Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 775
Filtrar
1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 619-635, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the preoperative model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and MELD-XI (exclude international normalized ratio) score and outcomes in patients undergoing pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients >18 years of age undergoing pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis between January 1, 2007, and October 12, 2017, were analyzed with data for MELD and MELD-XI score calculation within 30 days preoperatively. The association between the MELD and MELD-XI scoring systems and risk of postoperative outcomes was assessed in regression models adjusting for relevant covariates. The primary outcome was operative mortality (death within 90 days or in hospital). Secondary outcomes included various measures of postoperative morbidity. RESULTS: A total of 175 and 226 patients had data for MELD/MELD-XI, respectively. Ninety-day mortality was 8.7%. When stratified into tertiles of MELD-XI, the unadjusted risk of 90-day mortality was 2.7%, 8.2%, and 16.0%, respectively. In Cox regression models fitted for MELD-XI and MELD, higher scores associated with increased risk of mortality (P<.001 for both). In secondary multivariable analyses, both MELD-XI and MELD were associated with increased incidence of renal failure and greater levels of chest-tube output and transfusion, whereas MELD-XI was additionally associated with prolonged intubation and extended intensive care unit and hospital stays. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis, MELD-XI and MELD were associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although the simpler MELD-XI score generally performed as well or better than MELD as a correlate of various outcomes, both scores can serve as a simple yet robust risk stratification tool for patients undergoing pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Pericardiectomia/mortalidade , Pericardite Constritiva/mortalidade , Pericardite Constritiva/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericardite Constritiva/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hispanics are the fastest growing population in the USA, and our objective was to determine their waitlist mortality rates, liver transplantation (LT) rates and post-LT outcomes. METHODS: All adults listed for LT with the UNOS from 2002 to 2018 were included. Competing risk analysis was performed to assess the association between ethnic group with waitlist removal due to death/deterioration and transplantation. For sensitivity analysis, Hispanics were matched 1:1 to Non-Hispanics using propensity scores, and outcomes of interest were compared in matched cohort. RESULTS: During this period, total of 154,818 patients who listed for liver transplant were involved in this study, of them 23,223 (15%) were Hispanics, 109,653 (71%) were Whites, 13,020 (8%) were Blacks, 6,980 (5%) were Asians and 1,942 (1%) were others. After adjusting for differences in clinical characteristics, compared to Whites, Hispanics had higher waitlist removal due to death or deterioration (adjusted cause-specific Hazard Ratio: 1.034, p = 0.01) and lower transplantation rates (adjusted cause-specific Hazard Ratio: 0.90, p<0.001). If Hispanics received liver transplant, they had better patient and graft survival than Non-Hispanics (p<0.001). Compared to Whites, adjusted hazard ratio for Hispanics were 0.88 (95% CI 0.84, 0.92, p<0.001) for patient survival and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86, 0.94, p<0.001) for graft survival. Our analysis in matched cohort showed the consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that Hispanics had higher probability to be removed from the waitlist due to death, and lower probability to be transplanted, however they had better post-LT outcomes when compared to whites.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1604-1611, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor livers with ≥30% macrosteatosis (steatotic livers) represent a possible expansion to the donor pool, but are frequently discarded as they are associated with an increased risk of mortality and graft loss. We hypothesized that there are certain recipient phenotypes that would tolerate donor steatosis well, and are therefore best suited to receive these grafts. METHODS: Using national registry data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 2006 and 2017, we compared 2048 liver transplant recipients of steatotic livers with 69 394 recipients of nonsteatotic (<30%) livers. We identified recipient factors that amplified the impact of donor steatosis on mortality and graft loss using interaction analysis, classifying recipients without these factors as preferred recipients. We compared mortality and graft loss with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers in preferred and nonpreferred recipients using Cox regression. RESULTS: Preferred recipients of steatotic livers were determined to be first-time recipients with a model for end-stage liver disease 15-34, without primary biliary cirrhosis, and not on life support before transplant. Preferred recipients had no increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.921.041.16; P = 0.5) or graft loss (HR: 0.931.031.15; P = 0.5) with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers. Conversely, nonpreferred recipients had a 41% increased mortality risk (HR: 1.171.411.70; P < 0.001) and 39% increased risk of graft loss (HR: 1.161.391.66; P < 0.001) with steatotic versus nonsteatotic livers. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of liver transplantation with steatotic donor livers could be minimized by appropriate recipient matching.