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1.
Gene ; 764: 145083, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melamine (ML) is a common food adulterant and contaminant. Moringa oleifera is a well-known medicinal plant with many beneficial biological properties. This study investigated the possible prophylactic and therapeutic activity of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MEE) against ML-induced hepatorenal damage. METHOD: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered distilled water, MEE (800 mg/kg bw), ML (700 mg/kg bw), MEE/ML (prophylactically) or MEE+ML (therapeutically). Hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphate (ALP) in serum were measured. Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, protein, albumin, and globulin contents were also assayed, and urea and creatinine levels were determined. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in serum levels were quantified. Complementary histological and histochemical evaluation of renal and hepatic tissues was conducted, and expression of oxidative stress (GPx and CAT) and apoptosis-related genes, p53 and Bcl-2, in hepatic tissue were assessed. In parallel, transcriptional expression of inflammation and renal injury-related genes, including kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the kidney tissue were determined. RESULTS: ML caused significant increases in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, urea, and creatinine. Further, ML treated rats showed significant reductions in serum levels of protein, albumin, globulin, GPx, and CAT. Distinct histopathological damage and disturbances in glycogen and DNA content in hepatic and renal tissues of ML treated rats were observed. KIM-1, TIMP-1, and TNF-α gene expression was significantly upregulated in kidney tissue. Also, GPx, CAT, and Bcl-2 genes were significantly downregulated, and p53 was significantly upregulated in liver tissue after ML treatment. MEE significantly counteracted the ML-induced hepatorenal damage primarily for co-exposed rats. CONCLUSION: MEE could be an effective therapeutic supplement for treatment of ML-induced hepato-renal damage, probably via modulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal/prevenção & controle , Triazinas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Etanol/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109230, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828744

RESUMO

Although physiological levels of iron are essential for numerous biological processes, excess iron causes critical tissue injury. Under iron overload conditions, non-chelated iron generates reactive oxygen species that mediate iron-induced tissue injury with subsequent induction of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory responses. Because liver is a central player in iron metabolism and storage, it is vulnerable to iron-induced tissue injury. Taxifolin is naturally occurring compound that has shown potent antioxidant and potential iron chelation competency. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential protective effects of taxifolin against iron-induced hepatocellular injury and to elucidate the underlining mechanisms using rats as a mammalian model. The results of the current work indicated that taxifolin inhibited iron-induced apoptosis and enhanced hepatocellular survival as demonstrated by decreased activity of caspase-3 and activation of the pro-survival signaling PI3K/AKT, respectively. Western blotting analysis revealed that taxifolin enhanced liver regeneration as indicated by increased PCNA protein abundance. Taxifolin mitigated the iron-induced histopathological aberration and reduced serum activity of liver enzymes (ALT and AST), highlighting enhanced liver cell integrity. Mechanistically, taxifolin modulated the redox-sensitive MAPK signaling (p38/c-Fos) and improved redox status of the liver tissues as indicated by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation along with enhanced total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, it decreased liver iron content and down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß. Collectively, these data highlight, for the first time, the ameliorating effects of taxifolin against iron overload-induced hepatocellular injury that is potentially mediated through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and potential iron chelation activities.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Regeneração Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Ratos
3.
Life Sci ; 260: 118245, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791144

RESUMO

AIMS: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce liver fibrosis in rodents. Therefore, this study examined the protective effect of a triple combination of curcumin (Cur), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and propolis (Prp) extract against BPA-induced hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: 100 Wistar male rats were equally assigned into 10 groups; one group was designated as control. 10 rats were gavaged with BPA (50 mg/kg/day) for 8 wk and left un-treated (BPA group). The remaining 80 rats were divided into 8 groups, distributed in 2 models. Protective model: rats were daily co-treated with BPA and Cur (100 mg/kg, p.o) or NAC (150 mg/kg, p.o) or Prp (200 mg/kg, p.o) or their combination for 8 wk. Preventive model: rats were daily treated with Cur or NAC or Prp or their combination for 4 wk before BPA administration and then in the same manner as protective model. KEY FINDINGS: Current treatment interventions significantly alleviated BPA-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis. They also restored pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance, shifted cytokine balance towards the anti-inflammatory side, decreasing interleukin-1ß/interleukin-10 ratio. Moreover, these compounds seem to exert anti-apoptotic effects by increasing the immunoexpression of B-cell lymphoma 2 in hepatocytes and decreasing hepatic caspase-3 content. Finally, they ameliorated extracellular matrix turn over through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 genetic expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Current treatments guarded against BPA-induced hepatic fibrosis due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, decreasing extracellular matrix turnover. Interestingly, the triple therapy provided hepatoprotection superior to monotherapy. Besides, prophylactic and concurrent treatments seem to be more effective than concurrent treatments.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/toxicidade , Própole/administração & dosagem , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Própole/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 192-201, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805337

