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1.
Gene ; 764: 145083, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melamine (ML) is a common food adulterant and contaminant. Moringa oleifera is a well-known medicinal plant with many beneficial biological properties. This study investigated the possible prophylactic and therapeutic activity of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MEE) against ML-induced hepatorenal damage. METHOD: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered distilled water, MEE (800 mg/kg bw), ML (700 mg/kg bw), MEE/ML (prophylactically) or MEE+ML (therapeutically). Hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphate (ALP) in serum were measured. Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, protein, albumin, and globulin contents were also assayed, and urea and creatinine levels were determined. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in serum levels were quantified. Complementary histological and histochemical evaluation of renal and hepatic tissues was conducted, and expression of oxidative stress (GPx and CAT) and apoptosis-related genes, p53 and Bcl-2, in hepatic tissue were assessed. In parallel, transcriptional expression of inflammation and renal injury-related genes, including kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the kidney tissue were determined. RESULTS: ML caused significant increases in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, urea, and creatinine. Further, ML treated rats showed significant reductions in serum levels of protein, albumin, globulin, GPx, and CAT. Distinct histopathological damage and disturbances in glycogen and DNA content in hepatic and renal tissues of ML treated rats were observed. KIM-1, TIMP-1, and TNF-α gene expression was significantly upregulated in kidney tissue. Also, GPx, CAT, and Bcl-2 genes were significantly downregulated, and p53 was significantly upregulated in liver tissue after ML treatment. MEE significantly counteracted the ML-induced hepatorenal damage primarily for co-exposed rats. CONCLUSION: MEE could be an effective therapeutic supplement for treatment of ML-induced hepato-renal damage, probably via modulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal/prevenção & controle , Triazinas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Etanol/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(6): 401-405, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132258

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major reason for the discontinuation of new drug development and the withdrawal of drugs from the market. Hence, the evaluation systems which predict the onset of DILI in the pre-clinical stage are needed. To date, many researchers have conducted the mechanism of DILI, but the DILI prediction is poor because of the complexity of DILI. In this regard, based on the information obtained from basic research and clinical case, several pharmaceutical companies have been developed DILI prediction methods with high sensitivity and specificity by combining multiple targets. Another reason for low predictability is derived from the conventional culture method which causes a rapid decrease in hepatocyte function. To overcome these problems, the construction of a high-level in vitro evaluation system has been developed and applied to DILI evaluation. On the other hand, these in vitro evaluation methods require a lot of labor and cost so, in silico prediction methods have also been constructed in recent years. Based on this point, this article reviews the trends in DILI prediction systems in the non-clinical stage.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Simulação por Computador , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Fígado
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4746-4755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164442

RESUMO

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine in the treatment of drug-induced liver injury(DILI). By searching the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of the Chinese medicine published in CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, in a time limit from database establishment to May 1, 2020. The bias risk assessment and Meta-analysis were then conducted for the included studies. Seventeen studies were finally included, all of which were RCTs, including 1 407 patients. The experimental group was treated with Chinese herbal medicine decoction or Chinese patent medicine, involving a total of 11 kinds of drugs, and the control group was treated with conventional Western medicine. Meta-analysis results showed that, in terms of treatment effective rate, Yinlan Yigan Granules, Shuganning, Jiangmeiling Capsules, Baidan Shugan Recipe and Sini Shugan Decoction were all superior to Western medicine treatment. In terms of reducing alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Yinlan Yigan Granules, Shuganning, Hugan Jiedu Recipe, Wuzhi Tablets, Wucao Baogan Recipe and Liuwei Wuling Tablets were superior to Western medicine. In terms of reducing aspartate aminotransferase(AST), Shuganning, Hugan Jiedu Recipe, Wucao Baogan Recipe, Liuwei Wuling Tablets and Sini Shugan Decoction were all superior to Western medicine. In terms of reducing total bilirubin(TBiL), Yinlan Yigan Granules, Shuganning, Jiedu Hugan Yin, Wuzhi Tablets, Wucao Baogan Recipe, Baidan Shugan Recipe and Sini Shugan Decoction were all superior to Western medicine treatment. Combined with network Meta-analysis and probability ranking, it can be seen that, Jiangmeiling Capsules, Shuganning, Sini Shugan Decoction and Baidan Shugan Recipe were most likely to be the best drugs to improve the efficiency and reduce ALT, AST, TBiL, respectively, with certain advantages compared to conventional Western medicine treatment. Of the seventeen studies included, eight studies described safety issues, three of which involved the test group, all of which were minor adverse reactions that disappeared after drug withdrawal or symptomatic treatment. However, due to the low quality of the included studies, more high-quality clinical studies are needed for further verification, thus providing more evidence-based medical evidence for Chinese medicine intervention in DILI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5666, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168815