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Rejeição de Enxerto/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1612-1618, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steatotic donor livers (SDLs, ≥30% macrosteatosis on biopsy) are often declined, as they are associated with a higher risk of graft loss, even though candidates may wait an indefinite time for a subsequent organ offer. We sought to quantify outcomes for transplant candidates who declined or accepted an SDL offer. METHODS: We used Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients offer data from 2009 to 2015 to compare outcomes of 759 candidates who accepted an SDL to 13 362 matched controls who declined and followed candidates from the date of decision (decline or accept) until death or end of study period. We used a competing risk framework to understand the natural history of candidates who declined and Cox regression to compare postdecision survival after declining versus accepting (ie, what could have happened if candidates who declined had instead accepted). RESULTS: Among those who declined an SDL, only 53.1% of candidates were subsequently transplanted, 23.8% died, and 19.4% were removed from the waitlist. Candidates who accepted had a brief perioperative risk period within the first month posttransplant (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.493.494.89, P < 0.001), but a 62% lower mortality risk (aHR: 0.310.380.46, P < 0.001) beyond this. Although the long-term survival benefit of acceptance did not vary by candidate model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the short-term risk period did. MELD 6-21 candidates who accepted an SDL had a 7.88-fold higher mortality risk (aHR: 4.807.8812.93, P < 0.001) in the first month posttransplant, whereas MELD 35-40 candidates had a 68% lower mortality risk (aHR: 0.110.320.90, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriately selected SDLs can decrease wait time and provide substantial long-term survival benefit for liver transplant candidates.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Biópsia , Tomada de Decisões , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplantados/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
6.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1619-1626, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in children has achieved promising outcomes during the past few decades. However, it still poses various challenges. This study aimed to analyze perioperative risk factors for postoperative death in pediatric LDLT. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of pediatric patients who underwent LDLT surgery from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, in our hospital. Predictors of mortality following LDLT were analyzed in 430 children. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis were used for covariates selection. A nomogram was developed to estimate overall survival probability. The performance of the nomogram was assessed using calibration curve, decision curve analysis, and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Among the 430 patients in this cohort (median [interquartile range] age, 7 [6.10] mo; 189 [43.9%] female; 391 [90.9%] biliary atresia), the overall survival was 91.4% (95% confidence interval, 89.2-94.4), and most of the death events (36/37) happened within 6 months after the surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that the Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease score, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, and intraoperative norepinephrine infusion were independent prognostic factors. A novel nomogram was developed based on these prognostic factors. The C index for the final model was 0.764 (95% confidence interval, 0.701-0.819). Decision curve analysis and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve suggested that this novel nomogram performed well at predicting mortality of pediatric LDLT. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several perioperative risk factors for mortality of pediatric LDLT. And the newly developed nomogram can be a convenient individualized tool in estimating the prognosis of pediatric LDLT.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Nomogramas , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Atresia Biliar/complicações , Atresia Biliar/diagnóstico , Atresia Biliar/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1627-1632, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2018, United Network for Organ Sharing approved an allocation scheme based on recipients' geographic distance from a deceased donor (acuity circles [ACs]). Previous analyses suggested that ACs would reduce waitlist mortality overall, but their impact on pediatric subgroups was not considered. METHODS: We applied Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 2011 to 2016 toward the Liver Simulated Allocation Model to compare outcomes by age and illness severity for the United Network for Organ Sharing-approved AC and the existing donor service area-/region-based allocation schemes. Means from each allocation scheme were compared using matched-pairs t tests. RESULTS: During a 3-year period, AC allocation is projected to decrease waitlist deaths in infants (39 versus 55; P < 0.001), children (32 versus 50; P < 0.001), and teenagers (15 versus 25; P < 0.001). AC allocation would increase the number of transplants in infants (707 versus 560; P < 0.001), children (677 versus 547; P < 0.001), and teenagers (404 versus 248; P < 0.001). AC allocation led to decreased median pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease at transplant for infants (29 versus 30; P = 0.01), children (26 versus 29; P < 0.001), and teenagers (26 versus 31; P < 0.001). Additionally, AC allocation would lead to fewer transplants in status 1B in children (97 versus 103; P = 0.006) but not infants or teenagers. With AC allocation, 77% of pediatric donor organs would be allocated to pediatric candidates, compared to only 46% in donor service area-/region-based allocation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AC allocation will likely address disparities for pediatric liver transplant candidates and recipients by increasing transplants and decreasing waitlist mortality. It is more consistent with federally mandated requirements for organ allocation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Alocação de Recursos/organização & administração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
8.