RESUMO

To gain insights into the benefits of ascorbic acid (AsA) in hepatoprotection, we examined the status of Akr1a-/- (KO) mice, which biosynthesize AsA at about 10% the rate as Akr1a+/+ (WT) mice, in terms of their response to an N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatic injury. The intraperitoneal injection of NDEA (35 mg/kg) started at 4 weeks of age and was performed at weekly intervals thereafter. While the fatality rate was substantial in the KO mice, AsA supplementation (1.5 mg/ml in the drinking water) greatly extended their life-spans. Only two out of 54 KO mice survived to 28 weeks, and both contained approximately an order of magnitude greater number of tumor nodules compared to WT mice or KO mice with AsA supplementation. Histological and biochemical examinations at 20 weeks indicated that AsA potently protected against the hepatotoxic action of NDEA. Interestingly, the AsA levels in the liver were higher in the AsA-supplemented KO mouse groups that had received the NDEA treatment compared to the corresponding control group. While the protein levels of Cyp2e1, an enzyme that plays a major role in the bioactivation of NDEA, had declined to a similar extent among the experimental groups, p-nitrophenol-oxidizing activity was sustained at high levels in the KO mouse livers but AsA supplementation suppressed this activity. These findings confirm that AsA is a potent micronutrient that copes with hepatic injury and cancer development caused by exposure to NDEA in the livers of Akr1a-knockout mice.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Redutase/genética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinogênese/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110899, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678747

RESUMO

Liver is the earliest target for AFB1 toxicity in both human and animals. In the last decade, plant derived by-products have been used in animal feed to reduce AFB1 induced toxicity. In the present study we investigated whether the presence of 8% grape seed meal by-product is able to counteract the hepatotoxic effects produced by AFB1 in liver of pig after weaning exposed to the toxin through the contaminated feed for 28 days. Twenty four weaned cross-bred TOPIGS-40 piglets with an average body weight of 9.13±0.03 were allocated to the following experimentally treatments: control diet without AFB1 (normal compound feed for weaned pigs); contaminated diet with 320 mg kg-1 AFB1; GSM diet (compound feed plus 8% grape seed meal) and AFB1+GSM diet (320 mg kg-1 AFB1 contaminated feed plus 8% grape seed meal). Pigs fed AFB1 diet had altered performance, body weight decreasing with 25.1% (b.w.: 17.17 kg for AFB1 vs 22.92 kg for control). Exposure of piglets to AFB1 contaminated diet caused liver oxidative stress as well as liver histological damage, manly characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and parenchyma cells vacuolation when compared to control and GSM meal group. 94.12% of the total analysed genes (34) related to inflammation and immune response was up-regulated. The addition of GSM into the AFB1 diet diminished the gene overexpression and ameliorate histological liver injuries and oxidative stress. The protective effect of GSM diet in diminishing the AFB1 harmful effect was mediated through the decreasing of gene and protein expression of MAPKs and NF-κB signalling overexpressed by AFB1 diet. The inclusion of grape seed by-products in the diet of pigs after weaning might be used as a novel nutritional intervention to reduce aflatoxin toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Desmame
6.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 881-883, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725454
7.
Life Sci ; 254: 117760, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418889

RESUMO

AIM: The present study focused on the possible underlying protective mechanisms of UDCA against GNT-induced hepatic injury. METHODS: For achieving this goal, adult male rats were allocated into 4 groups: normal control (received vehicle), GNT (100 mg/kg, i.p. for 8 days), UDCA (60 mg/kg, P.O. for 15 days), and GNT + UDCA (received UDCA for 15 days and GNT started from the 7th day and lasted for 8 days). RESULTS: The results revealed that UDCA significantly improved GNT-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammatory response. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited apoptosis by marked down-regulation of the Bax gene, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 protein expressions while the level of Bcl-xL gene significantly increased. Moreover, UDCA strongly inhibited the inflammatory response through the down-regulation of both NF-κB-p65 and TNF-α accompanied by IL-10 elevation. Furthermore, the obtained results ended with the restored of mitochondria function that confirmed by electron microscopy. Histological analysis showed that UDCA remarkably ameliorated the histopathological changes induced by GNT. SIGNIFICANCE: UDCA may be a promising agent that can be used to prevent hepatotoxicity observed in GNT treatment. This effect could be attributed to, at least in part, the ability of UDCA to modulate NF-κB-p65/TNF-α, Bax/Bcl-xl/Caspase-3, and eNOS/iNOS signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Gentamicinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Gentamicinas/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 255: 117832, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450164

