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4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24725, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been a major drawback of matched sibling donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (MSD -PBSCT). This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) as a standardized part of GVHD prophylaxis in patients receiving MSD -PBSCT. METHODS: A total of 72 patients with hematological malignancies receiving MSD -PBSCT who displayed similar baseline characteristics were either given rabbit ATG ( n = 42) or no ATG (n = 30), in addition to cyclosporine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil as a standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen. Either patients or donors aged ≥40 years were included in the study. Thymoglobulin was administered at a daily dose of 1.5 mg/kg on day -5 and 3.5 mg/kg on day -4 prior to transplant (the total dose was 5 mg/kg). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 874 days, the 3-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 37.3% in the ATG group and 52.1% in the non -ATG group. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival probability were 71.0% and 62.0% (ATG versus non -ATG, P = .262) and 66.7% and 58.4% (ATG versus non -ATG, P = .334). No difference was found in the 2-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality and relapse between the ATG and non -ATG groups. This significant reduction in the incidence of cGVHD without increased relapse risk and nonrelapse mortality led to a 3-year GVHD-free, relapse-free survival probability of 66.7% and 40.0% in the ATG and non-ATG groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that rabbit antithymocyte globulin in the current protocol for GVHD prophylaxis was well tolerable and efficacious.The clinical trial was registered on January 1, 2016 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02677181). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02677181.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coelhos , Irmãos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(10): 928-938, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776364

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has upended healthcare systems worldwide and led to an inevitable decrease in liver transplantation (LT) activity. During the first pandemic wave, administrators and clinicians were obliged to make the difficult decision of whether to suspend or continue a life-saving procedure based on the scarce available evidence regarding the risk of transmission and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Those centers where the activity continued or was heavily restricted were obliged to screen donors and recipients, design COVID-safe clinical pathways, and promote telehealth to prevent nosocomial transmission. Despite the ever-growing literature on COVID-19, the amount of high-quality literature on LT remains limited. This review will provide an updated view of the impact of the pandemic on LT programs worldwide. Donor and recipient screening, strategies for waitlist prioritization, and posttransplant risk of infection and mortality are discussed. Moreover, a particular focus is given to the possibility of donor-to-recipient transmission and immunosuppression management in COVID-positive recipients.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , /diagnóstico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Programas de Rastreamento , Transplantes/virologia
6.
Ann Hematol ; 100(4): 865-878, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547921

RESUMO

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a severe complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), occurring in a setting of immune suppression and dysregulation. The disease is in most cases driven by the reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which induces B cell proliferation through different pathomechanisms. Beyond EBV, many factors, variably dependent on HSCT-related immunosuppression, contribute to the disease development. PTLDs share several features with primary lymphomas, though clinical manifestations may be different, frequently depending on extranodal involvement. According to the WHO classification, histologic examination is required for diagnosis, allowing also to distinguish among PTLD subtypes. However, in cases of severe and abrupt presentation, a diagnosis based on a combination of imaging studies and EBV-load determination is accepted. Therapies include prophylactic and pre-emptive interventions, aimed at eradicating EBV proliferation before symptoms onset, and targeted treatments. Among them, rituximab has emerged as first-line option, possibly combined with a reduction of immunosuppression, while EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are effective and safe alternatives. Though prognosis remains poor, survival has markedly improved following the adoption of the aforementioned treatments. The validation of innovative, combined approaches is the future challenge.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Ativação Viral
7.
Ann Hematol ; 100(4): 969-978, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594448