RESUMO

Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is a transporter of water, glycerol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is expressed in various epithelial cells and in macrophages. Here, we developed an anti-AQP3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that inhibited AQP3-facilitated H2O2 and glycerol transport, and prevented liver injury in experimental animal models. Using AQP3 knockout mice in a model of liver injury and fibrosis produced by CCl4, we obtained evidence for involvement of AQP3 expression in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cell signaling, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophages during liver injury. The activated macrophages caused stellate cell activation, leading to liver injury, by a mechanism involving AQP3-mediated H2O2 transport. Administration of an anti-AQP3 mAb, which targeted an extracellular epitope on AQP3, prevented liver injury by inhibition of AQP3-mediated H2O2 transport and macrophage activation. These findings implicate the involvement of macrophage AQP3 in liver injury, and provide evidence for mAb inhibition of AQP3-mediated H2O2 transport as therapy for macrophage-dependent liver injury.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Aquaporina 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Células CHO , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Quimiocina CCL4/efeitos adversos , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Glicerol/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Medicina Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 256, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139693

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection is spreading globally and poses a huge threat to human health. Besides common respiratory symptoms, some patients with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. SARS-CoV-2 might infect the gastrointestinal tract through its viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and there is increasing evidence of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. In addition, there exist multiple abnormalities in liver enzymes. COVID-19-related liver injury may be due to drug-induced liver injury, systemic inflammatory reaction, and hypoxia-ischemia reperfusion injury. The direct toxic attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver is still questionable. This review highlights the manifestations and potential mechanisms of gastrointestinal and hepatic injuries in COVID-19 to raise awareness of digestive system injury in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/lesões , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Fígado/virologia , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22259, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031266

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult in diagnose, criteria used now are mostly based on history review. We tried to evaluate the value of these criteria and histopathology features in DILI to perform a method diagnosing DILI more definitely.We enrolled 458 consecutive hospitalized DILI patients from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2018, using Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM), Maria & Victorino scale (M&V), and Digestive Disease Week-Japan criterion (DDW-J) combined with refined pathological scoring system respectively to perform the evaluation.A total of 458 DILI patients were enrolled, the area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of the 3 clinical diagnostic criteria were 0.730 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.667-0.793), 0.793 (95% CI: 0.740-0.847), and 0.764 (95% CI: 0.702-0.826) respectively. Three hundred two DILI patients' liver biopsies were included: steatosis in 204 cases (67.5%), cholestasis in 151 cases (50%), cell apoptosis in 139 cases (46%), eosinophil granulocyte infiltration in 131 cases (43.4%), central and/or portal phlebitis in 103 cases (34.1%), iron deposition in 90 cases (29.8%), and pigmented macrophages in 92 cases (30.5%). The AUROC of refined pathological scale combined with 3 criteria were 0.843 (95% CI: 0.747-0.914), 0.907 (95% CI: 0.822-0.960), and 0.881 (95% CI: 0.790-0.942) respectively. In hepatocellular type, the AUROCs were 0.894 (95% CI: 0.787-0.959), 0.960 (95% CI: 0.857-0.994), and 0.940 (95% CI: 0.847-0.985); in cholestatic type, the AUROCs were 0.750 (95% CI: 0.466-0.931), 0.500 (95% CI: 0.239-0.761), and 0.500 (95% CI: 0.239-0.761); in mixed type, the AUROCs were 0.786 (95% CI: 0.524-0.943), 0.869 (95% CI: 0.619-0.981), and 0.762 (95% CI: 0.498 to -0.930).Combined with pathological scale can significantly improve the accuracy of clinical diagnostic criteria, no matter in alone or combined condition, M&V might be more accurate in diagnosing DILI from suspected patients.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia por Agulha , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111342, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971455

