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1.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1604-1611, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor livers with ≥30% macrosteatosis (steatotic livers) represent a possible expansion to the donor pool, but are frequently discarded as they are associated with an increased risk of mortality and graft loss. We hypothesized that there are certain recipient phenotypes that would tolerate donor steatosis well, and are therefore best suited to receive these grafts. METHODS: Using national registry data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 2006 and 2017, we compared 2048 liver transplant recipients of steatotic livers with 69 394 recipients of nonsteatotic (<30%) livers. We identified recipient factors that amplified the impact of donor steatosis on mortality and graft loss using interaction analysis, classifying recipients without these factors as preferred recipients. We compared mortality and graft loss with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers in preferred and nonpreferred recipients using Cox regression. RESULTS: Preferred recipients of steatotic livers were determined to be first-time recipients with a model for end-stage liver disease 15-34, without primary biliary cirrhosis, and not on life support before transplant. Preferred recipients had no increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.921.041.16; P = 0.5) or graft loss (HR: 0.931.031.15; P = 0.5) with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers. Conversely, nonpreferred recipients had a 41% increased mortality risk (HR: 1.171.411.70; P < 0.001) and 39% increased risk of graft loss (HR: 1.161.391.66; P < 0.001) with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of liver transplantation with steatotic donor livers could be minimized by appropriate recipient matching.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Rejeição de Enxerto/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1619-1626, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in children has achieved promising outcomes during the past few decades. However, it still poses various challenges. This study aimed to analyze perioperative risk factors for postoperative death in pediatric LDLT. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of pediatric patients who underwent LDLT surgery from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, in our hospital. Predictors of mortality following LDLT were analyzed in 430 children. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis were used for covariates selection. A nomogram was developed to estimate overall survival probability. The performance of the nomogram was assessed using calibration curve, decision curve analysis, and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Among the 430 patients in this cohort (median [interquartile range] age, 7 [6.10] mo; 189 [43.9%] female; 391 [90.9%] biliary atresia), the overall survival was 91.4% (95% confidence interval, 89.2-94.4), and most of the death events (36/37) happened within 6 months after the surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that the Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease score, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, and intraoperative norepinephrine infusion were independent prognostic factors. A novel nomogram was developed based on these prognostic factors. The C index for the final model was 0.764 (95% confidence interval, 0.701-0.819). Decision curve analysis and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve suggested that this novel nomogram performed well at predicting mortality of pediatric LDLT. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several perioperative risk factors for mortality of pediatric LDLT. And the newly developed nomogram can be a convenient individualized tool in estimating the prognosis of pediatric LDLT.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Nomogramas , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Atresia Biliar/complicações , Atresia Biliar/diagnóstico , Atresia Biliar/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1627-1632, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2018, United Network for Organ Sharing approved an allocation scheme based on recipients' geographic distance from a deceased donor (acuity circles [ACs]). Previous analyses suggested that ACs would reduce waitlist mortality overall, but their impact on pediatric subgroups was not considered. METHODS: We applied Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 2011 to 2016 toward the Liver Simulated Allocation Model to compare outcomes by age and illness severity for the United Network for Organ Sharing-approved AC and the existing donor service area-/region-based allocation schemes. Means from each allocation scheme were compared using matched-pairs t tests. RESULTS: During a 3-year period, AC allocation is projected to decrease waitlist deaths in infants (39 versus 55; P < 0.001), children (32 versus 50; P < 0.001), and teenagers (15 versus 25; P < 0.001). AC allocation would increase the number of transplants in infants (707 versus 560; P < 0.001), children (677 versus 547; P < 0.001), and teenagers (404 versus 248; P < 0.001). AC allocation led to decreased median pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease at transplant for infants (29 versus 30; P = 0.01), children (26 versus 29; P < 0.001), and teenagers (26 versus 31; P < 0.001). Additionally, AC allocation would lead to fewer transplants in status 1B in children (97 versus 103; P = 0.006) but not infants or teenagers. With AC allocation, 77% of pediatric donor organs would be allocated to pediatric candidates, compared to only 46% in donor service area-/region-based allocation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AC allocation will likely address disparities for pediatric liver transplant candidates and recipients by increasing transplants and decreasing waitlist mortality. It is more consistent with federally mandated requirements for organ allocation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Alocação de Recursos/organização & administração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
