibility of reducing the risk of CVE by intensifying the antithrombotic therapy according to results of the COMPASS study.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Isquemia Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Isquemia , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Clin Imaging ; 69: 172-178, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence, location and clinical relevance of extravascular findings (EVFs) on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the run-off vasculature. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed run-off MRAs of 194 consecutive patients (45 women and 149 men, median age 68 years, IQR 58-74 years). Our patient cohort consisted predominantly of individuals with known (n = 165, 85%) or suspected (n = 15, 8%) peripheral artery disease (PAD). All MRA examinations were performed between 2012 and 2018 on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner using a standardized protocol. Two radiologists re-evaluated the MRA images to identify EVFs, which were classified into findings with major (category I), moderate (category II) and minor (category III) clinical significance. RESULTS: A total of 501 EVFs were found in 172 of the 194 patients (89%). Twenty-seven findings (5%) were assigned to category I, 189 (38%) to category II and 285 (57%) to category III. 23 of 194 patients (12%) had at least one EVF with major clinical relevance (category I). Most of the 27 category I EVFs were observed in the soft tissues (n = 13, 48%). The remaining category I EVFs were found in the musculoskeletal (n = 7, 26%), urogenital (n = 4, 15%), lymphatic (n = 2, 7%) and gastrointestinal (n = 1, 4%) system. The majority of the category I EVFs were infectious (n = 14, 52%) or neoplastic (n = 10, 37%) pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant EVF can be encountered frequently on run-off MRA examinations. These results illustrate the importance of evaluating all organ systems when reporting MRA examinations, despite the clinical focus being the patients' vascular status.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Doença Arterial Periférica , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327401

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Peripheral arterial disease affecting lower limb arteries is one of the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. The frailty syndrome (Frailty) is a problem associated with diminution of physiological reserves. The ankle-brachial index is a commonly used tool for diagnosing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The usefulness of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is limited in people with diabetes because of calcification of the middle layer of arteries. In this population, toe-brachial index should be measured. Frailty may be associated with worse prognosis for patients undergoing revascularization. Amputation may be an important factor leading to the development of Frailty. The risk of amputation and the prognosis after revascularization may be modified by some medications and blood glucose levels. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about the association between PAD, especially in patients living with diabetes and Frailty.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Fragilidade , Doença Arterial Periférica , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003467, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is closely linked with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but recent studies suggest that it is also a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. However, the brain changes underlying this risk are unclear. We examined whether aortic stiffening during a 4-year follow-up in mid-to-late life was associated with brain structure and cognition in the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Whitehall II Imaging cohort is a randomly selected subset of the ongoing Whitehall II Study, for which participants have received clinical follow-ups for 30 years, across 12 phases. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured in 2007-2009 (Phase 9) and at a 4-year follow-up in 2012-2013 (Phase 11). Between 2012 and 2016 (Imaging Phase), participants received a multimodal 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and cognitive tests. Participants were selected if they had no clinical diagnosis of dementia and no gross brain structural abnormalities. Voxel-based analyses were used to assess grey matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity), white matter lesions (WMLs), and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Cognitive outcomes were performance on verbal memory, semantic fluency, working memory, and executive function tests. Of 542 participants, 444 (81.9%) were men. The mean (SD) age was 63.9 (5.2) years at the baseline Phase 9 examination, 68.0 (5.2) at Phase 11, and 69.8 (5.2) at the Imaging Phase. Voxel-based analysis revealed that faster rates of aortic stiffening in mid-to-late life were associated with poor WM microstructure, viz. lower FA, higher mean, and radial diffusivity (RD) in 23.9%, 11.8%, and 22.2% of WM tracts, respectively, including the corpus callosum, corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Similar voxel-wise associations were also observed with follow-up aortic stiffness. Moreover, lower mean global FA was associated with faster rates of aortic stiffening (B = -5.65, 95% CI -9.75, -1.54, Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.0125) and higher follow-up aortic stiffness (B = -1.12, 95% CI -1.95, -0.29, Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.0125). In a subset of 112 participants who received arterial spin labelling scans, faster aortic stiffening was also related to lower cerebral perfusion in 18.4% of GM, with associations surviving Bonferroni corrections in the frontal (B = -10.85, 95% CI -17.91, -3.79, p < 0.0125) and parietal lobes (B = -12.75, 95% CI -21.58, -3.91, p < 0.0125). No associations with GM volume or WMLs were observed. Further, higher baseline aortic stiffness was associated with poor semantic fluency (B = -0.47, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.18, Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.007) and verbal learning outcomes (B = -0.36, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.12, Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.007). As with all observational studies, it was not possible to infer causal associations. The generalisability of the findings may be limited by the gender imbalance, high educational attainment, survival bias, and lack of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that faster rates of aortic stiffening in mid-to-late life were associated with poor brain WM microstructural integrity and reduced cerebral perfusion, likely due to increased transmission of pulsatile energy to the delicate cerebral microvasculature. Strategies to prevent arterial stiffening prior to this point may be required to offer cognitive benefit in older age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03335696.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(8): 707-711, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects more than 150 million men worldwide, with deleterious effects on quality of life. ED is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease but the impact of ED in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is unknown. We assessed the prevalence and severity of ED in patients with PVD. METHODS: Following ethical approval, sequential male patients diagnosed with PAD over a 1-year period following diagnosis of intermittent claudication. The patient demographics and comorbidities were recorded, with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire used to grade severity of ED. Computed tomographic angiography and severity of stenosis in the proximal vessels and internal pudendal arteries were correlated using a modified Bollinger Matrix scoring system. RESULTS: 60 patients were recruited, most (77.2%) reported erectile dysfunction (52.5% severe, 22.5% moderate). Patients with severe ED were more likely to have 2 or more comorbidities (P = .009). 86.7% with severe ED had bilateral internal pudendal artery stenosis with a mean modified Bollinger score of 17.6. 35.5% of moderate ED patients had bilateral internal pudendal stenosis with a mean Bollinger score of 11.75. There was significant difference in overall scores between moderate and severe erectile dysfunction (p< 0.05), thus indicating a potential link between ED severity and extent of vessel stenosis. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial burden of clinically significant ED among patients with PAD. This study suggests ED should be discussed with all PAD patients and ED may precede a PAD diagnosis. There is scope for endovascular revascularization as a treatment option for ED secondary to arterial insufficiency.