J Surg Res ; 255: 23-32, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) develop chronic liver disease via etiologies including sickle cell hepatopathy, acquired viral hepatitis, or secondary hemochromatosis. It is unclear how many patients with SCD ultimately undergo liver transplantation (LT) and what factors are associated with survival after LT. In this study, we examined LT outcomes in these patients by reviewing the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) and our institutional experience. METHODS: Analysis of the SRTR identified 23 LT recipients and five simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation (SLKT) recipients with SCD. Patient demographics and graft and patient survival were analyzed. Two patients with SCD at our institution underwent SLKT. RESULTS: Review of the SRTR revealed that recipients with SCD had significantly higher model for end-stage liver disease scores (33 versus 21, P = 0.004), preoperative intensive care unit admission (43.5% versus 19.1%, P = 0.007), preoperative dialysis (17.4% versus 4.9%, P = 0.009), and were more likely to be status 1 (26.1% versus 12.1%, P = 0.041) when compared with the reference population of African American LT recipients. Despite being higher risk at the time of LT, patients with SCD had equivalent posttransplant graft and patient survival when compared with the reference population (P = 0.5 and P = 0.2, respectively) and a 2:1 propensity score-matched group (P = 0.5 and P = 0.2, respectively). Two recent SLKT recipients with SCD from our institution have performed well with stable allograft function. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the SRTR demonstrate that patients with SCD can expect equivalent graft and patient survival after LT despite exhibiting more comorbidities at the time of LT. The low number of patients with SCD who underwent LT in the SRTR in comparison with the rate of chronic liver disease in this population raises the question as to whether a disparity in access to LT exists for this complex population.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 873-881, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The outbreak of COVID-19 has vastly increased the operational burden on healthcare systems worldwide. For patients with end-stage liver failure, liver transplantation is the only option. However, the strain on intensive care facilities caused by the pandemic is a major concern. There is an urgent need for ethical frameworks to balance the need for liver transplantation against the availability of national resources. METHODS: We performed an international multicenter study of transplant centers to understand the evolution of policies for transplant prioritization in response to the pandemic in March 2020. To describe the ethical tension arising in this setting, we propose a novel ethical framework, the quadripartite equipoise (QE) score, that is applicable to liver transplantation in the context of limited national resources. RESULTS: Seventeen large- and medium-sized liver transplant centers from 12 countries across 4 continents participated. Ten centers opted to limit transplant activity in response to the pandemic, favoring a "sickest-first" approach. Conversely, some larger centers opted to continue routine transplant activity in order to balance waiting list mortality. To model these and other ethical tensions, we computed a QE score using 4 factors - recipient outcome, donor/graft safety, waiting list mortality and healthcare resources - for 7 countries. The fluctuation of the QE score over time accurately reflects the dynamic changes in the ethical tensions surrounding transplant activity in a pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This four-dimensional model of quadripartite equipoise addresses the ethical tensions in the current pandemic. It serves as a universally applicable framework to guide regulation of transplant activity in response to the increasing burden on healthcare systems. LAY SUMMARY: There is an urgent need for ethical frameworks to balance the need for liver transplantation against the availability of national resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe a four-dimensional model of quadripartite equipoise that models these ethical tensions and can guide the regulation of transplant activity in response to the increasing burden on healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Transplante de Fígado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Betacoronavirus , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Transplante de Fígado/ética , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its