RESUMO

AIMS: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an effective antidote for the treatment of acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning; however, due to its low stability and bioavailability, repeated dosing of NAC is needed. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of NAC by niosomal carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Niosomes were synthesized using surface active agents film hydration method and their physicochemical properties were characterized. In the in vivo study, in addition to control group, male rats were divided in different groups and challenged with an oral dose of APAP (2000 mg/kg); 4 h later, rats were administered normal saline, empty niosome (NIO), NAC (25 mg/kg) and NAC-loaded niosome (NAC-NIO) respectively, and sacrificed 48 h post-APAP overdose. KEY FINDINGS: The particle size and zeta potential of NAC-NIO were 242.3 ± 18.5 nm and -23.9 ± 1.6 mV. The loading and encapsulation efficiency of niosomes were 1.22% ± 0.02% and 26.76% ± 6.02%. APAP administration leads to hepatic damage as evidenced by increases in serum hepatic enzyme levels and tissue levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation as well as decreases in hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Treatment of rats with NIO-NAC was remarkably more effective than NAC in improving biochemical changes such as serum hepatic aminotransferases. These findings were correlated well to the histopathological experiments. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that NAC when delivered as a niosomal structure, is potentially more effective than NAC standard, in improving APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tensoativos/química
9.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153241, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-triggered fatal hepatotoxicity is an essential pathogenic factor in acute liver failure (ALF). AIMS: To investigate the protective effect of daphnetin (Daph) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity through altering Nrf2/Trx-1 pathway activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo, male C57BL/6 mice with Wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-/- were divided into five groups and acute liver injury model were established by APAP or LPS/GalN after injection with Daph (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg), seperately. Then, liver tissue and serum were collected for biochemical determination, TUNEL and H & E staining, and western blot analysis. In vitro, HepG2 cells were used to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of daphnetin against ROS and apoptosis induced by t-BHP via apoptosis detection, western blot, immunofluorescence analysis, and sgRNA transfection. RESULTS: Our results indicated that Daph efficiently inhibited t-BHP-stimulated hepatotoxicity, and modulated Trx-1 expression and Nrf2 activation which decreased Keap1-overexpression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, Daph inhibited t-BHP-excited hepatotoxicity and enhanced Trx-1 expression, which was reversed in Nrf2-/- HepG2 cells. In vivo, a survival rate analysis first suggested that Daph significantly reduced the lethality induced by APAP or GalN/LPS in a Nrf2-dependent or -independent manner by using Nrf2-/- mice, respectively. Next, further results implicated that Daph not only effectively alleviated APAP-induced an increase of ALT and AST levels, histopathological changes, ROS overproduction, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and GSH/GSSG reduction, but it also relieved hepatic apoptosis by strengthening the suppression of cleaved-caspase-3 and expression of P53 protein. Additionally, Daph attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction by suppressing ASK1/JNK activation and decreasing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Cytochrome c release and Bax mitochondrial translocation. Daph inhibited inflammatory responses by inactivating the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip)/NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, Daph efficiently enhanced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Trx-1 expression. However, these effects in WT mice were eliminated in Nrf2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These investigations demonstrated that Daph treatment has protective potential against oxidative stress-driven hepatotoxicity by inhibition of ASK1/JNK and Txnip/NLRP3 activation, which may be strongly related to the Nrf2/Trx-1 upregulation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110556, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247962

