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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(10): 760-764, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594110

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the difference of mRNA, protein expression levels and the indexes of peripheral blood antioxidant capacity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of different EPHX1 genotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Methods: A case-control study was conducted to collect peripheral blood samples of 220 stable chronic COPD patients with smoking history and 230 healthy smokers (control group) from October 2016 to February 2018 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, and the genetic testing was carried out according to the operation instructions of BigDye Terminator v1.1 DNA Sequencing Kit. Based on their EPHX1 exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphism status, the EPHX1 was classified into 4 groups, i. e., normal activity, slow activity, extremely slow activity and fast activity. Then COPD patients were allocated to either a slow activity group (slow and very slow activity) or a fast activity group (normal and fast activity) according to EPHX1 genotype and gene activity. The expression of EPHX1 mRNA and protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, and indexes of serum antioxidant capacity was detected by corresponding kits. Results: (1)The 2(-ΔΔCt) of the control group was 1.000, and the 2(-ΔΔCt) of the COPD group was 1.052±0.023. There was no significant difference in the level of EPHX1 mRNA expression between the two groups (t=1.992 P=0.865). The level of EPHX1 mRNA expression in the slow activity group was not different significantly compared to that in the fast-active group (1.053±0.023 vs 1.048±0.021, t=1.133, P=0.260). (2)The level of EPHX1 protein expression by Western blot analysis showed that the EHPX1/GAPDH gray ratio was not different significantly between the COPD group and the control group (0.613±0.089 vs 0.602±0.075, t=0.805, P=0.422). The level of EPHX1 protein expression in the slow activity group was not significantly different compared to that in the fast activity group (0.606±0.088 vs 0.622±0.092, t=-0.786 P=0.434). (3)There were significant differences in indexes of antioxidant capacity between the control group and the COPD group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in indexes of antioxidant capacity between the slow activity group and the fast activity group of COPD patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The different antioxidant capacity of COPD patients with different EPHX1 genotypes may be related to the polymorphism of EPHX1 gene affecting the activity of microsomal epoxidase, but not to the level of EPHX1 mRNA and protein expression.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fumar/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ ; 367: l5358, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map and assess prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed until November 2018 and hand searched references from eligible articles. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies developing, validating, or updating a prediction model in COPD patients and focusing on any potential clinical outcome. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 228 eligible articles, describing the development of 408 prognostic models, the external validation of 38 models, and the validation of 20 prognostic models derived for diseases other than COPD. The 408 prognostic models were developed in three clinical settings: outpatients (n=239; 59%), patients admitted to hospital (n=155; 38%), and patients attending the emergency department (n=14; 3%). Among the 408 prognostic models, the most prevalent endpoints were mortality (n=209; 51%), risk for acute exacerbation of COPD (n=42; 10%), and risk for readmission after the index hospital admission (n=36; 9%). Overall, the most commonly used predictors were age (n=166; 41%), forced expiratory volume in one second (n=85; 21%), sex (n=74; 18%), body mass index (n=66; 16%), and smoking (n=65; 16%). Of the 408 prognostic models, 100 (25%) were internally validated and 91 (23%) examined the calibration of the developed model. For 286 (70%) models a model presentation was not available, and only 56 (14%) models were presented through the full equation. Model discrimination using the C statistic was available for 311 (76%) models. 38 models were externally validated, but in only 12 of these was the validation performed by a fully independent team. Only seven prognostic models with an overall low risk of bias according to PROBAST were identified. These models were ADO, B-AE-D, B-AE-D-C, extended ADO, updated ADO, updated BODE, and a model developed by Bertens et al. A meta-analysis of C statistics was performed for 12 prognostic models, and the summary estimates ranged from 0.611 to 0.769. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes a detailed mapping and assessment of the prognostic models for outcome prediction in COPD patients. The findings indicate several methodological pitfalls in their development and a low rate of external validation. Future research should focus on the improvement of existing models through update and external validation, as well as the assessment of the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the application of these prognostic models in clinical practice through impact studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069247.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prognóstico
3.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(278): 70-71, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473756

