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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14307-14310, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713549

RESUMO

A novel hepatocyte-targeting near-infrared fluorescent probe named Gal-NIR is developed. Gal-NIR shows ratiometric response to ONOO- with high sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, the probe can accurately target the hepatocyte, and thus is used for assessing drug-induced hepatotoxicity and its remediation by using hepatoprotective medicines in living cells and mice.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem Óptica , Ácido Peroxinitroso/análise , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(5): 684-687, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effects of quercetin (QE) on triptolide (TP) induced liver injury and the relevant mechanism. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6 mice were equally divided into 4 groups, control group, TP model group, 20 mg/kg QE treatment group and 80 mg/kg QE treatment group randomly. The 20 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg QE groups were gastrointestinal administration with QE at the dose of 0.2 mL/10 g for 10 d, twice daily, while other groups were administrated with equivalent normal saline. Four hours post the last dose, animals were gastrointestinal administered with TP at a dose of 500 µg/kg per mouse, except for NS control. All the mice were sacrificed 22 h later, blood and liver tissue samples were collected. The pathologic change of liver tissue was detected by HE staining. The level of aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, and the level of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue homogenates were detected using the commercial kits. The level of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-10 and IL-6 in liver tissue homogenates was measured by ELISA. Hepatic expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the TP model group, hepatic lobule structure atrophied and even disappeared, hepatic cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration are obvious. Additionally, in TP model group, serum ALT, AST and MDA levels were significantly increased, SOD and GSH levels were decreased, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were increased, IL-10 levels were decreased, and TLR4 protein levels were increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the TP model group, liver tissue injury and inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced in the QE group, and serum levels of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6 and IL-17 were all decreased. TLR4 expression was down-regulated (P < 0.05) in both QE groups, and the decease levle was more significant in the high-dose QE group (P < 0.05, compared with the low-dose QE group). CONCLUSION: Quercetin can reduce TP-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative damage, promoting antioxidant and regulating cytokine secretion.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diterpenos , Compostos de Epóxi , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenantrenos , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2947-2952, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602838

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to discuss the protective effect and mechanism of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides( ASPs) on immunological liver injury caused by conanavalin A( Con A). BALB/c mice were randomly divided into seven groups: control group,model group( Con A),low-,medium-,and high-dose( 36. 25,72. 5,145 mg·kg~(-1)) ASPs groups,bifendate( 200 mg·kg~(-1),positive drug) group and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate( PDTC,NF-κB inhibitor,200 mg·kg~(-1)) group. ASPs groups and bifendate group were given with corresponding drugs by ig administration once daily for 7 d. Control group,model group and PDTC group were given with normal saline by ig administration once daily for 7 d. After the last ig administration,PDTC was given in DTC group by iv administration( 200 mg·kg~(-1)); 0. 5 h after that,Con A( 20 mg·kg~(-1)) was injected via the tail vein to induce immunological liver injury in all the mice except normal control group. The mice were killed 8 h later and their liver tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The contents of nitric oxide( NO),superoxide dismutase( SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA),reduced glutathione( GSHPX),interleukin( IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor( TNF-α) in liver tissues were detected by kit assay. Western blot method was used to detect TNF-α,intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1( ICAM-1),inducible nitric oxide synthase( i NOS) and nuclear factor( NF-κB) protein expression in liver tissues. As compared with model group,ASPs not only could reduce the activity of MDA,NO,IL-1ß and TNF-α,but also increase the content of GSH-PX and SOD; at the same time,the protein expression levels of TNF-α,ICAM-1,i NOS and NF-κB were reduced in liver tissues; in addition,inflammatory cell infiltration was alleviated,hepatocyte cytoplasm was loose and swollen,and nuclear condensation and staining were improved. ASPs has a protective effect on immunological liver injury,and the mechanism may be associated with regulating secretion of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of adhesion factor through NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eleutherococcus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2960-2965, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602840