RESUMO

Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an important environmental pollutant, is produced as the result of incomplete combustion of organic materials in many industries and food cooking process. It has been purposed that BaP induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress and apoptosis. Several studies have shown that melatonin can protect against chemical-induced apoptosis through autophagy pathway. In this study, we assessed the modulating effect of melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, on BaP-induced hepatotoxicity through induction of autophagy. Thirty male mice were treated daily for 28 consecutive days. BaP (75 mg/kg; oral gavage) and melatonin (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to mice. The liver histopathology and the levels of apoptosis and autophagy proteins as well as the expression of miR-34a were determined. The BaP exposure induced severe liver histological injury and markedly enhanced AST, ALT and MDA level. Also, apoptosis proteins and hepatic miR-34a expression increased. However, the level of Sirt1 and autophagy markers such as LC3 II/I ratio and Beclin-1 reduced. The co-administration of melatonin reversed all changes caused by BaP. In summary, melatonin appears to be effective in BaP-induced hepatotoxicity maybe through the miR-34a/Sirt1/autophagy molecular pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
11.
Toxicology ; 440: 152475, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Curcumol, a guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid hemiketal extracted from the herb Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits multiple-pharmacological activities. We previously reported that curcumol ameliorated hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumol on HSC migration and adhesion, and reveal its regulation mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cellular viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8. Cell migration was detected by boyden chamber and cell scratch experiment. Recombinant human periostin (rh POSTN) and adeno-associated viral (AAV)-GFP-periostin were used to achieve POSTN overexpression in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65 overexpression was achieved by using plasmid. ELISA was conducted to detect POSTN level. Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence were performed to assess associated factor expression. RESULTS: Curcumol suppressed HSC migration and adhesion, and reduced the secretion and expression of POSTN. By gain of function POSTN in HSCs, using rh POSTN, we found that the inhibition of HSC migration and adhesion by curcumol depended on the decrease of POSTN. Besides, curcumol protection against chronic CCl4-caused hepatic fibrosis could be impaired by POSTN overexpression. Moreover, we showed that curcumol repressed NF-κB signaling and the production of pro-inflammatory factor. Importantly, curcumol down-regulation of POSTN was rescued by knock-in of NF-κB, as well as the inhibition of HSC migration and adhesion. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal the molecular mechanism of curcumol-reduced HSC migration and adhesion, by which points to the possibility of using curcumol based on NF-κB dependent POSTN for the treatment of fibrogenesis.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/patologia , Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/prevenção & controle , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas Recombinantes
12.
Toxicology ; 437: 152445, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259555

RESUMO

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), a liver-specific uptake transporter, was associated with drug induced liver injury (DILI). Screening and identifying potent OATP1B1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OATP1B1-mediated DILI. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and herbal products, some of them were reported to produce transporter-mediated DDI. Our objective was to investigate potential inhibitors of OATP1B1 from 99 flavonoids, and to assess the hepatoprotective effects on bosentan induced liver injury. Eight flavonoids, including biochanin A, hispidulin, isoliquiritigenin, isosinensetin, kaempferol, licochalcone A, luteolin and sinensetin exhibited significant inhibition (>50 %) on OATP1B1 in OATP1B1-HEK293 cells, which reduced the OATP1B1-mediated influx of methotrexate, accordingly decreased its cytotoxicity in OATP1B1-HEK293 cells and increased its AUC0-t in different extents in rats, from 28.27%-82.71 %. In bosentan-induced rat liver injury models, 8 flavonoids reduced the levels of serum total bile acid (TBA) and the liver concentration of bosentan in different degrees. Among them, kaempferol decreased the concentration most significantly, by 54.17 %, which indicated that flavonoids may alleviate bosentan-induced liver injury by inhibiting OATP1B1-mediated bosentan uptake. Furthermore, the pharmacophore model indicated the hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors may play critical role in the potency of flavonoids inhibition on OATP1B1. Taken together, our findings would provide helpful information for predicting the potential risks of flavonoid-containing food/herb-drug interactions in humans and alleviating bosentan -induced liver injury by OATP1B1 regulation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/antagonistas & inibidores , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Bosentana , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Interações Alimento-Droga , Células HEK293 , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metotrexato , Conformação Molecular , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(7): 853-869, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227122

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to aggravate hepatic fibrosis by inducing NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent oxidative stress. Alamandine (ALA) protects against fibrosis by counteracting Ang II via the MAS-related G-protein coupled (MrgD) receptor, though the effects of alamandine on hepatic fibrosis remain unknown. Autophagy activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel mechanism of hepatic fibrosis. However, whether autophagy is involved in the regulation of Ang II-induced hepatic fibrosis still requires investigation. We explored the effect of alamandine on hepatic fibrosis via regulation of autophagy by redox balance modulation. In vivo, alamandine reduced CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, protein levels of NOX4 and autophagy impairment. In vitro, Ang II treatment elevated NOX4 protein expression and ROS production along with up-regulation of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. These changes resulted in the accumulation of impaired autophagosomes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Treatment with NOX4 inhibitor VAS2870, ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and NOX4 small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited Ang II-induced autophagy and collagen synthesis. Alamandine shifted the balance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) toward the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/alamandine/MrgD axis, and inhibited both Ang II-induced ROS and autophagy activation, leading to attenuation of HSCs migration or collagen synthesis. In summary, alamandine attenuated liver fibrosis by regulating autophagy induced by NOX4-dependent ROS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Células Cultivadas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/enzimologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/ultraestrutura , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 396: 114982, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240663