sequelae present a significant source of economic and societal burden. Introduction of highly effective curative therapies has made HCV elimination attainable. The study used a predictive model to assess the clinical and economic impact of implementing national screening and treatment policies toward HCV elimination in Korea. METHODS: A previously validated Markov disease progression model of HCV infection was employed to analyze the clinical and economic impact of various strategies for HCV diagnosis and treatment in Korea. In this analysis, the model compared the clinical and economic outcomes of current HCV-related interventions in Korea (7,000 patients treated and 4,200 patients newly diagnosed annually, starting in 2017) to four elimination scenarios: 1) initiating sufficient diagnosis and treatment interventions to meet the World Health Organization's GHSS elimination targets by 2030, 2) delaying initiation of interventions by one year, 3) delaying initiation of interventions by two years and 4) accelerating initiation of interventions to meet elimination targets by 2025. Modelled historical incidence of HCV was calibrated to match a viremic HCV prevalence of 0.44% in 2009. Elimination scenarios required 24,000 treatments and 34,000 newly diagnosed patients annually, starting in 2018, to reach the 2030 targets. RESULTS: Compared to current "status quo" interventions, elimination (or accelerated elimination by 2025) would avert 23,700 (27,000) incident cases of HCV, 1,300 (1,400) liver-related deaths (LRDs) and 2,900 (3,100) cases of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) over the 2017-2030 time period. Postponing interventions by one (or two) years would avert 21,100 (18,600) new HCV infections, 920 (660) LRDs and 2,000 (1,400) cases of ESLD by 2030. Following elimination or accelerated elimination strategies would save 860 million USD or 1.1 billion USD by 2030, respectively, compared to the status quo, requiring an up-front investment in prevention that decreases spending on liver-related complications and death. CONCLUSIONS: By projecting the impact of interventions and tracking progress toward GHSS elimination targets using modelling, we demonstrate that Korea can prevent significant morbidity, mortality and spending on HCV. Results should serve as the backbone for policy and decision-making, demonstrating how aggressive prevention measures are designed to reduce future costs and increase the health of the public.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Transplantation ; 104(7): e188-e198, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an early biomarker of renal dysfunction scarcely studied in patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Sarcopenia is frequent in cirrhosis and impacts prognosis. We aimed to assess the capability of these factors to predict survival and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients awaiting LT, as well as early post-LT outcomes. METHODS: Single-center study that included all cirrhotic patients listed for LT between 2014 and 2017. Competing risk regression analysis was used to evaluate the capability of liver-, kidney-, and global status-related variables at waitlist (WL) inclusion to predict WL mortality and ACLF. Variables associated with post-LT outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-eighty patients were included. Fifty-six (31%) patients developed ACLF, 54 (30%) underwent LT and 35 (19%) died. In the adjusted competing risk regression analysis, CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and MELD-Na were independent predictors of ACLF in the WL, while CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and albumin were independent predictors of mortality. The cumulative incidence of ACLF and mortality at 12 months were 50% and 34% in patients with sarcopenia and CysC ≥1.5 mg/L. An estimated glomerular filtration rate by chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI-CysC-creatinine <60 mL/min/1.73 m at WL inclusion was an independent predictor of the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the first month post-LT. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CysC and sarcopenia are strongly associated with the ACLF and mortality in WL. The assessment of both risk factors may improve the prognostic evaluation and allow identifying a group of patients with a very high risk of poor outcomes while awaiting LT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Cistatina C/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Sarcopenia/embriologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
12.