4.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1633-1643, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cellular infiltrate in protocol liver biopsies (PB) following pediatric liver transplantation remains mostly uncharacterized, yet there is increasing concern about the role of inflammation and fibrosis in long-term liver allografts. We aimed to define cell types in PB and to analyze their relationship with donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and histological phenotype. METHODS: PB were performed at least 1 year after transplantation. We identified 4 phenotypes: normal, fibrosis, inflammation, inflammation with fibrosis. Cell types were counted after immunostaining for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD20, MUM1, and FoxP3. RESULTS: Forty-four patients underwent 1 PB between 2000 and 2015. Eleven percent (5/44) of PB displayed normal histology, 13.6% (6/44) fibrosis, 34.1% (15/44) inflammation, and 40.9% (18/44) inflammation and fibrosis. The main cell types in the portal tracts and lobules were CD3+ and CD68+ cells. Frequency of de novo DSA was 63% (27/44). The presence of CD8+ cells in the lobules was associated with fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis in PB were associated with the presence of circulating de novo DSA, number of de novo DSA, and C1q binding activity when compared to other phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: T cells (CD3+) and macrophages (CD68+) were the most prevalent cell-types in PB. In the presence of inflammation, portal tracts were enriched in CD3+, CD20+ but displayed fewer CD68+. This coincided with the presence and number of de novo DSA. How these cellular and humoral actors interact is unclear, but peripheral DSA may be a marker of immune cellular activity in the seemingly quiescent allograft.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Sistema Porta/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos/irrigação sanguínea , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Aloenxertos/patologia , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Lactente , Isoanticorpos/análise , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Sistema Porta/citologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(12): 1397-1405, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a devastating complication of cirrhosis. AIM: To describe the outcomes after developing hepatic encephalopathy among contemporary, aging patients. METHODS: We examined data for a 20% random sample of United States Medicare enrolees with cirrhosis and Part D prescription coverage from 2008 to 2014. Among 49 164 persons with hepatic encephalopathy, we evaluated the associations with transplant-free survival using Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates (hazard ratios, HR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for healthcare utilisation measured in hospital-days and 30-day readmissions per person-year. We validated our findings in an external cohort of 2184 privately insured patients with complete laboratory values. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy was associated with median survivals of 0.95 and 2.5 years for those ≥65 or <65 years old and 1.1 versus 3.9 years for those with and without ascites. Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease posed the highest adjusted risk of death among aetiologies, HR 1.07 95% CI (1.02, 1.12). Both gastroenterology consultation and rifaximin utilisation were associated with lower mortality, respective adjusted-HR 0.73 95% CI (0.67, 0.80) and 0.40 95% CI (0.39, 0.42). Thirty-day readmissions were fewer for patients seen by gastroenterologists (0.71 95% CI [0.57-0.88]) and taking rifaximin (0.18 95% CI [0.08-0.40]). Lactulose alone was associated with fewer hospital-days, IRR 0.31 95% CI (0.30-0.32), than rifaximin alone, 0.49 95% CI (0.45-0.53), but the optimal therapy combination was lactulose/rifaximin, IRR 0.28 95% CI (0.27-0.30). These findings were validated in the privately insured cohort adjusting for model for endstage liver disease-sodium score and serum albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic encephalopathy remains morbid and associated with poor outcomes among contemporary patients. Gastroenterology consultation and combination lactulose-rifaximin are both associated with improved outcomes. These data inform the development of care coordination efforts for subjects with cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Transplantation ; 104(7): e188-e198, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an early biomarker of renal dysfunction scarcely studied in patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Sarcopenia is frequent in cirrhosis and impacts prognosis. We aimed to assess the capability of these factors to predict survival and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients awaiting LT, as well as early post-LT outcomes. METHODS: Single-center study that included all cirrhotic patients listed for LT between 2014 and 2017. Competing risk regression analysis was used to evaluate the capability of liver-, kidney-, and global status-related variables at waitlist (WL) inclusion to predict WL mortality and ACLF. Variables associated with post-LT outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-eighty patients were included. Fifty-six (31%) patients developed ACLF, 54 (30%) underwent LT and 35 (19%) died. In the adjusted competing risk regression analysis, CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and MELD-Na were independent predictors of ACLF in the WL, while CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and albumin were independent predictors of mortality. The cumulative incidence of ACLF and mortality at 12 months were 50% and 34% in patients with sarcopenia and CysC ≥1.5 mg/L. An estimated glomerular filtration rate by chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI-CysC-creatinine <60 mL/min/1.73 m at WL inclusion was an independent predictor of the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the first month post-LT. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CysC and sarcopenia are strongly associated with the ACLF and mortality in WL. The assessment of both risk factors may improve the prognostic evaluation and allow identifying a group of patients with a very high risk of poor outcomes while awaiting LT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Cistatina C/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Sarcopenia/embriologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
7.