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of C-21 steroidal glucosides from Cynanchum auriculatum( Baishouwu) on oxidative stress in mice with liver injury. Mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,positive control group,Baishouwu high group and Baishouwu low group. The liver injury model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 peanut oil solution. All mice were sacrificed to collect blood and liver specimens. The activities of serum levels of ALT and AST were detected. The content of MDA and the activity of SOD in liver homogenate were examined by colorimetry method. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological examination. The hepatic protein expressions of NF-κB p65,p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2 were detected by Western blot. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined by RT-PCR. It was found that treatment with C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu successfully attenuated liver injury induced by CCl4,as shown by decreased levels of serum biochemical indicators( AST,ALT)( P<0. 01). Administration of total C-21 steroidal glucosides enhanced the activity of SOD( P<0. 01) and decreased the content of MDA( P<0. 01) in liver homogenate. Microscopic features suggested that treatment with C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu was effective in inhibiting CCl4-induced hepatocyte edema and degeneration. Further studies showed that NF-κB p65 overexpression induced by CCl4 was decreased by C-21 steroidal glucosides,leading to the markedly down-regulated protein expression levels of p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2,as well as the depression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. In conclusion,total C-21 steroidal glucosides from Baishouwu exhibited potent effect on oxidative stress pathway in mice with liver injury induced by CCl4,with enhanced activity of SOD,decreased content of MDA,and down-regulated levels of NF-κB p65,p-IκBα,i NOS and COX-2.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Cynanchum/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2966-2971, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602841

RESUMO

To study the effects of saikosaponin b2( SS-b2) on inflammatory factors and energy metabolism against lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine( LPS/Gal N) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were randomly divided into normal group( equal amount of normal saline),model group( 100 g·kg~(-1) LPS and 400 mg·kg~(-1) Gal N),low,medium,high dose group of SS-b2( SS-b25,10,20 mg·kg~(-1)·d-1) and positive control group( dexamethasone,10 mg·kg~(-1)). All of the groups except for the normal group were treated with LPS/Gal N though intraperitoneally injection to establish the acute liver injury model. The organ indexes were calculated. The levels of serum transaminases( ALT and AST) and the activities of ATPase( Na+-K+-ATPase,Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in liver were detected. The activity of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α),interleukin-1ß( IL-1ß) and interleukin-6( IL-6) were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The contents of lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) in liver were determined by micro-enzyme method. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of the liver. Histochemical method was used to investigate the protein expression of liver lactate dehydrogenase-A( LDH-A). The protein expressions of Sirt-6 and NF-κB in the liver were detected by Western blot. According to the results,compared with the model group,there were significant changes in organ indexes in the high-dose group of SS-b2( P<0. 05). The level of ALT,AST,TNF-α,IL-1ß,IL-6 and the activities of LDH in serum of mice with liver injury were significantly reduced in the medium and high dose groups of SS-b2( P<0. 01). With the increase of the concentration of SS-b2,the range of hepatic lesions and the damage in mice decreased. The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in liver of mice were significantly enhanced in each dose group( P<0. 01). The expression of NF-κB in liver tissues was significantly down-regulated in the medium and high dose group( P<0. 01). Meanwhile,the expression of Sirt-6 protein in the liver of mice with acute liver injury was significantly increased in each dose group( P<0. 01).In summary,SS-b2 has a significant protective effect on LPS/Gal N-induced acute liver injury in mice,which may be related to the down-regulation of NF-κB protein expression and up-regulation of Sirt-6 protein expression to improve inflammatory injury and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo Energético , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Galactosamina , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
6.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1058-1066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560611

RESUMO

Previous studies have proven that polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (PLCP) could induce maturation of murine dendritic cells, promote defecation, and possess antioxidant activity in vitro. However, the effect of PLCP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice has been rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of PLCP on LPS-induced liver injury. Mice were pretreated orally with different dose of PLCP for 3 weeks. On day 22, they were injected intraperitoneally with LPS and sacrificed 12 h later. The results showed that PLCP inhibited the excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-2, and IL-1ß in mouse serum and liver. PLCP also improved glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity activities in mouse liver. In addition, PLCP inhibited nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and increased metallothionein production in mouse liver. Consequently, PLCP may possess protective effects on inflammatory associated liver injury.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interleucinas/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
7.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398934

