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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 1-8, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756458

RESUMO

With the spread of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contamination, risk of exposure in non-occupational populations is increasing. The liver is the main target organ for Cr(VI) accumulation; however, the effect of long-term Cr(VI) exposure on liver toxicity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic Cr(VI) exposure on liver fibrosis and its possible mechanism. Mice were injected with Cr(VI) for two months, and our results showed Cr(VI) treatment caused liver toxicity characterized by liver structure disorganization, liver dysfunction, and antioxidant enzyme system inhibition. The development of liver fibrosis was also found via the emergence of collagen fibril deposition, increased expression of extracellular matrix-related genes, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and increase the expression levels of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway-related molecules. To demonstrate the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of Cr(VI)-induced liver fibrosis, genetically modified mice with heterozygous deficiency of Shh (Shh+/-) were used. In the Shh+/- mice, Hh signaling, HSCs activation and liver fibrosis development were all ameliorated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Cr(VI)-induced liver fibrosis development resulted from Hh pathway-mediated HSCs activation. Our findings strongly suggest that inhibition of Hh pathway may help in the development of new strategies for Cr(VI)-associated liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Dicromato de Potássio , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Hedgehog/deficiência , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 12-20, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830553

RESUMO

Liver injury is one of the main toxic effect of sulfasalazine (SASP). However, the toxicological mechanism of SASP-induced liver injury remains unclear. In the present study, the liver injury was induced by orally treatment with SASP for 4 weeks in mice. The hepatic mRNA profiles were detected by RNA sequencing and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL), combined with the hepatic histopathological features verified that liver injury was successfully caused by SASP. Transcriptomic results showed that 187 genes (fold change > 1.5 and P < 0.05) were differentially expressed, of which 106 genes were up-regulated and 81 genes were down-regulated in SASP-treated group. Moreover, the further analysis showed that these 187 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in 123 GO terms, which mainly including oxidation-reduction process, oxidoreductase activity and epoxygenase P450 pathway. KEGG pathway analysis showed 30 pathways including chemical carcinogenesis, retinol metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism and glutathione metabolism. Among these 187 DEGs, the top 22 hub genes were screened from network of protein-protein interaction (PPI) and verified by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the mRNA levels of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cyp2b50, cyp2c50, cyp2c39, cyp2c38, cyp2c29, cyp2c54, cyp2c55, cyp2a5, gsta1, gsta2, gstt2, gstm2 and ephx1, were significantly up-regulated, while egfr and egr1 were down-regulated in SASP-treated group. Moreover, the mRNA levels of egfr and cyp2c55 exhibited a dose-dependent changes in SASP groups. Western blotting verified that the changes of protein levels of EGFR and CYP2C55 were consistent with mRNA levels. Considering that egfr has the highest score in PPI degree and cyp2c55 has the largest fold change in qPCR analysis, our present results suggested that the toxicological mechanisms of SASP-induced liver injury might be related to multi-biological processes and pathways, and egfr and cyp2c55 may play important roles in SASP-induced liver injury. The present study would be helpful for better understanding the hepatotoxic mechanism of SASP. However, the precise mechanism still needs further research.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfassalazina/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 32-43, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862506

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant. Previous studies have shown that Cd can induce liver cell injury; however, the toxicity mechanisms of Cd have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to further confirm the hepatotoxic effects of Cd in mouse liver cells by various methods both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, it found that Cd induced autophagy but also caused autophagy blockade, and autophagy blockade intensified Cd-induced injury in liver cells. Subsequently, the study investigated the effects of Cd on lysosomes and found that Cd induced lysosomal acidification, promoted the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 and lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B both in vivo and in vitro, and enhanced the lysosomal degradation capacity. It indicated that Cd triggered lysosomal activation. However, the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes was inhibited by Cd both in vivo and in vitro. Next, the expression of Rab7, a key protein that regulates autophagosome-lysosome fusion, was examined. Cd was found to inhibit Rab7 expression both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the results indicated that Cd obstructed the autophagic flux by inhibiting the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, thus exacerbating the Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of Cd-induced inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion is probably related to the Cd-induced downregulation of Rab7.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusão de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/patologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14307-14310, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713549