J Surg Res ; 250: 45-52, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Sodium (MELD-Na) incorporates hyponatremia into the MELD score and has been shown to correlate with surgical outcomes. The pathophysiology of hyponatremia parallels that of ascites, which purports greater surgical risk. This study investigates whether MELD-Na accurately predicts morbidity and mortality in patients with ascites undergoing general surgery procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2014) to examine the adjusted risk of morbidity and mortality of cirrhotic patients with and without ascites undergoing inguinal or ventral hernia repair, cholecystectomy, and lysis of adhesions for bowel obstruction. Patients were stratified by the MELD-Na score and ascites. Outcomes were compared between patients with and without ascites for each stratum using low MELD-Na and no ascites group as a reference. RESULTS: A total of 30,391 patients were analyzed. Within each MELD-Na stratum, patients with ascites had an increased risk of complications compared with the reference group (low MELD-Na and no ascites): low MELD-Na with ascites odds ratio (OR) 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96-9.59), moderate MELD-Na no ascites OR 1.70 (95% CI 1.52-1.9), moderate MELD-Na with ascites OR 3.69 (95% CI 2.49-5.46), high MELD-Na no ascites OR 3.51 (95% CI 3.07-4.01), and high MELD-Na ascites OR 7.18 (95% CI 5.33-9.67). Similarly, mortality risk was increased in patients with ascites compared with the reference: moderate MELD-Na no ascites OR 3.55 (95% CI 2.22-5.67), moderate MELD-Na ascites OR 13.80 (95% CI 5.65-33.71), high MELD-Na no ascites OR 8.34 (95% CI 5.15-13.51), and high MELD-Na ascites OR 43.97 (95% CI 23.76-81.39). CONCLUSIONS: MELD-Na underestimates morbidity and mortality risk for general surgery patients with ascites.


Assuntos
Ascite/cirurgia , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Ascite/sangue , Ascite/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(2): 1-8, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097065

RESUMO

By 2020, chronic liver disease will have eclipsed ischaemic heart disease as the leading cause of working life years lost in the UK. As mortality from chronic liver disease continues to rise, the landscape of aetiology has shifted from infectious to non-communicable causes. In parallel with the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is estimated to affect 25% of the UK adult population. Simultaneously, escalating alcohol consumption has fuelled public health and economic concerns regarding its widespread impact on working-age adults. Given that chronic liver disease remains clinically silent until its advanced stages, there is an urgent unmet need to identify affected individuals earlier in the disease process, enabling targeted intervention strategies which may improve prognosis. Robust epidemiological data have shown that liver fibrosis is the strongest predictor of clinically meaningful outcomes, including decompensation, liver cancer and overall mortality. Detecting fibrosis among at-risk individuals, in a manner that is reproducible, non-invasive, safe and cost effective, has become a major challenge of our time. This article addresses the pitfalls of the standard panel of liver function tests, discusses other non-invasive biomarkers and reviews imaging technologies which may revolutionise community-based diagnosis and stratification of chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Transplantation ; 104(6): 1187-1192, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare vascular tumor with a high mortality rate. HEHE is now a formally recognized indication for exception point priority in the United States under the new National Liver Review Board. The role of liver transplantation (LT) and exception point waitlist priority in the United States for patients with HEHE remains understudied. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the United Network for Organ Sharing transplant database. From February 27, 2002 to January 31, 2018, 131 adults waitlisted for LT with HEHE were identified by free-text entry. RESULTS: Exception point applications were submitted for 91.6% (120/131) of patients. All patients with fully reviewed applications received exception points at least once during waitlisting, and 85% (103/120) upon first submission. Among the 88 patients transplanted, median model for end-stage liver disease score at LT was 7 ((interquartile range [IQR]: 6-11) and waiting time 78.5 days (IQR: 29.5-237.5). Unadjusted post-LT survival of HEHE recipients at 1-, 3-, and 5-years from LT was 88.6%, 78.9%, and 77.2%. Unadjusted post-LT patient and graft survival of HEHE patients was not different from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan receiving exception point priority (P = 0.08). An increased rate of graft failure due to hepatic artery thrombosis ≤14 days from initial LT was observed in HEHE versus non-HEHE patients (4.6% versus 0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of HEHE recipients receive exception points at a universal approval rate allowing prompt access to deceased donor LT.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/diagnóstico , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/mortalidade , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/patologia , Artéria Hepática/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