RESUMO

A head-to-head comparison of outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for AML between reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens using thymoglobulin for GVHD prophylaxis is limited. We evaluated outcomes of 122 AML patients who received either busulfan (Bu)/fludarabine (Flu)/low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as RIC (n = 64, 52%) or Bu/Flu as MAC (n = 58, 48%), and thymoglobulin 4.5 mg/kg total dose between day - 3 to - 1 for GVHD prophylaxis. Grades III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was lower with Bu/Flu/TBI compared with Bu/Flu (6.2% vs 26.1%, p = 0.009). At 1 year, Bu/Flu/TBI was associated with similar chronic GVHD (41.2% vs 44.8%, p = 0.75), OS (61.9% vs 56.9%, p = 0.69), relapse rate (29.9% vs 20.7%, p = 0.24), relapse-free survival (52.8% vs 50%, p = 0.80), non-relapse mortality (17.4% vs 29.3%, p = 0.41), and GVHD-free relapse-free survival (24.2% vs 27.5%, p = 0.80) compared with Bu/Flu. Multivariable analysis did not reveal any difference in outcomes between both regimens. In summary, thymoglobulin at 4.5 mg/kg did not have any adverse impact on survival when used with RIC regimen. Both Bu/Flu/TBI and Bu/Flu conditioning regimens yielded similar survival.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Depleção Linfocítica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Mieloablativos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Irradiação Corporal Total
8.
Ann Hematol ; 100(2): 529-540, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420575

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis based on post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) or antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (allo-HCT). The differential impacts of PTCy and ATG on transplantation outcomes are not well characterized. Here we report a meta-analysis of PTCy versus ATG in allo-HCT. Ten studies were eligible, and a total of 1871 patients were included. The incidence of II-IV aGVHD, III-IV aGVHD, and NRM were significantly lower in PTCy arm (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89; HR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.16-0.77; HR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). PTCy was associated with a better OS and PFS (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.53-0.73; HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93). The relapse rate and cGVHD incidence were not significantly different between PTCy and ATG (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.07; HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.38-1.12). Thus, compared with ATG, PTCy has a better aGVHD control and OS benefit, without increasing relapse risk, which needs further validation in prospective randomized trials.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Aloenxertos , Humanos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(1): 11-19, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; also known as CD26), a transmembrane receptor expressed on T cells, has a costimulatory function in activating T cells. In a mouse model, down-regulation of CD26 prevented graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but preserved graft-versus-tumor effects. Whether inhibition of DPP-4 with sitagliptin may prevent acute GVHD after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation is not known. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage, phase 2 clinical trial to test whether sitagliptin plus tacrolimus and sirolimus would reduce the incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD from 30% to no more than 15% by day 100. Patients received myeloablative conditioning followed by mobilized peripheral-blood stem-cell transplants. Sitagliptin was given orally at a dose of 600 mg every 12 hours starting the day before transplantation until day 14 after transplantation. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients who could be evaluated, with a median age of 46 years (range, 20 to 59), received transplants from matched related or unrelated donors. Acute GVHD occurred in 2 of 36 patients by day 100; the incidence of grade II to IV GVHD was 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 16), and the incidence of grade III or IV GVHD was 3% (95% CI, 0 to 12). Nonrelapse mortality was zero at 1 year. The 1-year cumulative incidences of relapse and chronic GVHD were 26% (95% CI, 13 to 41) and 37% (95% CI, 22 to 53), respectively. GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 46% (95% CI, 29 to 62) at 1 year. Toxic effects were similar to those seen in patients undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this nonrandomized trial, sitagliptin in combination with tacrolimus and sirolimus resulted in a low incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD by day 100 after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02683525.).


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Recidiva , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/administração & dosagem , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Hematol ; 100(3): 799-808, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416901

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been regarded as a potential strategy for myeloid sarcoma (MS). The previous reports focused mainly on matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation. There are no reports on haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT) in MS. We retrospectively reviewed 14 MS patients who underwent haplo-HSCT. All patients achieved complete donor engraftment. The median time for neutrophil engraftment and platelet engraftment were 10 (12-21) days and 18 (8-31) days. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 3-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD were 37.7% (95%CI, 23.2-52.1%) and 35.7% (95%CI, 22.2-49.2%). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation was documented in 86% patients, and only one patient developed CMV pneumonia. Treatment-related mortality occurred in one (7%) patient. The 1- and 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 21.4% (95%CI, 11.8-31.1%) and 35.7% (95%CI, 22.4-49.0%). The probability of overall survival at 1 and 3 years was 71.4% (95%CI, 51.3-99.5%) and 64.3% (95%CI, 43.5-95.0%), respectively. The probability of disease-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 71.4% (95%CI, 51.3-99.5%) and 57.1% (95%CI, 36.3-89.9%), respectively. In conclusion, haplo-HSCT is a feasible method for patients with MS who have no MSD or MUD.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Sarcoma Mieloide/terapia , Transplante Haploidêntico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioprevenção , Criança , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma Mieloide/diagnóstico , Sarcoma Mieloide/epidemiologia , Sarcoma Mieloide/mortalidade , Irmãos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Transplante Haploidêntico/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Hematol ; 112(5): 674-689, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748216