RESUMO

A novel hepatocyte-targeting near-infrared fluorescent probe named Gal-NIR is developed. Gal-NIR shows ratiometric response to ONOO- with high sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, the probe can accurately target the hepatocyte, and thus is used for assessing drug-induced hepatotoxicity and its remediation by using hepatoprotective medicines in living cells and mice.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem Óptica , Ácido Peroxinitroso/análise , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular
5.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 725-731, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646326

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-injury effect and protective mechanism of hydrogen-enriched water in a rat model of acute liver injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, model group (AFB1 group) and hydrogen-enriched water treatment group (AFB1+H2 group). The rat model of acute liver injury induced by AFB1 was established by single intragastric administration of AFB1 (2.0 mg/kg), and then the rats were treated with hydrogen-enriched water intragastrically. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissue. Blood samples were taken from vena cava to measure serum liver function indexes. Live tissue was sampled to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents. Western blot was used to detect phosphorylation levels of MAPK signaling pathway proteins (ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK). The results showed that, compared with the AFB1 group, the AFB1+H2 group exhibited increased body weights, alleviated acute liver injury, decreased activities of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, as well as total bilirubin level in the serum. Meanwhile, hydrogen-enriched water decreased MDA content and increased GSH content in liver tissue. AFB1-increased phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK in liver tissue were down-regulated significantly by hydrogen-enriched water treatment. These results suggest that hydrogen-enriched water can alleviate liver injury induced by AFB1, and its mechanism may be related to the reduction of oxidative stress and the inhibition of MAPK signal transduction pathway activation.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Óxido de Deutério/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Life Sci ; 236: 116939, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593705

RESUMO

Taxifolin (TAX) reportedly exerts protective and therapeutic effects in liver. Herein, the effects of TAX against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacology and metabolomics analyses of TAX were assessed on C57 mice and L-02 cells. TAX was administered for 7 days, and APAP was given on the last day to establish an acute liver injury model. ALT and AST levels were determined, and liver ROS, MDA, GST, GSH and GPX1 were analysed. The expression and protein abundance of GPX1, GPS-Pi, GCLC and GCLM were assessed by PCR and western blotting, and metabolic changes in cells and serum were investigated by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS. Serum ALT and AST, and liver ROS, MDA, GST, GSH and GPX1 levels confirmed the protective effects of TAX. Besides, we found Only treating with TAX decreased the expression of CYP2E1 in mice liver tissue. TAX reversed the APAP-induced decrease in cell viability in L-02 cells, and reduced cellular ROS levels. Furthermore, TAX reversed the APAP-induced decrease in antioxidant enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels. Metabolomics analysis identified metabolites mainly related to glutathione metabolism (36 in vivo and 23 in vitro). The concentration of glutathione, oxidized glutathione, carnitine, succinic acid, pyroglutamic acid, citrulline, taurine, palmitoleic acid, phytoshingosine-1-P and sphingosine-1-P were close to normal levels after treating with TAX. These results indicate that TAX prevents APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation mediated by CYP450 enzymes, modulating glutathione metabolism, and expression of related antioxidative signals. These properties could be harnessed to prevent or treat hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Glutationa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3468-3477, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602911