RESUMO

The present study was envisaged to investigate the chemical constituents and the intervention effects of Portulaca oleracea extract (POE) on acute alcoholic liver injury of rats. The chemical composition of POE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: Normal control (NC) group, acute alcoholic liver injury model group (ALI), low, medium and high dose of POE (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) groups and bifendate (BF, 3.75 mg/kg) group. Each group was given by intragastrical administration for 7 days. Alcoholic liver injury was induced in the experimental model by administering 50% ethanol at 8 mL/kg and repeated administration after 6 h, for a period of 7 days. The results showed that pretreatment with POE significantly reduced the ethanol-elevated serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver were enhanced followed by administration of POE, while the content of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was found to decrease. Hepatic content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also reduced by POE treatment. These results indicated that POE could increase the antioxidant capacity and relieve the inflammatory injury of the liver cells induced by ethanol. Meanwhile, in our study, POE reduced the expression of miR-122, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) 1 mRNA and protein and increased the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein in liver, which indicated that POE could improve the lipid metabolism disorder induced by ethanol. Our findings suggested that POE had protective effects on acute alcoholic liver injury of rats.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portulaca/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) has been reported to attenuate liver injury caused by a variety of toxicants. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is thought to be essential in controlling liver homeostasis and pathology. Here we evaluate the effects of GdCl3 on functional GJIC and connexin expression in mouse models and primary hepatocytes. METHODS: Mice were administered GdCl3 intraperitoneally the day before a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection or bile duct ligation (BDL) operation. Primary hepatocytes were treated with CCl4 or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with or without GdCl3. A scrape loading/dye transfer assay was performed to assess the GJIC function. The expression of connexins was examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: CCl4 treatment or the BDL operation led to the dysfunction of GJIC and a down-regulation of Cx32 and Cx26 in injured liver. GdCl3 administration restored GJIC function between hepatocytes by facilitating the transfer of fluorescent dye from one cell into adjacent cells via GJIC, and markedly prevented the decrease of Cx32 and Cx26 in injured liver. In primary hepatocytes, CCl4 or LPS treatment induced an obvious decline of Cx32 and Cx26, whereas GdCl3 pretreatment prevented the down-regulation of connexins. In vivo GdCl3 protected hepatocytes and attenuated the liver inflammation and fibrosis in liver injury mouse models. CONCLUSION: GdCl3 administration protects functional GJIC between hepatocytes, and prevents the decrease of connexin proteins at mRNA and protein levels during liver injury, leading to the alleviation of chronic liver injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Conexinas/agonistas , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Ligadura , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10059-10068, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431007

RESUMO

Torularhodin is a natural product extracted from Sporidiobolus pararoseus and has a similar chemical structure to ß-carotene. The antioxidative effects of torularhodin were investigated using DPPH, ABTS, a cell oxidative damage model in vitro, and a d-galactose-induced liver-injured mouse model in vivo. Cell experiments demonstrated that torularhodin had a powerful effect on oxidative damage caused by H2O2 to AML12 cells. Torularhodin significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes both in mouse serum and the liver. The inhibition of d-galactose-induced oxidative damage in the liver was correlated with the torularhodin-mediated effects on improving the activity of Nrf2/HO-1, reducing the expression of Bax and NF-κB p65 by western blot analysis. RT-PCR results demonstrated torularhodin upregulated the antioxidative mRNA expression of Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1 in the liver. In summary, torularhodin significantly scavenged free radicals and prevented oxidative damage in vitro and reduced d-galactose-induced liver oxidation via promotion of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in vivo.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Basidiomycota/química , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115056, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427004

RESUMO

A new purified polysaccharide (PNP40c-1) with a molecular weight of 2.06 × 105 Da was obtained from pine nuts (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.). Structural analysis indicated that PNP40c-1 is a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide composed of arabinose, rhamnose and glucose in a molar ratio of 2.98:1.00:0.52. The major backbone consisted of →3,4)-α-l-Arap(1→, →4)-α-l-Arap3Me(1→, →3)-α-l-Rhap(1→ and →6)-ß-d-Glcp(1→, and the side chain is ß-d-Glcp-(1→ linked at C4-position of →3,4)-α-l-Arap(1→. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of PNP40c-1 was investigated by human hepatocyte cell line L02 treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Results suggested that PNP40c-1 could protect L02 cells from CCl4-induced damage by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), increasing the level of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH), suppressing lipid perioxidation and further reducing the leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hence, PNP40c-1 could be a promising functional food to serve as hepatoprotective agent.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Nozes/química , Pinus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5817-5829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440049