RESUMO

Although alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency represents one of the most common genetically conditioned diseases in the population of Caucasian adult individuals, it is rarely diagnosed. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is an important component of the anti-proteolytic protection in the lungs. Individuals affected by the protein deficiency are exposed to a higher risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema or liver diseases. A CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old farmer, non-smoker, spraying orchards since the age of 15 years, was admitted to the Department with dyspnea at rest and productive cough. He had a medical history of COPD, congestive heart failure, generalized emphysema of ten years' duration On admission the patient's general condition was satisfactory (fair). Physical examination showed symmetric expiratory wheezing over the upper and lower fields of the lungs with loss of vesicular murmur in the lower fields. Spirometry revealed a severe chronic bronchial obstruction, and an arterial blood gas test showed hypoxemia. Laboratory tests demonstrated an increased concentration of inflammatory markers. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest showed evidence of generalized emphysema, bronchiectasis and exacerbation of peribronchial inflammatory changes. Intensive anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator treatment and antibiotic therapy were implemented, which resulted in an optimal improvement of the patient's condition. Based on the whole clinical picture A1AT deficiency was suspected. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, MZ phenotype, with 65 mg/dl concentration was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic tests for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency should always be considered in patients with emphysema or symptomatic COPD identified at an early age. In the described case the period between occurrence of clinical signs and establishing the diagnosis was ten years, which proves that there is a strong need to spread knowledge on A1AT among medical professionals. Otherwise, most of the patients will lose their chance of modifying their lifestyle or receiving proper treatment that could prevent the progression of changes in the lungs.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina , Adulto , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico
6.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(4): 263-265, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460717

RESUMO

This study was to design a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening equipment, based on the dual-differential pressure throttling technique. The technique combined a wide range, but low-resolution ratio sensor and a narrow range, but high-resolution ratio one. It can accurately detect the indexes of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), one second rate(FEV1/FVC (%)), and achieve them in a low-cost way. The new designed machine will be compared with a British machine, named ML-3500. The correlations of FVC and FEV1 between new machine and ML-3500 were 0.998 and 0.999, respectively. The P values of paired t test of these two indexes were over 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (%) showed that more than 90% of the scatter points of the three parameters fell within the consistency interval. This machine can be used to accurately screen COPD and its low-cost would be advantage to promote in large population.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória/economia , Testes de Função Respiratória/instrumentação , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Capacidade Vital
8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(11): 743-747, 2019 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163473

RESUMO

DEVELOPMENT OF HOME MECHANICAL VENTILATION (HMV) IN GERMANY: HMV has become a well-established treatment option in Germany. However, during the last decade the number of patients established on HMV is exploding, and this has reached economical and ethical limits. Consequently, a discussion within the health policy concerning this issue is urgently needed. REVISION OF GUIDELINES: The German Respiratory Society has completely revised and thematically complemented its guidelines on HMV. Concerning the professional policy perspective, these guidelines cover essential aspects of the organisation and implementation of HMV, while simultaneously summarizing the current scientific evidence. Based on this, treatment algorithms for different entities are provided. NEW EVIDENCE FOR NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION (NIV) IN COPD: Current data provide evidence that the prognosis of COPD patients can be improved by NIV. This is true for patients with both chronic hypercapnia and persistent hypercapnia following exacerbation treated in the hospital.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Alemanha , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pneumologia/organização & administração
9.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(6): 426-431, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189228

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) by different levels of blood eosinophil (EOS) count and to investigate the predictive value of the response to glucocorticoid treatment and the readmission rate in the patients with higher blood eosinophils. Methods: A total of 120 patients with AECOPD were admitted to the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine in The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 01, 2017 to December 31, 2017. Patients were divided into two groups according to their admission blood eosinophil fractions. Patients with EOS%≥2% were in the EOS group (n=56) , while patients with EOS%<2% were in the Non-EOS group (n=64) . The clinical characteristics, hospitalization treatments especially the glucocorticoid treatment response were compared, and the risk of severe acute exacerbation of the two groups including the 12-month COPD-related readmission, and time to first COPD-related readmission were also compared. Results: Compared with the Non-EOS group, the EOS group had lower values of white blood cell (WBC) , neutrophil fraction (N%) , blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) , and C-reactive protein (CRP) . The EOS group also required shorter course of antibiotic treatment [8 (6-10) and 9 (7-11) , P=0.033]. In glucocorticoid-treated patients (n=82) , the EOS group had significantly alleviated symptoms than the Non-EOS group (patients withδCAT≥2 were 86.8% and 68.2%, respectively, P=0.046) , and the duration of hospitalization of the EOS group was shorter [9 (7-11) and 10 (9 to 13) , P=0.042]. Patients with glucocorticoid treatment in the EOS group had significantly alleviated symptoms than those without glucocorticoid treatment (patients with δCAT ≥ 2 were 86.8% and 61.1%, respectively, P=0.040) . The follow-up one year after discharge showed a higher risk of severe acute exacerbation in the EOS group [Adjust OR 2.67 (1.10-6.46), P=0.030; HR: 1.57 (1.02-2.40), P=0.040]. Conclusion: The blood eosinophil levels were useful in predicting the AECOPD patients' response to glucocorticoid treatment and the risk of severe acute exacerbations.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/complicações , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Readmissão do Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189245