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside( GTW),an extract derived from T. wilfordii,has been used for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune diseases in China. However its potential hepatotoxicity has not been investigated completely. Firstly,the content of triptolid( TP) in GTW was 0. 008% confirmed by a LC method. Then after oral administration of GTW( 100,150 mg·kg-1) and TP( 12 µg·kg-1) in female Wistar rats for 24 h,it was found that 150 mg·kg-1 GTW showed more serious acute liver injury than 12 µg·kg-1 TP,with the significantly increased lever of serum ALT,AST,TBA,TBi L,TG and bile duct hyperplasia even hepatocyte apoptosis. The expression of mRNA and proteins of liver bile acid transporters such as BSEP,MRP2,NTCP and OATP were down-regulated significantly by GTW to inhibit bile acid excretion and absorption,resulting in cholestatic liver injury. Moreover,GTW was considered to be involved in hepatic oxidative stress injury,although it down-regulated SOD1 and GPX-1 mRNA expression without significant difference in MDA and GSH levels. In vitro,we found that TP was the main toxic component in GTW,which could inhibit cell viability up to 80% in Hep G2 and LO2 cells at the dose of 0. 1 µmol·L-1. Next a LC-MS/MS method was used to detect the concentration of triptolid in plasma from rats,interestingly,we found that the content of TP in GTW was always higher than in the same amount of TP,suggesting the other components in GTW may affect the TP metabolism. Finally,we screened the substrate of p-glycoprotein( p-gp) in Caco-2 cells treated with components except TP extrated from GTW,finding that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine was the substrate of p-gp. Thus,we speculated that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine may competitively inhibit the excretion of TP to bile through p-gp,leading to the enhanced hepatotoxity caused by GTW than the same amount of TP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 85-93, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) has a variety of biological functions, and is involved in cellular apoptosis, autophagy and inflammatory reaction. However, the role of ASPP2 in acute hepatic injury remains unclear. METHODS: We established an animal model of acute hepatic injury by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. The expression profile of ASPP2 was measured in wild type (ASPP2+/+) mice with acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4. Hepatic pathological changes and liver function, apoptosis, inflammation and autophagic levels were measured in ASPP2+/+and ASPP2 haploid deletion (ASPP2+/-) mice with acute hepatic injury, respectively. After 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment, indicators of hepatic injury were observed in ASPP2+/+and ASPP2+/- mice with CCl4 injection. RESULTS: During the development of acute hepatic injury, ASPP2 expression significantly upregulated at 24 h and 48 h after CCl4 injection. ASPP2 haplotype deletion protected against acute hepatic injury, and this was mainly reflected in decreased ALT and AST levels, less hepatic tissue hemorrhage and necrosis, and reduced cellular inflammation and apoptosis in ASPP2+/- mice compared with ASPP2+/+ mice with acute hepatic injury. ASPP2 haploid deletion activates autophagy in mice with acute hepatic injury, and protects mice from acute hepatic injury via the autophagic signal pathway. CONCLUSION: ASPP2 haplotype deletion protected mice against acute hepatic injury through autophagy activation, which inhibited inflammation and apoptosis in acute hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Apoptose , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Autofagia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Necrose , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 73-84, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513886

RESUMO

In the liver microenvironment, interactions among diverse types of hepatic cells are involved in liver fibrosis. In fibrotic tissues, exosomes act as transporters in intercellular communication. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are participants in liver fibrosis. However, the functions of exosomal lncRNAs in liver fibrosis induced by arsenite are undefined. The purposes of the present study were (a) to determine if lncRNAs secreted from human hepatic (L-02) cells exposed to arsenite are shuttled to hepatic stellate LX-2 cells and (b) to establish their effects on LX-2 cells. In mice, MALAT1 was overexpressed in the progression of liver fibrosis induced by arsenite as well as in L-02 cells exposed to arsenite. Co-cultures with arsenite-treated L-02 cells induced the activation of LX-2 cells and overexpression of MALAT1. Arsenite-treated L-02 cells transported MALAT1 into LX-2 cells. Downregulation of MALAT1, which reduced the MALAT1 levels in exosomes derived from arsenite-treated L-02 cells, inhibited the activation of LX-2 cells. Additionally, exosomal MALAT1 derived from arsenite-treated L-02 cells promoted the activation of LX-2 cells via microRNA-26b regulation of COL1A2. Furthermore, circulating exosomal MALAT1 was up-regulated in people exposed to arsenite. In sum, exosomes derived from arsenite-treated hepatic cells transferred MALAT1 to HSCs, which induced their activation. These findings support the concept that, during liver fibrosis induced by arsenite, exosomal lncRNAs are involved in cell-cell communication.