RESUMO

We conducted a multicenter study on anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-1 mAbs) before/after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for Hodgkin lymphoma. Anti-PD-1 mAbs were administered to 25 patients before allo-HCT and to 20 after allo-HCT. In pre-allo-HCT setting, the median interval from the last administration to allo-HCT was 59 days. After allo-HCT, 12 patients developed non-infectious febrile syndrome requiring high-dose corticosteroid. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) were 47.1%. Eight patients who had GvHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) had less frequent aGvHD (grade II-IV, 14.6% versus 58.8%; P = 0.086). The 1 year overall survival (OS), relapse/progression, and non-relapse mortality rates were 81.3%, 27.9%, and 8.4%. In post-allo-HCT setting, the median interval from allo-HCT to the first administration was 589 days. The overall and complete response rates were 75% and 40%. At 100 days after anti-PD-1 therapy, the cumulative incidences of grade II-IV aGvHD, moderate-to-severe chronic GvHD, and grade 3-4 immune-related toxicity were 15.0%, 30.0%, and 30.0%. While the 1 year relapse/progression rate was 47.4%, the 1 year OS probability was 89.7%. In conclusion, immune-related complications were frequent despite modifications of GvHD prophylaxis or anti-PD-1 mAb dosing. In anti-PD-1-mAb-pretreated patients, PTCy-based GvHD prophylaxis may be effective.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Segurança , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21571, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846764

RESUMO

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) and antithymocyte-globulin (ATG) are the most commonly used regimens for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We compared these 2 regimens in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with hematological malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adult patients with hematological malignancies who underwent HLA-matched unrelated donor-HSCT at Chungnam National University Hospital (Daejeon, South Korea) between January 2013 and January 2019. Patients who received a second transplantation or who had refractory disease were excluded. We included 34 patients (12 and 22 in the PTCy and ATG groups respectively). All graft sources were peripheral blood stem cells. The estimated 20-month overall survival rates were 75.0% for PTCy and 81.6% for ATG patients (P = .792), and the 20-month relapse rates were 41.7% and 34.3% (P = .491), respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD were 16.7% and 30.6% (P = .551), respectively; the estimated 20-month limited and extensive chronic GVHD rates were 59.1% and 78.8% (P = .718), respectively; and the estimated 20-month extensive chronic GVHD rates were 12.5% and 16.7% (P = .718), respectively. The neutrophil engraftment time was similar in both groups [median (range), 15.0 (12.0-17.0) and 14.0 (12.0-19.0) days, respectively; P = .961]. However, ATG was more expensive than PTCy [median (range), US$4,062 (US$2,215-6,647) for ATG vs US$51.80 (US$43.20-69.20) for PTCy; P < .001]. In conclusion, PTCy and ATG afforded similar clinical outcomes after HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation but PTCy was less expensive.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Hematol ; 112(4): 577-583, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656635

RESUMO

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is a new method to prevent graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although the use of dexamethasone is recommended as prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for patients who receive high-dose cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids cannot be used during PTCy administration to exploit depletion of alloreactive T cells. Thus, CINV may not be adequately controlled in this situation. We retrospectively examined antiemetic efficacy of the combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3 RA) and a NK1 receptor antagonist (NK1 RA) in 36 patients who received PTCy, and compared this efficacy with that of the same combination together with dexamethasone in 27 patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (CY/TBI). The proportion of patients who had no vomiting during the acute phase of PTCy administration was 81%, and was lower than 100% in the CY/TBI group (p = 0.02). Our results suggest that prevention of CINV using 5-HT3 RA and NK1 RA during PTCy administration is suboptimal and that addition of antiemetic is necessary in patients who receive PTCy.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569289