RESUMO

Radix aconiti lateralis (Fuzi) is widely used in China as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthenia, pain and inflammation. However, its toxic alkaloids often lead to adverse reactions. Currently, most of the toxicity studies on Fuzi are focused on the heart and nervous system, and more comprehensive toxicity studies are needed. In this study, based on the previous reports of Fuzi hepatotoxicity, serum pharmacochemistry and network toxicology were used to screen the potential toxic components of Heishunpian(HSP), a processed product of Fuzi, and to explore the possible mechanism of HSP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results obtained are expressed based on the toxicological evidence chain (TEC). It was found that 22 potential toxic components screened can affect Th17 cell differentiation, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, glutathione metabolism, and other related pathways by regulating AKT1, IL2, F2, GSR, EGFR and other related targets, which induces oxidative stress, metabolic disorders, cell apoptosis, immune response, and excessive release of inflammatory factors, eventually inducing liver damage in rats. This is the first study on HSP-induced hepatotoxicity based on the TEC concept, providing references for further studies on the toxicity mechanism of Fuzi.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892589

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of inflammatory response in BALB/cA-nu mice induced by oral 1, 2-dichloropropane (1, 2-DCP) , and to provides theoretical reference for further study of subchronic, chronic toxicity and carcinogenic mechanism. Methods: From October 2018, Clean grade healthy BALB/cA-nu mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 mice in each group. And 860, 1150, 1500, 1950, 2535 mg/kg 1, 2-DCP were given by gavage respectively. Meanwhile, blank group and solvent control group (corn oil) were set up. Blood samples were collected from eyeballs and liver and bile tissues were collected for histopathological examination within 24 hours after exposure. The expression of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , total bilirubin (TBLI) , C-reactive protein (CRP) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) , tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-ß (TNF-ß) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: With the increase of the dose of 1, 2-DCP, the number of microbubbles in liver cells and the infiltration of inflammatory cells increased gradually. No pathological changes were found in the gallbladder. Compared with the blank group and solvent control group, the content of serum ALT in each exposure group was increased, the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-ß in 860, 1150, 1950 and 2350 mg/kg exposure groups were increased, the serum TNF-α and TBLI levels in 1 950, 2535 mg/kg groups were significantly higher (P<0.05) . The levels of ALT, TBLI and TNF-ß in serum of female mice were significantly different (P<0.05) . There were significant differences in ALT, TBLI, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-ß in serum of male mice (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Oral 1, 2-DCP may cause acute liver injury in BALB/cA-nu mice and increase the expression of serum inflammatory factors. Moreover, the types of inflammatory factors activated in male mice are more than those in female mice.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fígado , Propano/análogos & derivados , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Propano/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
11.
Bull Cancer ; 107(10): 1056-1068, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951849

RESUMO

Pharmacological immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) restore the anti-tumor properties of T-lymphocytes, but unfortunately can engender auto-immune-like disorders. Those, frequent and of variable severity, sometimes target the liver parenchyma. Liver toxicity of ICI firstly leads to alteration of liver function tests (ALFT) with a risk of clinical decompensation. The appearance of ALFT should lead the clinician to exclude a non-immunological injury or a tumoral invasion of the liver parenchyma. In case of high grade ALFT, liver biopsy is necessary for diagnosis purpose. In ICI-induced hepatoxicity, histology examination shows most frequently a lobular acute hepatitis associated with lymphocytic infiltrates, but with different features than those encountered in primary auto-immune hepatitis. The management of ICI-related ALFT depends of their severity. Discontinuation of ICI is recommended for ALFT≥grade 2, and corticosteroid therapy for ALFT≥grade 3, or grade 2 without any improvement after ICI discontinuation. Addition of mycophenolate may be indicated whether corticosteroid inefficiency. Reintroduction of ICI is inadvisable for the most severe toxicities. The management of ALFT occurring on underlying chronic hepatopathy has not got consensual guidelines so far, but they should take account of the basal grade of ALFT and their worsening level under ICI therapy. The situation becomes more complex with associations between ICI and anti-angiogenic agents or cytotoxic chemotherapies where each of the drugs can be hepatotoxic. Thus, liver biopsy is primordial to figure out the mechanism of liver toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Humanos , Incidência
12.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 841-856, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981621
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1107-1115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879198