Transplantation ; 104(6): e164-e173, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are waitlisted at older ages than individuals with other liver diseases, but the effect of age on liver transplantation (LT) outcomes in this population and whether it differs from other etiologies is not known. We aimed to evaluate the impact of age on LT outcomes in NASH. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify adults with NASH, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) listed for LT during 2004-2017. Patients were split into age groups (18-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, ≥70), and their outcomes were compared. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2017, 14 197 adults with NASH were waitlisted, and the proportion ≥65 increased from 15.8% to 28.9%. NASH patients ages 65-69 had an increased risk of waitlist and posttransplant mortality compared to younger groups, whereas the outcomes in ages 60-64 and 55-59 were similar. The outcomes of individuals with NASH were similar to patients of the same age group with ALD or HCV. Functional status and dialysis were predictors of posttransplant mortality in individuals ≥65 with NASH, and cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Older NASH patients (≥65) have an increased risk of waitlist and posttransplant mortality compared to younger individuals, although outcomes were similar to patients with ALD or HCV of corresponding age. These individuals should be carefully evaluated prior to LT, considering their functional status, renal function, and cardiovascular risk. Further studies are needed to optimize outcomes in this growing population of transplant candidates.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/cirurgia , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/mortalidade , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/patologia , Feminino , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Período Pós-Operatório , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5654, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221367

RESUMO

Liver transplantation is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease, but the demand for livers is much higher than the available donor livers. Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is a commonly used approach to prioritize patients, but previous studies have indicated that MELD score may fail to predict well for the postoperative patients. This work proposes to use data-driven approach to devise a predictive model to predict postoperative survival within 30 days based on patient's preoperative physiological measurement values. We use random forest (RF) to select important features, including clinically used features and new features discovered from physiological measurement values. Moreover, we propose a new imputation method to deal with the problem of missing values and the results show that it outperforms the other alternatives. In the predictive model, we use patients' blood test data within 1-9 days before surgery to construct the model to predict postoperative patients' survival. The experimental results on a real data set indicate that RF outperforms the other alternatives. The experimental results on the temporal validation set show that our proposed model achieves area under the curve (AUC) of 0.771 and specificity of 0.815, showing superior discrimination power in predicting postoperative survival.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Fígado/cirurgia , Área Sob a Curva , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Metabolism ; 106: 154204, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has improved over the past decades, but long-term survival remains impaired. The effects of obesity on long-term survival after OLT are controversial. Because pre-transplant body mass index (BMI) can be confounded by ascites, we hypothesized that post-transplant BMI at 1 year could predict long-term survival. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed of an observational cohort study consisting of adult recipients of a first OLT between 1993 and 2010. Baseline BMI was measured at 1-year post-transplantation to represent a stable condition. Recipients were stratified into normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 ≤ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2), and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with log-rank testing, followed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Out of 370 included recipients, 184 had normal weight, 136 were overweight, and 50 were obese at 1-year post-transplantation. After median follow-up for 12.3 years, 107 recipients had died, of whom 46 (25%) had normal weight, 39 (29%) were overweight, and 22 (44%) were obese (log-rank P = 0.020). Obese recipients had a significantly increased mortality risk compared to normal weight recipients (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.08-3.68, P = 0.027). BMI was inversely associated with 15 years patient survival (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14, P = 0.001 per kg/m2), independent of age, gender, muscle mass, transplant characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney- and liver function. CONCLUSION: Obesity at 1-year post-transplantation conveys a 2-fold increased mortality risk, which may offer potential for interventional strategies (i.e. dietary advice, lifestyle modification, or bariatric surgery) to improve long-term survival after OLT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 25(2): 122-125, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073494