Assuntos
Impotência Vasculogênica/epidemiologia , Ereção Peniana , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Impotência Vasculogênica/diagnóstico por imagem , Impotência Vasculogênica/fisiopatologia , Impotência Vasculogênica/terapia , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents
7.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3057168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695228

RESUMO

Aims: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the risk of vascular events remains high. We aimed at identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on antithrombotic treatments in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. Methods: Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL on March 1st, 2018. This systematic review (SR) uses a narrative synthesis to summarize the evidence for the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies in the population of both chronic CAD or PAD patients. Results: Four RCTs from 27 publications were included. Study groups included 15,603 to 27,395 patients. ASA alone was the most extensively studied (n = 3); other studies included rivaroxaban with or without ASA (n = 1), vorapaxar alone (n = 1), and clopidogrel with (n = 1) or without ASA (n = 1). Clopidogrel alone and clopidogrel plus ASA compared to ASA presented similar efficacy with comparable safety profile. Rivaroxaban plus ASA significantly reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke compared to ASA alone, although major bleeding with rivaroxaban plus ASA increased. Conclusion: There is limited and heterogeneous evidence on the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. Clopidogrel alone and clopidogrel plus ASA did not demonstrate superiority over ASA alone. A combination of rivaroxaban plus ASA may offer significant additional benefit in reducing cardiovascular outcomes, yet it may increase the risk of bleeding, compared to ASA alone.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 28-34, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650921