RESUMO

Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites have long been a rich source of biologically active compounds that can prevent many diseases. In this context, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis and tested its potency against hepatic and renal toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in adult male mice based on measurements of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, and tissue damage in both organs. We proved a remarkable antioxidant power of this plant (in vitro) by correcting the harmful effects of the prooxidant (in vivo). It can be concluded that lavender is an aromatic plant capable of reducing the stress caused by reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 515-537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879252

RESUMO

The activities of the transaminases (aminotransferases) alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the blood (serum or plasma) are widely used as sensitive markers of possible tissue damage and, in particular for liver toxicity. On the other hand, an increase in transaminase activities is not always accompanied by findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Transaminases are some of the key enzymes in the gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and exist in many organs and tissues which have high activities of the gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The activities of transaminases are altered not only in the liver but also in other organs by modification of gluconeogenesis by nutritional or hormonal factors and this phenomenon leads to alteration of transaminase activity in the blood. Drugs, which are considered to directly or secondarily modify gluconeogenesis through lowering blood glucose levels or activating lipid metabolism, such as α-glucosidase inhibitors and fibrates, slightly increase transaminase activities in the blood but there is little evidence that the phenomenon is related to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). This type of elevations can be called pharmacology-related elevation. The pharmacology-related elevation of transaminase activities sometimes makes it difficult to assess precisely the potential hepatotoxicity of new investigational drugs. Considering the characteristic of transaminases, concomitant use of new biomarkers more specific to hepatic injury is needed in the assessment of DILI both in non-clinical and clinical studies. In this review, we will discuss the specificity of transaminases to DILI and future perspectives for transaminases in the estimation of risk of DILI.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Glicólise , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Life Sci ; 260: 118426, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937159

RESUMO

AIMS: Tobacco smoking is a major health problem associated with lung and liver damage. Lung and liver damage secondary to tobacco smoking is mediated through nicotine-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that antioxidant treatment with tiron may improve nicotine-induced lung and liver damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups, a control, nicotine (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.; for 8 weeks) and tiron (100 or 200 mg/kg/day, i.p.; for 8 weeks) with or without nicotine administration. KEY FINDINGS: Tiron improved survival rate and attenuated lung and liver damage as reflected by decreased total and differential cell counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum; also histopathological examination confirmed the protective effect of tiron in lung and liver tissues of nicotine treated rats. Tiron attenuated dyslipidemia, which is associated with nicotine. These ameliorative effects of tiron may be mainly due to its antioxidant effect as proved by a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. This is likely related to suppression of protein levels of NADPH oxidase enzyme (NOX1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); and up-regulation of protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2). SIGNIFICANCE: This makes tiron (synthetic analogue of vitamin E) good candidate for future use to minimize nicotine's hazards among smokers.


Assuntos
Sal Dissódico do Ácido 1,2-Di-Hidroxibenzeno-3,5 Dissulfônico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Nicotina/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Contagem de Células , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Enzimas/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , NADPH Oxidase 1/sangue , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/sangue , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Life Sci ; 260: 118438, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949585