RESUMO

Oxidative stress contributes to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since lipid peroxidation produces reactive aldehydes, we investigated whether activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) with Alda-1 decreases liver injury after APAP. Male C57BL/6 mice fasted overnight received Alda-1 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Blood and livers were collected 2 or 24 h after APAP. Intravital multiphoton microscopy of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence was conducted 6 h after APAP administration to detect mitochondrial polarization status and cell death. 4-Hydroxynonenal protein adducts were present in 0.1% of tissue area without APAP treatment but increased to 7% 2 h after APAP treatment, which Alda-1 blunted to 1%. Serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased to 7594 and 9768 U/L at 24 h respectively, which decreased ≥72% by Alda-1. Alda-1 also decreased centrilobular necrosis at 24 h after APAP from 47% of lobular areas to 21%. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine protein adduct formation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase phosphorylation increased after APAP as expected, but Alda-1 did not alter these changes. Without APAP, no mitochondrial depolarization was detected by intravital microscopy. At 6 h after APAP, 62% of tissue area showed depolarization, which decreased to 33.5% with Alda-1. Cell death as detected by PI labeling increased from 0 to 6.8 cells per 30× field 6 h after APAP, which decreased to 0.6 cells by Alda-1. In conclusion, aldehydes are important mediators of APAP hepatotoxicity. Accelerated aldehyde degradation by ALDH2 activation with Alda-1 decreases APAP hepatotoxicity by protection against mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Ativação Enzimática , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo
15.
J Med Chem ; 63(12): 6303-6314, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267691

RESUMO

Improvements in in vitro ADME tools and pharmacokinetic prediction models have helped to shift attrition rates in early clinical trials from poor exposure to drug safety concerns, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Assessing a new chemical entity's potential for liver toxicity is an important consideration for the likely success of new drug candidates. Reactive intermediates produced during drug metabolism have been implicated as a cause of DILI, and their formation has been correlated to the addition of a black box warning on a drug label. In this work, we will present contemporary examples of the bioactivation of atypical structures usually regarded as benign and often used by medicinal chemists when attempting to avoid bioactivation. Medicinal chemistry strategies used to derisk bioactivation will be discussed, and an emphasis will be placed on the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Inativação Metabólica , Fígado/patologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 687: 108387, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348741

RESUMO

Although acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic antipyretic drug, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are common after the overdose. The main mechanism of APAP toxicity is oxidative stress based. Stress may induce the production of heme oxygenase 1 (HO)-1 which is regulated by interleukin (IL)-10 and inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). HO-1 expression is further regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1). Drug-induced toxicity can be relieved by several natural products, which are preferred due to their dietary nature and less adverse reactions. Of these natural products, omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are known for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. However, effects of ω-3fatty acids on APAP-induced hepatic and renal toxicity are not well addressed. We designed this study to test the potential protecting actions of ω-3 fatty acids (270 mg/kg Eicosapentaenoic acid and 180 mg/kg docosahexaenoic acid, orally, for 7 days) in hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by APAP (2 g/kg, once orally on day 7) in rats. Moreover, we focused on the molecular mechanism underlying APAP hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Pre-treatment with ω-3 fatty acids enhanced liver and kidney functions indicated by decreased serum aminotransferases activities and serum creatinine and urea concentrations. These results were further confirmed by histopathological examination. Moreover, ω-3 fatty acids showed antioxidant properties confirmed by decreased malondialdehyde level and increased total antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant Nrf2, its regulators (HO-1 and BACH1) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were up-regulated by APAP administration as a compensatory mechanism and they were normalized by ω-3 fatty acids. ω-3 fatty acids showed anti-inflammatory actions through down-regulating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB) and its downstream TNF-α. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that ω-3 fatty acids promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus; BACH1 exit from the nucleus and inhibited NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. These findings suggested the protecting actions of ω-3 fatty acids against APAP-induced hepatic and renal toxicity through regulation of antioxidant Nrf2 and inflammatory NF-ĸB pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaminofen , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador alfa/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 248: 117475, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119963