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), limits the use of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) to treat a variety of malignancies. Any new therapeutic approach must satisfy three requirements: 1) Prevent GVHD, 2) Maintain anti-pathogen immunity, and 3) Maintain anti-tumor immunity. In prior studies we have shown that the selective photosensitizer 2-Se-Cl eliminates highly alloreactive lymphocytes from the graft prior to HCT preventing GVHD and that antiviral immune responses were preserved following incubation with 2-Se-Cl. In this report, we investigated whether 2-Se-Cl treatment preserves antitumor immunity, and then used high dimensional flow cytometry to identify the determinants of successful immune reconstitution. Donor C57BL/6 splenocytes were cocultured for 4 days with irradiated BALB/c splenocytes and then exposed to 2-Se-Cl. Photodepletion (PD)-treated splenocytes were then infused into lethally irradiated BALB/c mice inoculated with A20 leukemia/lymphoma cells. Recipient mice that received PD-treated splenocytes survived > 100 days without evidence of GVHD or leukemia. In contrast, mice that did not receive PD-treated cells at time of HCT died of leukemia progression. Multiparameter flow cytometry of cytokines and surface markers on peripheral blood samples 15 days after HCT demonstrated unique patterns of immune reconstitution. We found that before clinical disease onset GVHD was marked by functionally exhausted T cells, while tumor clearance and long-term survival were associated with an expansion of polyfunctional T cells, monocytes, and DCs early after transplantation. Taken together these results demonstrate that 2-Se-Cl photodepletion is a new treatment that can facilitate HCT by preventing GVHD while preserving antiviral and anti-tumor immunity.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Leucemia/imunologia , Leucemia/terapia , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos da radiação , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
15.
Ann Hematol ; 99(6): 1377-1387, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382774

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT). Several strategies exist for GVHD prophylaxis and include post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). While several groups have described the use of PTCY in younger patients, there is a paucity of data about the efficacy of PTCY in older individuals, particularly when combined with ATG. We investigated the effect of PTCY and ATG combination on transplant outcomes in older patients at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. Compared to those patients who received other forms of GVHD prophylaxis, individuals who received ATG-PTCY combination had higher 2-year overall survival (OS), 57% (95% confidence interval, 44-69) vs 37% (26-49), P = 0.02; higher 2-year graft-vs-host- and relapse-free survival (GRFS), 27% (17-39) vs 12% (6-21), P = 0.01; lower 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM), 21% (12-32) vs 45% (33-56), P = 1.00 × 10-3; lower 100-day incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (aGVHD), 11% (5-21) vs 28% (18-39), P = 0.02; and lower 100-day incidence of grade 3-4 aGVHD, 0% vs 7% (3-15), P = 0.02 without an increase in the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), 31% (20-43) vs 21% (12-32), P = 0.14. Therefore, in older HCT recipients, use of PTCY combined with ATG is associated with improved OS, lower NRM, decreased risk of aGVHD, and improved GRFS without a significant increase in relapse risk. Therefore, the PTCY with ATG combination represents an effective strategy for GVHD prophylaxis in older allogeneic HCT recipients.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Transplante Homólogo/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(8): 475-492, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313224

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was the first successful therapy for patients with haematological malignancies, predominantly owing to graft-versus-tumour (GvT) effects. Dramatic methodological changes, designed to expand eligibility for allo-HSCT to older patients and/or those with comorbidities, have led to the use of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, in parallel with more aggressive immunosuppression to better control graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Consequently, disease relapse has become the major cause of death following allo-HSCT. Hence, the prevention and treatment of relapse has come to the forefront and remains an unmet medical need. Despite >60 years of preclinical and clinical studies, the immunological requirements necessary to achieve GvT effects without promoting GvHD have not been fully established. Herein, we review learnings from preclinical modelling and clinical studies relating to the GvT effect, focusing on mechanisms of relapse and on immunomodulatory strategies that are being developed to overcome disease recurrence after both allo-HSCT and autologous HSCT. Emphasis is placed on discussing current knowledge and approaches predicated on the use of cell therapies, cytokines to augment immune responses and dual-purpose antibody therapies or other pharmacological agents that can control GvHD whilst simultaneously targeting cancer cells.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Efeito Enxerto vs Tumor/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Humanos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(7): 1312-1317, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283185