RESUMO

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients who underwent coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with multisite artery disease (MSAD) (16.9%) including cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) according to vascular territories involved, and in relation to most-recent lipid levels attained, were analyzed. Patients with MSAD were older with higher burden of co-morbidities. The rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) and its individual components increased with the number of affected vascular beds. Adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for MACE was 1.41 (1.24 to 1.59) in patients with CAD and CBVD, 1.46 (1.33 to 1.62) in CAD and PAD, and 1.69 (1.49 to 1.92) in those with CAD and CBVD and PAD, compared with CAD alone. Most-recent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <55 mg/dl and <70 mg/dl were attained by 21.8% and 44.6% of patients with CAD alone, in comparison to 22.7% and 43.3% in MSAD. Compared with patients with most-recent LDL-C > 100 mg/dl, attaining LDL-C < 70 mg/dl had an adjusted HR for MACE of 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57) in CAD only patients and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78) in MSAD patients. In conclusion, the presence of CBVD and/or PAD in patients with CAD is associated with higher burden of co-morbidities and progressive increase in long-term MACE. More than half of CAD patients with or without MSAD do not achieve lipid goals, which are associated with a significantly lower risk for adverse events.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
9.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 421-429, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Optimal pharmacological treatment (OPT) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) includes prescription of lipid lowering drugs, antithrombotics, and antihypertensives to symptomatic patients affected by intermittent claudication or chronic limb threatening ischaemia. This study sought to determine sex disparities and time trends in prescription of OPT in this population (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03909022). METHODS: Using data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER, data on patients with an index admission for symptomatic PAOD between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2018 with follow up until the end of 2018 were analysed. Sex disparities in post-discharge prescription status six months after index admission were tested and adjusted for patient and healthcare variables using bivariable tests and logistic regression analysis. Time trends in the prescription prevalence of OPT were analysed and tested. RESULTS: There were 83 867 patients (mean age 71.9 years and 45.8% women) eligible for inclusion in the study. When compared with men, women had lower rates of prior outpatient care for PAOD (39.8% vs. 47.0%), were admitted more often with ischaemic rest pain (13.9% vs. 10.4%) and were older (74 vs. 70 y). After discharge, women had a lower rate of prescriptions for lipid lowering drugs (52.4% vs. 59.9%), while they received antihypertensive drugs more often (86.7% vs. 84.1%). We found evidence for a lower prescription prevalence of OPT in females (37.0% vs. 42.7%). Differences in patient and healthcare variables (e.g. demographics, comorbidities, prior treatment) between women and men explained 56% of this gap. The sex prescription gap did not narrow over time despite an overall upward trend in prescription prevalence for both women and men. CONCLUSION: Although presenting older and with more severe symptoms at the index admission for PAOD, women have a lower prescription prevalence of OPT compared with men, particularly with respect to lipid lowering drugs.


Assuntos
Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2322-2331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory markers, such as hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), have been reported to be related to peripheral artery disease (PAD). Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, has been linked to vascular remodeling and atherogenesis. However, its prospective association with incident PAD is unknown; as is the influence of inflammation on the association between galectin-3 and PAD. Approach and Results: In 9851 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998), we quantified the association of galactin-3 and hs-CRP with incident PAD (hospitalizations with PAD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 440.2-440.4] or leg revascularization [eg, International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 38.18]) as well as its severe form, critical limb ischemia (PAD cases with resting pain, ulcer, gangrene, or leg amputation) using Cox models. Over a median follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 316 cases of PAD including 119 critical limb ischemia cases. Log-transformed galectin-3 was associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17 [1.05-1.31] per 1 SD increment) and critical limb ischemia (1.25 [1.05-1.49] per 1 SD increment). The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for hs-CRP (1.14 [1.02-1.27] and 1.22 [1.02-1.45], respectively). Log-transformed hs-CRP demonstrated robust associations with PAD and critical limb ischemia even after adjusting for galectin-3 (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 SD increment 1.34 [1.18-1.52] and 1.34 [1.09-1.65], respectively). The addition of galectin-3 and hs-CRP to traditional atherosclerotic predictors (C statistic of the base model 0.843 [0.815-0.871]) improved the risk prediction of PAD (ΔC statistics, 0.011 [0.002-0.020]). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and hs-CRP were independently associated with incident PAD in the general population, supporting the involvement of fibrosis and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Galectina 3/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Isquemia/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Incidência , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 602-612, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lower extremity amputation (LEA) carries significant mortality, morbidity, and health economic burden. In the Western world, it most commonly results from complications of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) or diabetic foot disease. The incidence of PAOD has declined in Europe, the United States, and parts of Australasia. The present study aimed to assess trends in LEA incidence in European Union (EU15+) countries for the years 1990-2017. METHODS: This was an observational study using data obtained from the 2017 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. Age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) for LEA (stratified into toe amputation, and LEA proximal to toes) were extracted from the GBD Results Tool (http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool) for EU15+ countries for each of the years 1990-2017. Trends were analysed using Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2017, variable trends in the incidence of LEA were observed in EU15+ countries. For LEAs proximal to toes, increasing trends were observed in six of 19 countries and decreasing trends in nine of 19 countries, with four countries showing varying trends between sexes. For toe amputation, increasing trends were observed in eight of 19 countries and decreasing trends in eight of 19 countries for both sexes, with three countries showing varying trends between sexes. Australia had the highest ASIRs for both sexes in all LEAs at all time points, with steadily increasing trends. The USA observed the greatest reduction in all LEAs in both sexes over the time period analysed (LEAs proximal to toes: female patients -22.93%, male patients -29.76%; toe amputation: female patients -29.93%, male patients -32.67%). The greatest overall increase in incidence was observed in Australia. CONCLUSION: Variable trends in LEA incidence were observed across EU15+ countries. These trends do not reflect previously observed reductions in incidence of PAOD over the same time period.