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the weight coefficients of the diagnostic index system for occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to provide a reference for the determination of diagnostic indices. Methods: The analytic hierarchy process was performed to establish the hierarchical structure of diagnostic indices for occupational COPD, construct a pairwise comparison judgment matrix, and conduct a consistency test on the judgment matrix, in order to determine the weight of each index. Results: The weight coefficients of six first-level indices and 27 second-level indices were determined based on the analytic hierarchy process.All these index weights satisfied the consistency test. Conclusion: The analytic hierarchy process uses expert experience knowledge to set up the index system, then judges the consistency of expert opinions through the consistency test, and effectively combines qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis, which may provide a scientific and feasible idea for establishing the diagnostic index system for COPD caused by occupational irritant chemicals.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Irritantes , Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
11.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2438-2447, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237643

RESUMO

Importance: According to numerous current guidelines, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a ratio of the forced expiratory volume in the first second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) of less than 0.70, yet this fixed threshold is based on expert opinion and remains controversial. Objective: To determine the discriminative accuracy of various FEV1:FVC fixed thresholds for predicting COPD-related hospitalization and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Pooled Cohorts Study harmonized and pooled data from 4 US general population-based cohorts (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study; Cardiovascular Health Study; Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study; and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Participants aged 45 to 102 years were enrolled from 1987 to 2000 and received follow-up longitudinally through 2016. Exposures: Presence of airflow obstruction, which was defined by a baseline FEV1:FVC less than a range of fixed thresholds (0.75 to 0.65) or less than the lower limit of normal as defined by Global Lung Initiative reference equations (LLN). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of COPD hospitalization and COPD-related mortality, defined by adjudication or administrative criteria. The optimal fixed FEV1:FVC threshold was defined by the best discrimination for these COPD-related events as indexed using the Harrell C statistic from unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in C statistics were compared with respect to less than 0.70 and less than LLN thresholds using a nonparametric approach. Results: Among 24 207 adults in the pooled cohort (mean [SD] age at enrollment, 63 [10.5] years; 12 990 [54%] women; 16 794 [69%] non-Hispanic white; 15 181 [63%] ever smokers), complete follow-up was available for 11 077 (77%) at 15 years. During a median follow-up of 15 years, 3925 participants experienced COPD-related events over 340 757 person-years of follow-up (incidence density rate, 11.5 per 1000 person-years), including 3563 COPD-related hospitalizations and 447 COPD-related deaths. With respect to discrimination of COPD-related events, the optimal fixed threshold (0.71; C statistic for optimal fixed threshold, 0.696) was not significantly different from the 0.70 threshold (difference, 0.001 [95% CI, -0.002 to 0.004]) but was more accurate than the LLN threshold (difference, 0.034 [95% CI, 0.028 to 0.041]). The 0.70 threshold provided optimal discrimination in the subgroup analysis of ever smokers and in adjusted models. Conclusions and Relevance: Defining airflow obstruction as FEV1:FVC less than 0.70 provided discrimination of COPD-related hospitalization and mortality that was not significantly different or was more accurate than other fixed thresholds and the LLN. These results support the use of FEV1:FVC less than 0.70 to identify individuals at risk of clinically significant COPD.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos
12.
Herz ; 44(6): 502-508, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111162

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent the most important differential diagnoses of dyspnea in elderly people. Heart failure is the inability of the heart to pump sufficient amounts of blood through the cardiovascular system. Pump failure is caused by compromised contractility and/or filling of the ventricles leading to forward and backward failure and subsequently to dyspnea. In COPD, the destruction and remodeling processes of the bronchiolar architecture inhibit proper exhalation of air, thereby leading to exhaustion of the thoracic muscles, insufficient oxygen diffusion, and dyspnea. Despite these fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of both disorders, their clinical presentation may be very similar. This renders accurate and timely diagnosis and therapy, especially in patients with coexisting disease, difficult. This clinical review summarizes typical problems in the diagnosis of COPD, HF, and coincident disease, and describes strategies that help avoid misdiagnosis and ineffective treatment.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
14.
Ter Arkh ; 91(3): 17-21, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094453