Assuntos
Arsenitos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Estreladas do Fígado/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
In Vivo ; 33(5): 1469-1476, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment with bevacizumab on liver damage in a rat model of massive hepatectomy (Hx) model, as a surrogate model of massive Hx for liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wister rats (n=24) were separated into the following two groups: 90% Hx and 90% Hx plus bevacizumab group. Bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 7 days before Hx. Samples of blood and remnant liver tissue were obtained 24 hours after hepatectomy and the following parameters were evaluated: Biochemical analysis; liver regeneration rate; survival rate; and real-time polymerase chain reaction for interleukin-1 beta (Il1b), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa), matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp) 2 and Mmp9 mRNA. In addition, samples of whole liver tissue were obtained immediately before Hx and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), activating transcription factor 6 (Atf6), C/EBP homologous protein (Chop), glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78) and heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress response. RESULTS: The levels of transaminases 24 hours after Hx were significantly reduced in the group pretreated with bevacizumab compared to that not pretreated (p<0.05). The liver regeneration rate at 24 hours after Hx was significantly increased in the group pretreated with bevacizumab compared with the group which underwent Hx alone (p<0.05). The survival rate for the group pretreated with bevacizumab tended to be higher than that of the Hx-only group, 72 hours after Hx (p=0.09). The expressions of Il1b, Mmp2 and Mmp9 mRNA 24 hours after Hx in the group pretreated with bevacizumab tended to be lower than that of rats which underwent Hx alone (p=0.11, 0.09 and 0.15, respectively). The expression of Xbp1, Chop, Grp78 and Hsp70 mRNA immediately before Hx in the group pretreated with bevacizumab were significantly higher than the 90% Hx group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab pretreatment had protective effects on liver injury after massive hepatectomy in rats, apparently via the induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, i.e. the so-called unfolded protein response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hepatectomia , Fígado/cirurgia , Testes de Função Hepática , Regeneração Hepática , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398934

RESUMO

The present study was envisaged to investigate the chemical constituents and the intervention effects of Portulaca oleracea extract (POE) on acute alcoholic liver injury of rats. The chemical composition of POE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: Normal control (NC) group, acute alcoholic liver injury model group (ALI), low, medium and high dose of POE (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) groups and bifendate (BF, 3.75 mg/kg) group. Each group was given by intragastrical administration for 7 days. Alcoholic liver injury was induced in the experimental model by administering 50% ethanol at 8 mL/kg and repeated administration after 6 h, for a period of 7 days. The results showed that pretreatment with POE significantly reduced the ethanol-elevated serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver were enhanced followed by administration of POE, while the content of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found to decrease. Hepatic content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also reduced by POE treatment. These results indicated that POE could increase the antioxidant capacity and relieve the inflammatory injury of the liver cells induced by ethanol. Meanwhile, in our study, POE reduced the expression of miR-122, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) 1 mRNA and protein and increased the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein in liver, which indicated that POE could improve the lipid metabolism disorder induced by ethanol. Our findings suggested that POE had protective effects on acute alcoholic liver injury of rats.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portulaca/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5817-5829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440049