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver fibrosis is a crucial pathological feature which could result in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. But until now, there is no favourable treatment for it. Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid, which exhibits efficient anti-liver fibrosis activity, but its underlying mechanisms were rarely studied. So this work aims to estimate the potential therapeutic action of APG on liver fibrosis rats and to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats, and APG was given in the light of the regimen. Biochemical indexes, histopathological change and immunohistochemistry of liver were evaluated. The optimal effect group of APG was selected for further transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: APG ameliorated liver fibrosis via reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Hyp, TP, TB, DB, HA, LN, PCIII and IV-C, mitigating fibrosis and inflammation of liver in H&E and Masson staining. Mechanistically, APG elevated the activity of ALB, SOD and GSH-PX with reducing the level of MDA. The results of microarray and TMT revealed that 4919 genes and 4876 proteins were differentially expressed in the APG and model groups. Besides, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses unfolded 120 overlapped proteins, enriched in 111 GO terms containing apoptotic process, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, etc. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 pathways containing HIF-1/MAPK/eNOS/VEGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion mostly. SIGNIFICANCE: APG can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via VEGF-mediated FAK phosphorylation through the MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, ROS, and eNOS pathways, which may hopefully become the anti-liver fibrosis activity of natural product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 239-246, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202453

RESUMO

Context: Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub, the leaves of which are used in many medicinal applications.Objective: To characterize the chemical composition of a 10% aqueous ethanol extract of C. nitidissima leaves (CNE), and to explore the protective effect of the extract against acute liver injury (ALI) in rats.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): control and negative (0.5% CMC-Na, 5 mL/kg/d), thiopronin (20 mg/kg/d) and CNE (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/d). All groups were treated for seven consecutive days, and then, except for the control, carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally. The biochemical parameters, mRNAs, and proteins were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunoassays kits, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Chemical components were identified using mass spectroscopy, and the phenol and flavonoid content determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Results: Pre-treatment with CNE (160 mg/kg) attenuated the pathological changes in liver tissues and decreased alanine transaminase (62 and 60%), aspartate transaminase (49 and 53%) and malondialdehyde (35 and 42%) levels in serum and liver tissues. Moreover, CNE reduced the concentrations of reactive oxygen species (55%), tumour necrosis factor-α (26%), interleukin-1ß (19%) and IL-6 (19%) and blocked the nuclear translocation of p65. Pre-treatment with CNE increased anti-heme oxygenase-1 (40%), superoxide dismutase (108%) and glutathione (97%) levels through upregulating nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2. Twelve compounds were detected; the content of phenols and flavonoids was determined as 34.474 ± 1.026 and 15.228 ± 0.422 mg/g crude drug in CNE, respectively.Discussion and conclusions: These results suggested that CNE is a promising agent for functional food and hepatoprotective drug against ALI.


Assuntos
Camellia/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(2): 103-113, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172946

RESUMO

We investigated the liver protective activity of dandelion polyphenols (DP) against acetaminophen (APAP; Paracetamol)-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice were acclimated for 1 week and randomly divided into the following groups (n = 9 per group): Control, APAP, APAP + DP (100 mg·kg-1), APAP + DP (200 mg·kg-1), and APAP + DP (400 mg·kg-1) groups. Mice were pretreated with DP (100, 200, and 400 mg·kg-1) by oral gavage for 7 d before being treated with 350 mg·kg-1 APAP for 24 h to induced hepatotoxicity. Severe liver injury was observed, and hepatotoxicity was analyzed after 24 h by evaluation of biochemical markers, protein expressions levels, and liver histopathology. Pretreatment with DP was able to restore serum liver characteristics (aspartate transaminase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; alkaline phosphatase, AKP), improve redox imbalance (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; malondialdehyde, MDA), and decrease inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; interleukin-1ß, IL-1ß). Pretreatment with DP also significantly inhibited the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, DP pretreatment could inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells caused by APAP through up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax and caspase-9 protein. DP also down-regulated p-JNK protein expression levels to inhibit APAP-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and up-regulated the expression of Nrf-2 and its target gene HO-1. The histopathological staining demonstrated that DP pretreatment could inhibit APAP-induced hepatocyte infiltration, congestion, and necrosis. Our results demonstrate that DP pretreatment could protect against APAP-induced hepatic injury by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and inhibition of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Taraxacum/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
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