Assuntos
Amputação/tendências , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Distribuição por Idade , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 1982-1989, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673526

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that involves multiple vascular beds. The pathological characteristics and clinical presentation, however, vary among the different vascular territories. Acute coronary syndrome is a relatively common manifestation of coronary atherosclerotic disease, wherein the thrombosis occurs secondary to disruption (65%-75%) and erosion (25%-35%) of the fibrous caps of atheromatous plaques. The plaques associated with plaque rupture have large necrotic cores and thin and inflamed fibrous caps. However, the pathological manifestations of peripheral artery disease result from thrombosis regardless of the extent of atherosclerosis. Approximately 75% of peripheral arteries with significant stenosis demonstrate presence of thrombi, of which two-thirds have thrombi associated with insignificant atherosclerosis. The presence of obliterative thrombi in peripheral arteries of patients with critical limb ischemia in the absence of coronary artery-like lesions suggests a locally thrombogenic or remotely embolic basis of disease. Extensive calcification of the medial vascular layer is commonly observed. In this review, we have described and compared the pathological basis of coronary and peripheral artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome and critical limb ischemia. It is expected that pathogenetic characterization would allow for definition of strategic targets for superior management of peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/patologia , Artérias/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Trombose/patologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Ruptura Espontânea , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/epidemiologia
13.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 727-733, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684599

RESUMO

Despite witnessing an upsurge in heart valve diseases (HVDs), the correlation between HVDs and atherosclerotic peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and predictors of PAOD in HVDs.In this study, a total of 245 consecutive patients were examined: 153 with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS), 66 with severe primary mitral valve regurgitation (MR), and 26 with severe pure native aortic valve regurgitation (AR). All patients underwent ultrasound scan of the carotid artery to ascertain the presence of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). ICAS was defined as a peak systolic velocity ≥ 125 cm/second and/or ≥ 50% reduction in diameter. In addition, we measured the ankle-brachial index in each leg using a volume plethysmograph. A result of ≤ 0.9 was considered lower extremity artery disease (LEAD).The presence of ICAS was statistically more frequent in patients with severe AS than in patients with severe MR and AR (11.1% versus 1.5% versus 3.8%; P = 0.038). LEAD was present in patients with severe AS (17.6%) and MR (10.6%) but not in patients with severe AR (P = 0.037). The multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of severe AS (OR, 5.6 [1.3-24.9]; P = 0.023) was an independent predictor for ICAS, while history of coronary artery disease (OR, 4.8 [2.2-10.5]; P < 0.001) was an independent predictor for LEAD.The prevalence of PAOD varies depending on each valvular disease. Individual screening should be considered on the basis of atherosclerotic risk factors, especially for patients with severe AS.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. We report frequency and response to anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet prophylaxis of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) who have non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of the international NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15mg daily with aspirin 100mg daily in 7213 patients with recent ESUS. Among participants with results of intracranial arterial imaging with either computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), the frequency and predictors of non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis and responses to antithrombotic therapy were assessed. RESULTS: Among 4723 participants with available intracranial CTA or MRA results (65% of the trial cohort), the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis was 16% (n=739). Patient features independently associated with intracranial atherosclerosis included East Asian region (odds ratio 2.7, 95%CI 2.2,3.3) and cervical carotid plaque (odds ratio 2.3, 95%CI 1.9,2.7), among others. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke averaged 4.8%/year among those with intracranial atherosclerosis vs. 5.0.%/year for those without (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.65, 1.4). Among those with intracranial atherosclerosis, the recurrent ischemic stroke rate was higher if assigned to rivaroxaban (5.8%/year) vs. aspirin (3.7%/year), but the difference was not statistically significant (HR 1.6, 95%CI 0.78, 3.3). There was trend for the effect of antithrombotic treatments to be different according to the presence or absence of intracranial atherosclerosis (pinteraction=0.09). Among participants with evidence of systemic atherosclerosis by either history or imaging (n=3820), recurrent ischemic stroke rates were similar among those assigned to rivaroxaban (5.5%/year) vs. aspirin (4.9%/year)(HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.84, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: East Asia region was the strongest factor associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rivaroxaban and aspirin prophylaxis for recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess specific risk factors and biomarkers associated with intimal arterial calcification (IAC) and medial arterial calcification (MAC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with or at risk of vascular disease from the SMART study(n = 520) and the DCS cohort(n = 198). Non-contrast computed tomography scanning of the lower extremities was performed and calcification in the femoral and crural arteries was scored as absent, predominant IAC, predominant MAC or indistinguishable. Multinomial regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors and calcification patterns. Biomarkers for inflammation, calcification and vitamin K status were measured in a subset of patients with IAC(n = 151) and MAC(n = 151). RESULTS: Femoral calcification was found in 77% of the participants, of whom 38% had IAC, 28% had MAC and 11% were scored as indistinguishable. The absolute agreement between the femoral and crural arteries was high(69%). Higher age, male sex, statin use and history of coronary artery disease were associated with higher prevalences of femoral IAC and MAC compared to absence of calcification. Smoking and low ankle-brachial-index (ABI) were associated with higher prevalence of IAC and high ABI was associated with less IAC. Compared to patients with IAC, patients with MAC more often had diabetes, have a high ABI and were less often smokers. Inactive Matrix-Gla Protein was associated with increased MAC prevalence, while osteonectin was associated with decreased risk of MAC, compared to IAC. CONCLUSIONS: When femoral calcification is present, the majority of the patients have IAC or MAC throughout the lower extremity, which have different associated risk factor profiles.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral/patologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Média/patologia , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Vitamina K/sangue
16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 543-547, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519165