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been used to rank liver transplant candidates since 2002, and at the time bringing much needed objectivity to the liver allocation process. However, and despite numerous revisions to the MELD score, current liver allocation still does not allow for equitable access to all waitlisted liver candidates. RECENT FINDINGS: An optimized prediction of mortality (OPOM) was developed utilizing novel machine-learning optimal classification tree models trained to predict a liver candidate's 3-month waitlist mortality or removal. When compared to MELD and MELD-Na, OPOM more accurately and objectively prioritized candidates for liver transplantation based on disease severity. In simulation analysis, OPOM allowed for more equitable allocation of livers with a resultant significant number of additional lives saved every year when compared with MELD-based allocation. SUMMARY: Machine learning technology holds the potential to help guide transplant clinical practice, and thus potentially guide national organ allocation policy.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Listas de Espera
16.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(2): 1-8, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097065

RESUMO

By 2020, chronic liver disease will have eclipsed ischaemic heart disease as the leading cause of working life years lost in the UK. As mortality from chronic liver disease continues to rise, the landscape of aetiology has shifted from infectious to non-communicable causes. In parallel with the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is estimated to affect 25% of the UK adult population. Simultaneously, escalating alcohol consumption has fuelled public health and economic concerns regarding its widespread impact on working-age adults. Given that chronic liver disease remains clinically silent until its advanced stages, there is an urgent unmet need to identify affected individuals earlier in the disease process, enabling targeted intervention strategies which may improve prognosis. Robust epidemiological data have shown that liver fibrosis is the strongest predictor of clinically meaningful outcomes, including decompensation, liver cancer and overall mortality. Detecting fibrosis among at-risk individuals, in a manner that is reproducible, non-invasive, safe and cost effective, has become a major challenge of our time. This article addresses the pitfalls of the standard panel of liver function tests, discusses other non-invasive biomarkers and reviews imaging technologies which may revolutionise community-based diagnosis and stratification of chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1745-1761, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) regulate inflammation and control bacterial infections in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to characterize PMs and associate their activation with outcomes of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). METHODS: We isolated PMs from ascites samples of 66 patients with decompensated cirrhosis (19 with SBP) and analyzed them by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, functional analysis, and RNA microarrays. We used ascites samples of a separate cohort of 111 patients with decompensated cirrhosis (67 with SBP) and quantified the soluble form of the mannose receptor (CD206) and tumor necrosis factor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (test cohort). We performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with 90-day mortality. We validated our findings using data from 71 patients with cirrhosis and SBP. Data from 14 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease but without cirrhosis were included as controls. RESULTS: We used surface levels of CD206 to identify subsets of large PMs (LPM) and small PMs (SPM), which differed in granularity and maturation markers, in ascites samples from patients with cirrhosis. LPMs vs SPMs from patients with cirrhosis had different transcriptomes; we identified more than 4000 genes that were differentially regulated in LPMs vs SPMs, including those that regulate the cycle, metabolism, self-renewal, and immune cell signaling. LPMs had an inflammatory phenotype, were less susceptible to tolerance induction, and released more tumor necrosis factor than SPMs. LPMs from patients with cirrhosis produced more inflammatory cytokines than LPMs from controls. Activation of PMs by Toll-like receptor agonists and live bacteria altered levels of CD206 on the surface of LPMs and release of soluble CD206. Analysis of serial ascites fluid from patients with SBP revealed loss of LPMs in the early phase of SBP, but levels increased after treatment. In the test and validation cohorts, patients with SBP and higher concentrations of soluble CD206 in ascites fluid (>0.53 mg/L) were less likely to survive for 90 days than those with lower levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface level of CD206 can be used to identify mature, resident, inflammatory PMs in patients with cirrhosis. Soluble CD206 is released from activated LPMs and increased concentrations in patients with cirrhosis and SBP indicate reduced odds of surviving for 90 days.