11.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1413-1418, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of patients with cirrhosis have low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium (MELD-Na) scores; however, the ability for the MELD-Na score to predict patient outcomes at low scores is unclear. METHODS: Adult patients in a multicenter, Chicago-wide database of medical records with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition codes of cirrhosis and without a history of hepatocellular carcinoma were included. Records were linked with the state death registry, and death certificates were manually reviewed. Deaths were classified as "liver-related," "non-liver-related," and "non-descript" as adjudicated by a panel comprised of a transplant surgeon, a hepatologist, and an internist. A sensitivity analysis was performed where patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. RESULTS: Among 7922 identified patients, 3999 patients had MELD-Na scores that were never higher than 15. In total, 2137 (27%) patients died during the study period with higher mortality rates for the patients in the high MELD-Na group (19.4 (41.6%) versus 4.1 (12.6%) per 100 person-y, P < 0.001). The high MELD-Na group died of a liver-related cause in 1142 out of 1632 (70%) as compared to 240 out of 505 (47.5%) deaths in the low MELD-Na group. There was no difference in the distribution of subcategory of liver-related death between low and high MELD-Na groups. Among subclassification of liver-related deaths, the most common cause of death was "Infectious" in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite persistently low MELD-Na scores, patients with cirrhosis still experience high rates of liver-related mortality.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sódio/sangue , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Chicago/epidemiologia , Atestado de Óbito , Progressão da Doença , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1419-1428, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplant recipients suffer many postoperative complications. Few studies evaluated the effects of fluid management on these complications. We conducted an observational cohort study to evaluate the association between intraoperative fluid balance and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and other postoperative complications. METHODS: We included consecutive adult liver transplant recipients who had their surgery between July 2008 and December 2017. Our exposure was intraoperative fluid balance, and our primary outcome was the grade of AKI at 48 hours after surgery. Our secondary outcomes were the grade of AKI at 7 days, the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy, postoperative red blood cell transfusions, time to first extubation, time to discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1-year survival. Every analysis was adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 532 transplantations in 492 patients. We observed no effect of fluid balance on either 48-hour AKI, 7-day AKI, or on the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy after adjustments for confounders. A higher fluid balance increased the time to ICU discharge, and increased the risk of dying (hazard ratio = 1.21 [1.04,1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between intraoperative fluid balance and postoperative AKI. Fluid balance was associated with longer time to ICU discharge and lower survival. This study provides insight that might inform the design of a clinical trial on fluid management strategies in this population.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
14.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1403-1412, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic renal disease (CKD) jeopardizes the long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients. In patients with end-stage liver graft disease and CKD, liver retransplantation associated with kidney transplantation (ReLT-KT) might be necessary. Yet, this specific subset of patients remains poorly described. METHODS: Indications, perioperative characteristics, and short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing ReLT-KT at 2 transplantation units from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. Risk factors for postoperative mortality and long-term survivals were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 3060 patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT), 45 (1.5%) underwent ReLT-KT. The proportion of ReLT-KT among LT recipients continuously grew throughout the study period from 0.3% to 2.4% (P < 0.001). Median time from primary LT to ReLT-KT was 151.3 (7.5-282.9) months. The most frequent indications for liver retransplantation were recurrence of the primary liver disease and cholangitis in 15 (33.3%) cases each. CKD was related to calcineurin inhibitors toxicity in 38 (84.4%) cases. Twelve (26.7%) patients died postoperatively. D-MELD (donor age × recipients' MELD) was associated with postoperative mortality (HR: 8.027; 95% CI: 2.387-18.223; P = 0.026) and optimal cut-off value was 1039 (AUC: 0.801; P = 0.002). Overall 1, 3, and 5 years survivals were 68.8%, 65.9%, and 59.5%, respectively. D-MELD > 1039 was the only factor associated with poor survival (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: ReLT-KT is a highly morbid increasingly performed procedure. Refinements in the selection of grafts and transplant candidates are required to limit the postoperative mortality of these patients.