RESUMO

Purpose: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a critical role in the transmission of nerve impulse at the cholinergic synapses. Design and synthesis of AChE inhibitors that increase the cholinergic transmission by blocking the degradation of acetylcholine can serve as a strategy for the treatment of AChE-associated disease. Herein, an operational targeted drug delivery platform based on AChE-responsive system has been presented by combining the unique properties of enzyme-controlled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with clinical-used AChE inhibitor. Methods: Functionalized MSNs were synthesized by liquid phase method and characterized by using different analytical methods. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MSNs were determined by hemolysis experiment and MTT assay, respectively. Comparison of AChE activity between drug-loading system and inhibitor was developed with kits and by ELISA method. The efficacy of drug-loaded nanocarriers was investigated in a mouse model. Results: Compared with AChE inhibitor itself, the inhibition efficiency of this drug delivery system was strongly dependent on the concentration of AChE. Only AChE with high concentration could cause the opening of pores in the MSN, leading to the controlled release of AChE inhibitor in disease condition. Critically, the drug delivery system can not only exhibit long duration of drug action on AChE inhibition but also reduce the hepatotoxicity in vivo. Conclusion: In summary, AChE-responsive drug release systems have been far less explored. Our results would shed lights on the design of enzyme controlled-release multifunctional system for enzyme-associated disease treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fígado/patologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Calixarenos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoresceína/química , Hemólise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/química , Porosidade , Ratos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 183-193, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437515

RESUMO

Olanzapine, a representative of antipsychotics, is a first-line drug for treatment of schizophrenia. However, olanzapine-induced liver steatosis limits its clinical utilization. This study is to explore the mechanism of liver steatosis induced by olanzapine based on the regulation of transporters involved in uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. Our results revealed that 12-week oral administration of olanzapine increased hepatic triglyceride(TG), caused liver steatosis. Our further studies showed that the expression of fatty acid transporter 2(FATP2) and fatty acid binding protein 1(FABP1) were up-regulated in liver of female mice after 12-week olanzapine exposure, as well as in primary mouse hepatocytes treated with olanzapine. Olanzapine treatment also reduced hepatic ß-hydroxybutyrate level (indicator of fatty acid ß-oxidation), meanwhile, the L-carnitine (L-Car) concentration in liver of olanzapine group was significantly lower than that in control group. Further study demonstrated that both mRNA and protein expression of hepatic OCTN2 (carnitine/organic cation transporter 2) were obviously down-regulated in male mice after 12-week olanzapine treatment. Also, olanzapine markedly inhibited L-Car uptake in MDCK-hOCTN2 cells (1.06 µM of IC50), HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes. Supplementation of L-Car attenuated hepatic TG rise and improved simple steatosis in olanzapine treatment mice. Taken together, up-regulation of FATP2/FABP1 and down-regulation/inhibition of hepatic OCTN2 probably contribute to olanzapine-induced liver steatosis. Supplementation of L-Car is a promising strategy to attenuate olanzapine-induced simple steatosis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Olanzapina/toxicidade , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Animais , Carnitina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Cães , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/genética , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 228, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may increase the sensitivity to liver injury caused by stimulants such as drugs and poisons. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Jiang-Zhi Granule (JZG) has been proven effective for improving liver function, reducing hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation in NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of JZG on the susceptibility of NAFLD rats to liver injury and to identify the relevant mechanism. METHODS: Forty wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, normal group, normal+CCl4 group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, HFD + CCl4 group, and HFD + CCl4 + JZG group. NAFLD were established with HFD for 8 weeks. Then Low-dose CCl4 was given intraperitoneally to induce liver injury in NAFLD rats for 48 h. From the 5th week of HFD, intragastric administration of JZG was simultaneously given to the rats in the HFD + CCl4 + JZG group. At the end of the experiment, liver histological pathology, serum transaminase, lipid in liver and blood, as well as hepatic expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) related molecules were evaluated. RESULTS: NAFLD rat model was established by eight-week HFD feeding, exhibiting elevated levels of hepatic lipid, blood lipid, serum transaminase and significantly increased expression of ERS related molecules including glucose regulating protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (EIF2α), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) in liver tissues. After injection of CCl4 in NAFLD rats, elevated serum transaminases, severe inflammation and focal necrosis were observed in liver tissue, but no obvious change was found in the rats of normal group. JZG reduced hepatic inflammation, hepatic necrosis, hepatic lipid, blood transaminases and blood lipids in HFD + CCl4 rats. ERS related molecules were significantly elevated by low-dose CCl4 in NAFLD rats, and were down-regulated by JZG. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity to CCl4-induced liver injury is increased in NAFLD rats, which could be improved by JZG. The pharmacological mechanism may involve the regulation of ERS signaling pathway by JZG.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373296