RESUMO

A high incidence of thrombotic events, particularly deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, has been clearly documented in COVID-19 patients. In addition, small series of patients with coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial thrombotic events have also been reported, but their true incidence and consequences are not well described, and constitute the objective of this study. From February 1st to April 21st, 2020, 2115 COVID-19 patients were treated at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain), and 1419 were eventually admitted. Patient characteristics and outcomes were collected by reviewing their electronic medical records. Fourteen patients had a systemic arterial thrombotic event, which represents a 1% incidence in relation to the total number of hospitalized patients. Three patients suffered an acute coronary syndrome, two with persistent ST-segment elevation, one of whom was treated invasively, and one with transient ST-segment elevation. Eight patients had a cerebrovascular event. Six suffered an acute ischemic stroke and two a transient ischemic attack, 50% of them had a Rankin score ≥ 3 at discharge. Three additional patients had a limb thrombotic event, all of them infrapopliteal, and were managed conservatively. All three cases developed necrosis of the toes, two of them with bilateral involvement. The hospitalization death rate of patients with an arterial event was 28.6%. Although COVID-19 may favor the occurrence of thrombotic events, the destabilization and thrombosis of arterial atherosclerotic plaques do not seem to be a frequent mechanism which warrants the need for specific systematic preventive measures.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/virologia
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 97, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of intensive glucose control in diabetic patients on the macrovascular outcomes is controversial. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the effect of preprocedural hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) on clinical outcomes after endovascular therapy for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) in diabetic patients. METHODS: Diabetic patients were enrolled from the retrospective cohorts of a Korean multicenter endovascular therapy registry and were divided according to the HbA1c level during index admission into the optimal (< 7.0%) or suboptimal (≥ 7.0%) glycemic control groups. The primary endpoints were major adverse limb events (MALE, a composite of major amputation, minor amputation, and reintervention). RESULTS: Of the 1103 patients enrolled (897 men, mean age 68.2 ± 8.9 years), 432 (39.2%) were classified into the optimal glycemic control group and 671 (60.8%) into the suboptimal glycemic control group. In-hospital events and immediate procedural complications were not different between the two groups. The suboptimal group showed a trend towards a higher incidence of MALE than the optimal group (log-rank p = 0.072). Although no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of overall survival or amputation, the risk of reintervention was significantly higher in the suboptimal group (log-rank p = 0.048). In the multivariate Cox regression model, suboptimal glycemic control was one of the independent predictors for reintervention. When our data were analyzed according to the initial presentation, suboptimal preprocedural HbA1c significantly increased the incidence of MALE compared with optimal preprocedural HbA1c only in patients with intermittent claudication. CONCLUSION: In diabetic patients undergoing endovascular therapy for LEAD, suboptimal preprocedural HbA1c is associated with an increased risk of adverse limb events, especially in patients with intermittent claudication. Further prospective research will be required to validate the role of more intensive glycemic control on the reduction of adverse limb events in diabetic patients undergoing endovascular therapy for LEAD.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Idoso , Amputação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1808-1817, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580632