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant barriers to timely donor evaluation, cell collection, and graft transport for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To ensure availability of donor cells on the scheduled date of infusion, many sites now collect cryopreserved grafts before the start of pretransplantation conditioning. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (ptCY) is an increasingly used approach for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, but the impact of graft cryopreservation on the outcomes of allo-HCT using ptCY is not known. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared the outcomes of HCT using cryopreserved versus fresh grafts in patients undergoing HCT for hematologic malignancy with ptCY. We analyzed 274 patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing allo-HCT between 2013 and 2018 with cryopreserved grafts and ptCY. Eighteen patients received bone marrow grafts and 256 received peripheral blood stem cell grafts. These patients were matched for age, graft type, disease risk index (DRI), and propensity score with 1080 patients who underwent allo-HCT with fresh grafts. The propensity score, which is an assessment of the likelihood of receiving a fresh graft versus a cryopreserved graft, was calculated using logistic regression to account for the following: disease histology, Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), HCT Comorbidity Index, conditioning regimen intensity, donor type, and recipient race. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression and disease-free survival (DFS). Because of multiple comparisons, only P values <.01 were considered statistically significant. The 2 cohorts (cryopreserved and fresh) were similar in terms of patient age, KPS, diagnosis, DRI, HCT-CI, donor/graft source, and conditioning intensity. One-year probabilities of OS were 71.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.3% to 73.8%) with fresh grafts and 70.3% (95% CI, 64.6% to 75.7%) with cryopreserved grafts (P = .81). Corresponding probabilities of OS at 2 years were 60.6% (95% CI, 57.3% to 63.8%) and 58.7% (95% CI, 51.9% to 65.4%) (P = .62). In matched-pair regression analysis, graft cryopreservation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for cryopreserved versus fresh, 1.05; 95% CI, .86 to 1.29; P = .60). Similarly, rates of neutrophil recovery (HR, .91; 95% CI, .80 to 1.02; P = .12), platelet recovery (HR, .88; 95% CI, .78 to 1.00; P = .05), grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, .78; 95% CI, .50 to 1.22; P = .27), NRM (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .86 to 1.55; P = .32) and relapse/progression (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, .97 to 1.50; P = .09) were similar with cryopreserved grafts versus fresh grafts. There were somewhat lower rates of chronic GVHD (HR, 78; 95% CI, .61 to .99; P = .04) and DFS (HR for treatment failure, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.29; P = .04) with graft cryopreservation that were of marginal statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, our data indicate that graft cryopreservation does not significantly delay hematopoietic recovery, increase the risk of acute GVHD or NRM, or decrease OS after allo-HCT using ptCY.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia/terapia , Linfoma/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Leucemia/imunologia , Leucemia/mortalidade , Leucemia/patologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/imunologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Pandemias , Irmãos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Doadores não Relacionados/provisão & distribução
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 150: 102944, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of death in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Previous studies have shown different efficacy of GVHD prophylaxis therapies. METHODS: We reviewed 46 randomized controlled trials (including 8050 participants) systematically from Jun 20, 2004 to Aug 20, 2019. These investigations compared the following drugs or their combination at therapeutic dose range for GVHD after HSCT. The main results were based on the proportion of patients who respond to these therapies. RESULTS: Cyclosporine + methotrexate + Anti-T cell globulin (ATG), tacrolimus + methotrexate + ATG, tacrolimus + bortezomib + sirolimus and cyclosporine + marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) were significantly more efficacious than corticosteroids alone (OR: 12.15, 6.71, 6.25, 3.73). corticosteroids alone were less efficacious than all the other GVHD prophylaxis therapies tested. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporine + methotrexate + ATG may be the best choice when starting treatment for GVHD.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
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