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Croton hypoleucus (EC). The present work reports the first pharmacological, toxicological, and antioxidant studies of EC extract on liver injury. Liver necrosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Five groups were established: Croton Extract (EC), thioacetamide (TAA), Croton extract with thioacetamide (EC + TAA), vitamin E with thioacetamide (VE + TAA) and the positive control and vehicle (CT). For EC and EC + TAA, Wistar rats (n = 8) were intragastrically pre-administered for 4 days with EC (300 mg/kg.day) and on the last day, EC + TAA received a single dose of TAA (400 mg/kg). At 24 h after damage induction, animals were sacrificed. In vitro activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and Nrf2 nuclear factor were measured. The results show that EC has medium antioxidant properties, with an IC50 of 0.63 mg/mL and a ferric-reducing power of 279.8 µM/mg. Additionally, EC reduced hepatic damage markers at 24 h after TAA intoxication; also, it increased SOD and Cat gene expression against TAA by controlling antioxidant defense levels. Our findings demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of EC by reducing hepatic damage markers and controlling antioxidant defense levels. Further studies are necessary to identify the mechanism of this protection.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Croton/química , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Necrose , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4516730, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396529

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Environmental pollution with the different Aluminum (Al) containing compounds has been increased. Liver and kidney are two vital organs targeted by Al accumulation. The aim of this study was to assess the possible protective and curative effects of Lepidium sativum Linn (LS) against Al-induced impairment of liver and kidney in albino rat and to explore the mechanism behind this effect. Materials and Methods: This experimental animal-based study included fifty albino rats divided into five groups, the control, LS-treated (20 mg/kg), AlCl3-treated (10 mg/kg), AlCl3 then LS, and AlCl3 plus LS-treated, simultaneously for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, hepatic and renal functions as well as the biomarkers of antioxidants activities were assessed in the serum. Both liver and kidney were dissected out and histopathologically examined. Results: This study showed that administration of AlCl3 caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in rats body weight. It significantly increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine levels and decreased total protein and albumin. AlCl3 significantly reduced enzymatic (catalase), nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the serum. Histopathologically, it induced necrosis and degeneration of hepatocytes, glomeruli, and renal tubules. Administration of LS after or along with AlCl3 significantly restored the serum biomarkers of liver and kidney functions to their near-normal levels and had the ability to overcome Al-induced oxidative stress and preserved, to some extent, the normal hepatic and renal structure. The coadministration of LS had a superior effect in alleviating Al-induced changes. Conclusion: Exposure to AlCl3 induced a set of functional and structural changes in the liver and kidney of rats evident through both biochemical and histopathological assessment. The antioxidant activity of LS seeds mediated a protective and curative effect of LS against such changes. Further study through a rigorous clinical trial to prove LS activity on human is recommended.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Alumínio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Nefropatias , Lepidium sativum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alumínio/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31215-31224, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463753