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) stems from atherosclerosis of lower extremity arteries with resultant arterial narrowing or occlusion. The most severe form of PAD is termed chronic limb-threatening ischemia and carries a significant risk of limb loss and cardiovascular mortality. Diabetes mellitus is known to increase the incidence of PAD, accelerate disease progression, and increase disease severity. Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus and PAD are at high risk for major complications, such as amputation. Despite a decrease in the overall number of amputations performed annually in the United States, amputation rates among those with both diabetes mellitus and PAD have remained stable or even increased in high-risk subgroups. Within this cohort, there is significant regional, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic variation in amputation risk. Specifically, residents of rural areas, African-American and Native American patients, and those of low socioeconomic status carry the highest risk of amputation. The burden of amputation is severe, with 5-year mortality rates exceeding those of many malignancies. Furthermore, caring for patients with PAD and diabetes mellitus imposes a significant cost to the healthcare system-estimated to range from $84 billion to $380 billion annually. Efforts to improve the quality of care for those with PAD and diabetes mellitus must focus on the subgroups at high risk for amputation and the disparities they face in the receipt of both preventive and interventional cardiovascular care. Better understanding of these social, economic, and structural barriers will prove to be crucial for cardiovascular physicians striving to better care for patients facing this challenging combination of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Amputação , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Amputação/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/etnologia , Complicações do Diabetes/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/etnologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e208741, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573710

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying modifiable risk factors, such as stress, that could inform the design of peripheral artery disease (PAD) management strategies is critical for reducing the risk of mortality. Few studies have examined the association of self-perceived stress with outcomes in patients with PAD. Objective: To examine the association of high levels of self-perceived stress with mortality in patients with PAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the registry of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Related to Treatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories (PORTRAIT) study, a multicenter study that enrolled patients with new or worsening symptoms of PAD who presented to 16 subspecialty clinics across the US, the Netherlands, and Australia from June 2, 2011, to December 3, 2015. However, the present study included only patients in the US sites because assessments of mortality for patients in the Netherlands and Australia were not available. Data analysis was conducted from July 2019 to March 2020. Exposure: Self-perceived stress was quantified using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), with a score range of 0 to 16. A score of 6 or higher indicated high stress in this cohort. Missing scores were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations with predictive mean matching. Stress was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Patients who reported high levels of stress at 2 or more follow-up assessments were categorized as having chronic stress. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality was the primary study outcome. Such data for the subsequent 4 years after the 12-month follow-up were obtained from the National Death Index. Results: The final cohort included 765 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 68.4 (9.7) years. Of these patients, 57.8% were men and 71.6% were white individuals. High stress levels were reported in 65% of patients at baseline and in 20% at the 12-month follow-up. In an adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model accounting for demographics, comorbidities, disease severity, treatment type, and socioeconomic status, exposure to chronic stress during the 12 months of follow-up was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in the subsequent 4 years (hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.14-3.94; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In thie cohort study of patients with PAD, higher stress levels in the year after diagnosis appeared to be associated with greater long-term mortality risk, even after adjustment for confounding factors. These findings suggest that, given that stress is a modifiable risk factor for which evidence-based management strategies exist, a holistic approach that includes assessment of chronic stress has the potential to improve survival in patients with PAD.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(3): 268-274, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between low serum vitamin D levels and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 133 individuals from Caxias do Sul, Brasil. We considered PAD patients those with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.90 or with arterial revascularization. Vitamin D serum level was categorized as sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (>20 to 29 ng/mL), and deficient (<20 ng/mL). Prevalence ratios (RP) were calculated through Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of PAD was 50.7% (95% CI 42-59). After adjustment for potential PAD risk factors, RP were 1.08 (95% CI 0.66-1.76) for insufficient serum level and 1.57 (95% CI 0.96-2.57) for deficient vitamin D serum level; (p for trend = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D serum levels showed an inverse and significant dose-response relationship with PAD.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
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