RESUMO

Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid compound commonly found in the environment, and it is usually found in combination with sulphur and metals. Arsenic is considered as a therapeutic as well as poisoning agent since ancient times. It causes toxic effects on different organs, mainly the liver. In this review, we focused on the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Here we envisaged the bridge between arsenic and hepatotoxicity with particular focus on the level of hepatic enzymes such as ALT, AST, and ALP. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of arsenic in redox imbalance on increased oxidative stress (elevated level of ROS, MDA and NO) and decreased antioxidant levels such as reduced GSH, catalase, and SOD. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction via apoptosis (AKT-PKB, MAPK, PI3/AKT, PKCδ-JNK, AKT/ERK, p53 pathways), fibrosis (TGF-ß/Smad pathway), and necrosis and inflammation (TNF-α, NF-ĸB, IL-1, and IL-6). Along with that, arsenic activates caspases and Bax, decreases Bcl2 through mitochondrial dysfunction, and induces apoptosis regulatory mechanism. We believe the alteration of all these pathways leads to arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 368-373, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture with attendant adverse health outcomes. Chronic exposure to CPF induces oxidative stress and elicits harmful effects, including hepatic dysfunction. Molecular hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could protect rats from hepatotoxicity caused by sub-chronic exposure to CPF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were treated with hydrogen-rich water by oral intake for 8 weeks. Biochemical indicators of liver function, SOD and CAT activity, GSH and MDA levels were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Liver cell damage induced by CPF was evaluated by histopathological and electron microscopy analysis. PCR array analysis was performed to investigated the effects of molecular hydrogen on the regulation of oxidative stress related genes. RESULTS: Both the hepatic function tests and histopathological analysis showed that the liver damage induced by CPF could be ameliorated by HRW intake. HRW intake also attenuated CPF induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by restored SOD activities and MDA levels. The results of PCR Array identified 12 oxidative stress-related genes differentially expressed after CPF exposure, 8 of chich, including the mitochondrial Sod2 gene, were significantly attenuated by HRW intake. The electron microscopy results indicated that the mitochondrial damage caused by CPF was alleviated after HRW treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF induced hepatotoxicity, and the oxidative stress signaling and the mitochondrial pathway may be involved in the protection of molecular hydrogen.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 29(3): 473-475, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919428
19.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 9(22): 481-485, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is the most common drug involved in pediatric poisonings, both intentionally and accidentally, and is the leading cause of acute liver failure among all age groups. OBJECTIVES: To define the characteristics of patients admitted to a pediatric emergency department (ED) where serum acetaminophen concentrations were measured, and to determine which variables are associated with significant risk of acetaminophen toxicity. METHODS: Acetaminophen serum concentrations were measured, in a retrospective case series, of patients younger than 18 years who had been admitted to the ED at Shamir Medical Center between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During the study period 180,174 children were admitted to the ED. Acetaminophen serum concentrations were measured in 209 (0.12%) patients. Mean age was 12.4 ± 5.9 years. Elevated liver enzymes were found in 12 patients, 5 of whom had documented acute liver injury. All five were older than 11years.Two cases of acute liver injury were attributable to acetaminophen ingestion. In both cases the cause was intentional overdose. Univariate analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation between detectable acetaminophen blood level and a positive history of drug or acetaminophen ingestion, and suicide attempt. Not all children with non-severe acetaminophen poisoning had been diagnosed during the study period. A positive history of acetaminophen ingestion was associated with a 28-fold higher risk for detectable acetaminophen blood level. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of a positive history of acetaminophen ingestion and in young children with accidental intoxication, the risk of hepatotoxicity is relatively low.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Acetaminofen/sangue , Adolescente , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3594-3602, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893548

RESUMO

Polygoni Mulitiflori Radix, or dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum(PM), is a traditional Chinese tonic medicine, with the effect in nourishing liver and kidney, and benefiting blood essence and hair. It is widely used in clinical and healthcare products. In recent years, more and more reports about adverse reactions of root tuber of P.multiflorum and its preparations have been reported. Fortunately, there is also substantial progress in the experimental study on liver injury induced by PM. According to the literature review, the possible causes of liver injury were found to be the mixture of raw and processed PM and long-term high-dose administration. In addition, the liver injury induced by PM is idiosyncratic liver injury, and individual factors are also the important cause. At the same time, according to the literature reports, the effects of chemical components in different pathological animal models were summarized, finding that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucoside was the main component for liver injury; based on the clinical manifestations of liver injury induced by PM, the effects of some chemical components on bilirubin and bile acid metabolism were analyzed. This paper reviews the study progress of liver injury induced by PM.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Polygonum , Animais , Raízes de Plantas
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