RESUMO

In the present study, in vivo antioxidant properties of the n-butanol extract obtained from aerial parts of Perralderia coronopifolia were investigated in term of its hepatoprotective effect of female Wistar albino rats (n, 36; average age, 48 ± 5 days; weighing 150 ± 18 g) against PCP (pentachlorphenol)-induced toxicity. PCP (20 mg/kg b.w.) and plant extract (50 mg/kg b.w.) were administered daily by gavages for 2 weeks. Vitamin E (100 mg/kg b.w.) was given intraperitoneally as a positive control. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were evaluated in liver homogenates. While, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, and triglyceride parameters were analyzed in serums. The liver fragments were observed using light microscopy. Experimental results exhibited that PCP-treated group has a significant increase in the liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of animals while decreased in plant extract-treated group. In addition, PCP caused significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, PCP induced hepatotoxicity by increasing serum transaminase enzymes, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. While, these levels were restored to control value in animals treated with plant extract. The regularized levels of LPO, GSH, cholesterol, triglyceride, transaminase enzymes, and GPx activities revealed the antioxidant properties of the extract plant as well as of the vitamin E. The histological study showed the hepatoprotective effect of our extracts against PCP-induced acute intoxication, protecting the hepatic architecture and decreasing the functional and structural alterations of the liver. The plant extract had high antioxidant potential and completely prevented the toxic effect of PCP on the above of liver and serum parameters.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/química , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos Wistar
19.
Gastroenterology ; 157(5): 1398-1412.e9, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Methyl-CpG binding protein 2, MECP2, which binds to methylated regions of DNA to regulate transcription, is expressed by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and is required for development of liver fibrosis in mice. We investigated the effects of MECP2 deletion from HSCs on their transcriptome and of phosphorylation of MECP2 on HSC phenotype and liver fibrosis. METHODS: We isolated HSCs from Mecp2-/y mice and wild-type (control) mice. HSCs were activated in culture and used in array analyses of messenger RNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses identified pathways regulated by MECP2. We studied mice that expressed a mutated form of Mecp2 that encodes the S80A substitution, MECP2S80, causing loss of MECP2 phosphorylation at serine 80. Liver fibrosis was induced in these mice by administration of carbon tetrachloride, and liver tissues and HSCs were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: MECP2 deletion altered expression of 284 messenger RNAs and 244 long noncoding RNAs, including those that regulate DNA replication; are members of the minichromosome maintenance protein complex family; or encode CDC7, HAS2, DNA2 (a DNA helicase), or RPA2 (a protein that binds single-stranded DNA). We found that MECP2 regulates the DNA repair Fanconi anemia pathway in HSCs. Phosphorylation of MECP2S80 and its putative kinase, HAS2, were induced during transdifferentiation of HSCs. HSCs from MECP2S80 mice had reduced proliferation, and livers from these mice had reduced fibrosis after carbon tetrachloride administration. CONCLUSIONS: In studies of mice with disruption of Mecp2 or that expressed a form of MECP2 that is not phosphorylated at S80, we found phosphorylation of MECP2 to be required for HSC proliferation and induction of fibrosis. In HSCs, MECP2 regulates expression of genes required for DNA replication and repair. Strategies to inhibit MECP2 phosphorylation at S80 might be developed for treatment of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Acetaminofen , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/deficiência , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Serina , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Biofactors ; 45(4): 598-606, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336028

RESUMO

Liver diseases are one of the fatal disorders due to the vital role of the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) is the most perceived chemical substance utilized in developing models of hepatic damage. Metformin (Met) is a potent antidiabetic and redox modulatory agent that has shown anticancer and protective effects on various organs. Therefore, addition of therapy with natural antioxidative agents or herbal extracts shows defensive impacts against different injuries inside the body. Luteolin (Lut) can be found in several customary Chinese remedies. It has been reported for various pharmacological actions such as antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory impacts. Here, the liver injury rat model was established using CCl4 (1.00 mL/kg body weight) in vivo. The protective roles of Met and Lut separately or in combination were observed in hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 . The result was shown that both Met and Lut, while individually used, were normally active in diminishing CCl4 -caused hepatotoxicity. The combination of two drugs performed synergistically to improve liver damage caused by CCl4 , as shown by the considerably improved liver dysfunction. Met and Lut showed highly antioxidative effects on CCl4 -treated rats moderately by increasing the activities and expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Along with this, a combination of Met and Lut significantly suppressed inflammatory responses, which is evidenced by the reduced level of inflammatory cytokines together with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Additionally, CCl4 -agitated apoptosis was intensely reduced by Met and Lut through reducing cleaved caspase-3 and Bax (pro-apoptotic factor) while increasing Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic factor) signaling pathways. Cotreatments of Met and Lut upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in the CCl4 -intoxicated rat's liver. The above result recommended that combination of Met and Lut may have a substantial potential and synergizing impact against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Luteolina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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