RESUMO

Purpose: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a critical role in the transmission of nerve impulse at the cholinergic synapses. Design and synthesis of AChE inhibitors that increase the cholinergic transmission by blocking the degradation of acetylcholine can serve as a strategy for the treatment of AChE-associated disease. Herein, an operational targeted drug delivery platform based on AChE-responsive system has been presented by combining the unique properties of enzyme-controlled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with clinical-used AChE inhibitor. Methods: Functionalized MSNs were synthesized by liquid phase method and characterized by using different analytical methods. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MSNs were determined by hemolysis experiment and MTT assay, respectively. Comparison of AChE activity between drug-loading system and inhibitor was developed with kits and by ELISA method. The efficacy of drug-loaded nanocarriers was investigated in a mouse model. Results: Compared with AChE inhibitor itself, the inhibition efficiency of this drug delivery system was strongly dependent on the concentration of AChE. Only AChE with high concentration could cause the opening of pores in the MSN, leading to the controlled release of AChE inhibitor in disease condition. Critically, the drug delivery system can not only exhibit long duration of drug action on AChE inhibition but also reduce the hepatotoxicity in vivo. Conclusion: In summary, AChE-responsive drug release systems have been far less explored. Our results would shed lights on the design of enzyme controlled-release multifunctional system for enzyme-associated disease treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fígado/patologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Calixarenos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoresceína/química , Hemólise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/química , Porosidade , Ratos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 7823069, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467487

RESUMO

Macrophages have variable functional phenotypes, high diversity, and plasticity and are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced liver injury. Alteration of macrophage polarization through activated (M1) macrophage to alternatively activated (M2) macrophage has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. This study was designed to explore the effect of a benzenediamine analog FC-99 on macrophage polarization in vitro and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced liver injury followed by the underlying mechanisms. For in vitro experiments, FC-99 inhibited M1-related macrophage factors and promoted M2-related markers induced by IL-4 in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Moreover, FC-99-induced macrophages polarized to M2 phenotype which could be repressed by a PPAR-γ inhibitor but not STAT6 siRNA knockdown, indicating FC-99-induced M2 macrophage polarization through PPAR-γ rather than STAT6 signal. In LPS-induced septic mice, FC-99 pretreated mice displayed lower expression of M1 markers together with the increased M2 marker CD206 and improvement of liver injury. These findings illustrated that FC-99 could promote M2 macrophage polarization via PPAR-γ signaling and seemed to be a potential therapeutic candidate for inflammatory liver injury.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Diazônio/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Biomed Khim ; 65(4): 331-338, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436175

RESUMO

The effect of 6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline on markers of hepatocytes cytolysis (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), parameters reflecting the state of oxidative status (intensity of biochemical luminescence and the content of diene conjugates), and the activity of oxidative metabolism enzymes (aconitate hydratase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) was studied in rats with CCl4-induced liver injury. The results obtained in the course of the work demonstrated the ability of the test compound to reduce the severity of oxidative stress and liver cells damage, as well as to change the activity of aconitate hydratase and NADP-generating enzymes in the direction of control values. 6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline was more effective in normalizing CCl4-induced changes of the analyzed parameters that Carsil used as a reference compound. The tendency to normalize the state of oxidative status and enzyme activity of oxidative metabolism can attributed to hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the tested compound.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Radicais Livres , Fígado/enzimologia , Ratos
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 463-470, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468423

RESUMO

We previously reported that taurine treatment inhibited arsenic (As)-induced apoptosis in the liver of mice. This study was designed to explore the effect of taurine on liver function and its underlying mechanism in As-exposed mice. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, ten mice in each group. Group 1, control group, only orally received drinking water alone. Group 2, As intoxication group, was exposed to 4 mg/L As2O3 via drinking water for 60 days. Group 3, taurine protection group, was treated with 4 mg/L As2O3 and 150 mg/kg both. Taurine administration significantly revered the increases of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in serum. The decrease of glutathione (GSH) was inhibited with taurine treatment in the liver of As-exposed mice. At the same time, taurine significantly inhihibited As-induced enhancement of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Here we show that taurine protective effect on liver function in As-exposed mice maybe involve lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Taurina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109190, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387170