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Peritonite/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/citologia , Líquido Ascítico/imunologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/mortalidade , Peritonite/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Imunológicos/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1413-1418, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of patients with cirrhosis have low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium (MELD-Na) scores; however, the ability for the MELD-Na score to predict patient outcomes at low scores is unclear. METHODS: Adult patients in a multicenter, Chicago-wide database of medical records with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition codes of cirrhosis and without a history of hepatocellular carcinoma were included. Records were linked with the state death registry, and death certificates were manually reviewed. Deaths were classified as "liver-related," "non-liver-related," and "non-descript" as adjudicated by a panel comprised of a transplant surgeon, a hepatologist, and an internist. A sensitivity analysis was performed where patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. RESULTS: Among 7922 identified patients, 3999 patients had MELD-Na scores that were never higher than 15. In total, 2137 (27%) patients died during the study period with higher mortality rates for the patients in the high MELD-Na group (19.4 (41.6%) versus 4.1 (12.6%) per 100 person-y, P < 0.001). The high MELD-Na group died of a liver-related cause in 1142 out of 1632 (70%) as compared to 240 out of 505 (47.5%) deaths in the low MELD-Na group. There was no difference in the distribution of subcategory of liver-related death between low and high MELD-Na groups. Among subclassification of liver-related deaths, the most common cause of death was "Infectious" in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite persistently low MELD-Na scores, patients with cirrhosis still experience high rates of liver-related mortality.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sódio/sangue , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Chicago/epidemiologia , Atestado de Óbito , Progressão da Doença , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1419-1428, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplant recipients suffer many postoperative complications. Few studies evaluated the effects of fluid management on these complications. We conducted an observational cohort study to evaluate the association between intraoperative fluid balance and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and other postoperative complications. METHODS: We included consecutive adult liver transplant recipients who had their surgery between July 2008 and December 2017. Our exposure was intraoperative fluid balance, and our primary outcome was the grade of AKI at 48 hours after surgery. Our secondary outcomes were the grade of AKI at 7 days, the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy, postoperative red blood cell transfusions, time to first extubation, time to discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1-year survival. Every analysis was adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 532 transplantations in 492 patients. We observed no effect of fluid balance on either 48-hour AKI, 7-day AKI, or on the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy after adjustments for confounders. A higher fluid balance increased the time to ICU discharge, and increased the risk of dying (hazard ratio = 1.21 [1.04,1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between intraoperative fluid balance and postoperative AKI. Fluid balance was associated with longer time to ICU discharge and lower survival. This study provides insight that might inform the design of a clinical trial on fluid management strategies in this population.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
20.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1403-1412, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic renal disease (CKD) jeopardizes the long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients. In patients with end-stage liver graft disease and CKD, liver retransplantation associated with kidney transplantation (ReLT-KT) might be necessary. Yet, this specific subset of patients remains poorly described. METHODS: Indications, perioperative characteristics, and short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing ReLT-KT at 2 transplantation units from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. Risk factors for postoperative mortality and long-term survivals were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 3060 patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT), 45 (1.5%) underwent ReLT-KT. The proportion of ReLT-KT among LT recipients continuously grew throughout the study period from 0.3% to 2.4% (P < 0.001). Median time from primary LT to ReLT-KT was 151.3 (7.5-282.9) months. The most frequent indications for liver retransplantation were recurrence of the primary liver disease and cholangitis in 15 (33.3%) cases each. CKD was related to calcineurin inhibitors toxicity in 38 (84.4%) cases. Twelve (26.7%) patients died postoperatively. D-MELD (donor age × recipients' MELD) was associated with postoperative mortality (HR: 8.027; 95% CI: 2.387-18.223; P = 0.026) and optimal cut-off value was 1039 (AUC: 0.801; P = 0.002). Overall 1, 3, and 5 years survivals were 68.8%, 65.9%, and 59.5%, respectively. D-MELD > 1039 was the only factor associated with poor survival (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: ReLT-KT is a highly morbid increasingly performed procedure. Refinements in the selection of grafts and transplant candidates are required to limit the postoperative mortality of these patients.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Aloenxertos/transplante , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...