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/transplante , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1396-1402, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score-based liver transplant allocation was implemented as a fair and objective measure to prioritize patients based upon disease severity. Accuracy and reproducibility of MELD is an essential assumption to ensure fairness in organ access. We hypothesized that variability in laboratory methodology between centers could impact allocation scores for individuals on the transplant waiting list. METHODS: Aliquots of 30 patient serum samples were analyzed for creatinine, bilirubin, and sodium in all transplant centers within United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) region 9. Descriptive statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and linear mixed-effects regression were used to determine the relationship between center, bilirubin, and calculated MELD-sodium (MELD-Na) score. RESULTS: The mean MELD-Na score per sample ranged from 14 to 38. The mean range in MELD-Na per sample was 3 points, but 30% of samples had a range of 4-6 points. Correlation plots and intraclass correlation coefficient analysis confirmed bilirubin interfered with creatinine, with worsening agreement in creatinine at high bilirubin levels. Center and bilirubin were independently associated with creatinine reported in mixed-effects models. Unbiased hierarchical clustering suggested that samples from specific centers have consistently higher creatinine and MELD-Na values. CONCLUSIONS: Despite implementation of creatinine standardization, centers within a single UNOS region report clinically significant differences in MELD-Na on an identical sample, with differences of up to 6 points in high MELD-Na patients. The bias in MELD-Na scores based upon center choice within a region should be addressed in the current efforts to eliminate disparities in liver transplant access.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Bilirrubina/sangue , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Creatinina/sangue , Definição da Elegibilidade/normas , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sódio/sangue , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
17.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743362

RESUMO

Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) are at increased risk of developing late cardiovascular complication. However, little is known about the predictive factors for long-term outcome. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease eXcluding INR (MELD-XI) score was originally developed to assess cirrhotic patients and has the prognostic value for heart failure (HF) patients. In the present study, we examined whether the score also has the prognostic value in this population. We retrospectively examined 637 ACHD patients (mean age 31.0 years) who visited our Tohoku University hospital from 1995 to 2015. MELD-XI score was calculated as follows; 11.76 x ln(serum creatinine) + 5.11 x ln(serum total bilirubin) + 9.44. We compared the long-term outcomes between the high (≥10.4) and the low (<10.4) score groups. The cutoff value of MELD-XI score was determined based on the survival classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. The major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as a composite of cardiac death, HF hospitalization, and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. During a mean follow-up period of 8.6 years (interquartile range 4.4-11.4 years), MACE was noted in 51 patients, including HF hospitalization in 37, cardiac death in 8, and lethal ventricular arrhythmias in 6. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the high score group had significantly worse MACE-free survival compared with the low score group (log-rank, P<0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that the MELD-XI score remained a significant predictor of MACE (hazard ratio 1.36, confidence interval 1.17-1.58, P<0.001) even after adjusting for patient characteristics, such as sex, functional status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cardiac function. Furthermore, CART analysis revealed that the MELD-XI score was the most important variable for predicting MACE. These results demonstrate that the MELD-XI score can effectively predict MACE in ACHD patients, indicating that ACHD patients with high MELD-XI score need to be closely followed.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3862024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636735