RESUMO

Le-Cao-Shi (LCS), a formula of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been used as a folk medicine for protection and treatment of liver injury. However, scientific evidences on its hepatoprotective effects have not been investigated. In this study, hepatoprotective activities of LCS water extracts (LCS-W) and ethanol extracts (LCS-E) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments, pretreatment of LCS-W and LCS-E to rats significantly declined the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and markedly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ameliorated the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by CCl4 treatment. Especially, LCS-WM group significantly prevented the elevation of lipid peroxidation level induced by CCl4, with the MDA level closed to that of normal group. Histopathological examinations further confirmed that LCS-W and LCS-E could protect the liver cells from CCl4-induced damage. In addition, immunohistochemically analysis revealed that LCS-W could significantly down-regulated the hepatic protein expression of necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Correspondingly, LCS-W and LCS-E were observed to promote cell viability and decline the levels of ALT, AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro. It could be concluded that LCS can exert a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be a potential therapeutic prescription for preventing or treating liver injury. Notably, LCS-W displayed better hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced injury than that of LCS-E, suggesting that LCS extracted by water decoction has good development prospects. Our results contribute towards the validation of the traditional use of LCS in the treatment of liver disorders.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109140, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387195

RESUMO

Previously non-isolated compounds (scopoletin and ß-D-Glucopyranoside, (1R)-O-isopropyl 6-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-xylopyranosyl)-2,3,4-triacetate) were isolated from an organic extract of the Cnidoscolus chayamansa stem. Also, lupeol acetate (main compound, 49.7 mg/g of dry extract) and scopoletin (0.19 mg/g of dry extract) were quantified by HPLC analysis from this organic extract. The protective activity of the C. chayamansa organic extract against hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs [Rifampicin (50 mg/kg), Isoniazid (50 mg/kg), and Pyrazinamide (100 mg/kg)] are reported. The extract was tested at 200 and 400 mg/kg in Balb/C mice during 85 days, using silymarin (2.5 mg/kg) as positive control. Liver damage was determined using biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, CHOL, HDL TG, Urea, and CREA), histological analysis, and evaluation of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, Gpx, Lpx and POx). The extract at both doses favored body weight gain with respect to the anti-TB group; the dose of 200 mg/kg was better. Also, the extract at both doses decreased the values of transaminases (AST, ALT) enzymes (p < 0.05) vs. anti-TB group. In oxidative stress parameters, the SOD value was decreased, as were the levels of peroxidation of lipids and oxidative protein in the group with C. chayamansa extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg vs. the anti-TB group. Histological analyses from liver showed the absence of steatosis in the extract group at 400 mg/kg, and moderate steatosis in the silymarin and extract (at 200 mg/kg) groups with respect to anti-TB group, which demonstrated a steatosis. It should be noted that during the study period, none of the treated mice died. In conclusion, the CHCl3: MeOH extract of C. chayamansa has a hepatoprotective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Biofactors ; 45(4): 598-606, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336028

RESUMO

Liver diseases are one of the fatal disorders due to the vital role of the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) is the most perceived chemical substance utilized in developing models of hepatic damage. Metformin (Met) is a potent antidiabetic and redox modulatory agent that has shown anticancer and protective effects on various organs. Therefore, addition of therapy with natural antioxidative agents or herbal extracts shows defensive impacts against different injuries inside the body. Luteolin (Lut) can be found in several customary Chinese remedies. It has been reported for various pharmacological actions such as antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory impacts. Here, the liver injury rat model was established using CCl4 (1.00 mL/kg body weight) in vivo. The protective roles of Met and Lut separately or in combination were observed in hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 . The result was shown that both Met and Lut, while individually used, were normally active in diminishing CCl4 -caused hepatotoxicity. The combination of two drugs performed synergistically to improve liver damage caused by CCl4 , as shown by the considerably improved liver dysfunction. Met and Lut showed highly antioxidative effects on CCl4 -treated rats moderately by increasing the activities and expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Along with this, a combination of Met and Lut significantly suppressed inflammatory responses, which is evidenced by the reduced level of inflammatory cytokines together with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Additionally, CCl4 -agitated apoptosis was intensely reduced by Met and Lut through reducing cleaved caspase-3 and Bax (pro-apoptotic factor) while increasing Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic factor) signaling pathways. Cotreatments of Met and Lut upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in the CCl4 -intoxicated rat's liver. The above result recommended that combination of Met and Lut may have a substantial potential and synergizing impact against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Luteolina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
18.
Pharmacology ; 104(3-4): 196-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336368

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Aesculus hippocastanum (AH; Venoplant®) on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury and explore the mechanism in mice. METHODS: ConA (20 mg/kg) was administered via tail vein injection to induce hepatic damage. The groups of AH (Venoplant®) were given at 65.8, 131.6, and 263.2 mg/kg by oral gavages for 20 days. The serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), and albumin (Alb) were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer, and the Alb/globulin (A/G) ratio was calculated. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IFN-γ levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The liver tissue was attained by hematoxylin and eosin, and the histopathological changes were calculated. The cell apoptosis was assayed by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) content of liver tissue were assayed by related kits. The activity of caspase-3 was detected by spectrophotometry. The expressions of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-JNK were detected by western blot. RESULTS: The results showed that the levels of ALT, AST, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in AH (Venoplant®) groups were significantly lower than those in ConA-injured group, while the levels of TP, Alb, and A/G were significantly higher. The SOD and GSH levels were significantly increased, and the MDA level was decreased; liver histopathology was changed consistently with the serological indicators, AH (Venoplant®) treatment significantly reduced the pathological damage and cell apoptosis; while in AH (Venoplant®) group, the expressions of cytochrome c, caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and p-JNK were significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: AH (Venoplant®) could significantly protect the ConA-induced acute liver injury in mice via inhibition of reactive oxygen species and JNK pathway.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas/métodos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105625, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302451

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used over-the-counter drug for antipyretic and analgesic, but an overdose will induce acute liver injury. APAP hepatotoxicity has been the most common cause of acute liver failure in western countries with high morbidity and mortality. Geniposide (GP), an iridoid glycoside extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has been reported to exert a profound anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic diseases. However, it is never demonstrated whether GP can protect hepatocytes from APAP hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanism of GP against AILI. The results showed that GP pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT and AST in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis in mice exposed at APAP. Moreover, it suppressed the expression of CYP 2E1 and attenuated the exhaustion of GSH and accumulation of MDA in the liver. Furthermore, GP remarkably inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and mitigated the release of IL-1ß and TNF-α, and inhibited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activation. These data suggested that GP could effectively protect hepatocytes from APAP hepatotoxicity through the down-regulation of CYP 2E1 expression and the inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridoides/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Acetaminofen , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(5): 79-86, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304911

RESUMO

This study is aimed to investigate the effects of Camellia sinensis (CS), Hypericum perforatum (HP) and Urtica dioica (UD) in kidney and liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Highly toxic CCl4 which is used as a solvent in industry comprises experimental toxicity in rats and is widely used in hepatotoxicity and other tissue injury models. The purpose of this investigation is to monitor blood and various tissues by biochemical and histopathological analysis for preventive effects of CS, HP and UD on oxidative stress induced by administration of CCl4 and to enlighten the probable mechanism. Fifty eight rats were divided into five groups; sham group (Group 1, untreated animals), control CCl4 treated group (Group 2), HP extract-treated group (Group 3), UD extract-treated group (Group 4), CS extract-treated group (Group 5). All rats were anaesthetized at the end of the experiment and the blood was collected from each rat. Afterwards, tissue specimens were obtained. The tissue specimens were immersed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 hours. After routine tissue processing, the liver, kidney and stomach were sectioned in 5µm thickness, stained in hematoxylin and eosin. The histological study was performed by using light microscope. The serum marker enzymes were found to be significantly increased in CCl4-induced liver and kidney damage when compared with the sham group (p<0.05). However, treatment with CS, HP, and UD extracts resulted in decreased activity of serum enzymes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased by 20.51±0.95, 27.98±1.58, and 32.39±3.1 nmol/g wet weight protein in kidney homogenates and 16.65±1.75, 17.22±0.71 and 18.92±71 nmol/g wet weight protein in liver homogenates in CS, HP and UD treated groups, respectively. Our results have shown that additive antioxidants like CS, HP and UD will aid in diminishing these deviations in cases of liver and kidney dysfunction.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Camellia sinensis/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Hypericum/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Urtica dioica/química , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Catalase/análise , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Transferase/análise , Malondialdeído/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
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