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a promising alternative biomarker of chronic liver diseases, but most data are from patients with HBV infection rather than HCV. Materials and Methods: Two independent cohorts of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients from the 5th Medical Centre of the Chinese PLA General Hospital (n = 174) and Beijing Youan Hospital (n = 120) with different histories of HCV infection were enrolled. The correlations between serum GP73 and other biochemical indices, as well as its correlations with different stages of liver disease progression, were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of serum GP73 for liver necroinflammation and fibrosis, and comparisons of the diagnostic efficiency with traditional indices of hepatic liver injuries were further investigated. Results: Levels of serum GP73 were found significantly elevated in patients with moderate to severe inflammatory grade (G ≥ 2) and/or with advanced fibrotic stages (F ≥ 3) in both cohorts (P < 0.05, respectively), as compared to those with a normal or mild liver lesion. Further ROC analysis demonstrated that serum GP73 was comparable to serum ALT and AST in diagnosing the liver necroinflammation grade at G ≥ 2, but its diagnostic values for advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F = 4) were limited when compared to APRI and FIB-4, and FIB-4 exhibited the best performance. Notably, an obvious elevation of serum GP73 was observed after patients received PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment. Conclusions: Serum GP73 is an important biomarker in evaluating and monitoring the disease progression including liver necroinflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection, but the value is limited for diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in comparison with APRI and FIB-4.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis , Curva ROC , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1184-1188, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657321

RESUMO

Guidelines suggest targeting a preoperative international normalized ratio (INR) < 1.5. We examined and compared the predictive value of INR relative to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). We reviewed the American College of Surgeons NSQIP from 2005 to 2016 for adult patients undergoing open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients with a preoperative INR were stratified into groups: ≤1, >1 to ≤1.5, >1.5 to ≤2, and >2. Thirty day postoperative mortality was the primary outcome. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for baseline differences. Of 58,177 cholecystectomy patients, 15.2 per cent had INR ≤ 1, 80.4 per cent had INR > 1 to ≤1.5, 3.7 per cent had INR > 1.5 to ≤2, and 0.7 per cent had INR > 2. Patients with INR > 2 were older and more likely to have diabetes and hypertension (P < 0.001). Multivariable regression demonstrated a stepwise increase in mortality for INR > 1 to ≤1.5 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50 [1.10-2.05]), INR > 1.5 to ≤2 (OR = 2.96 [1.97-4.45]), and INR > 2 (OR = 3.21 [1.64-6.31]) relative to INR ≤ 1. C-statistic for INR (0.910) and MELD (0.906) models indicated a similar value in predicting mortality. INR groups also faced an incremental, increased risk of bleeding. Although unable to track preoperative correction of INR, this analysis identifies that INR remains an excellent predictor of postoperative mortality and bleeding after both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomies and is comparable to MELD.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
Liver Transpl ; 25(12): 1756-1767, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597218

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is common in liver transplantation (LT) candidates, but differentiating between reversible and irreversible renal injury can be difficult. Kidney biopsy might be helpful in differentiating reversible from irreversible renal injury, but it is associated with significant complications. We aimed to identify pre-LT predictors of potentially reversible renal injury using histological information obtained on pre-LT renal biopsy. Data on 128 LT candidates who underwent pre-LT kidney biopsy were retrospectively collected and correlated with renal histological findings. Indications for kidney biopsy were iothalamate glomerular filtration rate (iGFR) ≤40 mL/minute, proteinuria >500 mg/day, and/or hematuria. According to the biopsy diagnosis, patients were grouped into the following categories: normal (n = 13); acute tubular necrosis (ATN; n = 25); membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 19); minimal histological changes (n = 24); and advanced interstitial fibrosis (IF) and glomerulosclerosis (GS) (n = 47). Compared with patients having advanced IF/GS, patients with normal biopsies and those with ATN had lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and higher international normalized ratio and total bilirubin levels (<0.05 for all). Both SBP and DBP directly correlated with the degree of IF and GS (R = 0.3, P ≤ 0.02 for all). SBP ≤90 mm Hg was 100% sensitive and 98% specific in correlating with normal biopsies or ATN, whereas SBP ≥140 mm Hg was 22% sensitive and 90% specific in correlating with advanced IF/GS. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, serum creatinine, iGFR, urinary sodium excretion, and renal size did not correlate with biopsy diagnosis or degree of IF or GS. In conclusion, SBP at the time of LT evaluation correlates with renal histology, and it should be included along with other clinical and laboratory markers in the decision-making process to list patients with renal dysfunction for LT alone versus simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Creatinina/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Período Pré-Operatório , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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