RESUMO

AIM: The study aimed at investigating the relationship between severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinico-endoscopic characteristics of 118 patients presenting with severe infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bloody expectorations and endoscopically confirmed hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation have been analyzed. All patients underwent a series (5-6) of bronchoscopic examinations accompanied by collection of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens to reveal the presence of acid-resistant mycobacteria and to determine the bacterial flora. The exclusion criteria were the concomitant pulmonary or extrapulmonary pathologic conditions which could lead to hemorrhagic endobronchial manifestations. The other direction of the study was to investigate a correlation between jugulation of the exacerbation and dynamics of such endobronchial symptoms as mucosal edema and hyperemia, quality of bronchial secretions and hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation. RESULTS: All patients were found to have diffuse endobronchitis of severity grade II (39.83%) or III (60.17%) by Lemoine. The neoplastic and tuberculosis genesis of the hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation and its clinical equivalent, the bloody expectorations, had been ruled out. In 50.85% of cases the hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation could not be accounted for by hemolytic properties of cultured microorganisms. The mucosal edema and hyperemia remained stable during jugulation of the exacerbation. Unlike the improvement of quality of bronchial secretions, faster reversal of the hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation showed statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The hemorrhagic component of endobronchial inflammation can represent a non-obligatory manifestation of severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and its relief is the earliest endobronchial sign of incipient remission from severe COPD exacerbation.


Assuntos
Hemorragia , Inflamação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia
15.
Ter Arkh ; 91(3): 76-85, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094464

RESUMO

Currently, combinations of long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting anticholinergics are considered as the basic therapy for majority of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These combinations have different pharmacological characteristics and delivery devices that provides different clinical effects and new opportunities for personalized treatment of COPD. Aclidinium/formoterol fixed combination differs from other dual bronchodilators by twice-daily dosing regimen, good safety profile and a specific delivery system. Recent information on clinical efficacy and safety of aclidinium/formoterol combination in COPD patients is given in this article.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tropanos/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tropanos/administração & dosagem , Tropanos/efeitos adversos
16.
Tuberk Toraks ; 67(1): 63-70, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130137

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. The diagnosis od COPD is based on the presence of clinical symptoms and the fact that the ratio of post-bronhodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced expiratory vital capacity(FEV1/FVC) is less than 0.70. Persistent limitation of airflow which is a characteristics of COPD is reproducible and most common lung function test that is why it is usually measured by spirometry. The small airway diseases and the parenchymal destruction play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD at different rates over time resulting in chronic airflow limitation. These pathologies are not always together at the same time and the contribution of those to the development of COPD differ from one individual to another. The pathophysiological involvement of small airways in COPD has been confirmed. When the obstruction of the small airways occur either by mucus, smooth muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory infiltration or air wall thickening; then the consequence is the increased resistance and ventilation impairment. The parenchymal destruction can be estimated via scanning and at the initial assessment of a COPD patient, it gives information about the concomitant pulmonary diseases and/or differential diagnosis. There is an increasing interest on symptomatic individuals whose whose COPD diagnosis has not been confirmed yet with spirometry but diagnosis is based on alternative methods and approaches. Although these methods nowadays are commonly used for the clinical research, they will offer an opportunity to the clinician to find out the COPD patients at an early stage. Herein we will discuss the available methods other than spirometry in the early diagnosis of COPD before the overt disease is confirmed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espirometria/métodos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
17.
Tuberk Toraks ; 67(1): 77-82, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130139

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a clonal proliferative disease of B or T cell progenitors originating from lymph nodes or extranodal lymphatic tissue. There are several pulmonary complications associated with NHL. We aimed to discuss two pulmonary complications with high morbidity and mortality associated with lymphoma in our patient followed up with COPD and NHL. Seventy one years old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset of dyspnea and chest pain. He had a history of bronchodilator use for COPD for 18 years and chemotherapy and local radiotherapy because of NHL 8 years ago. In terms of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), it was evaluated as clinically low-medium risk group. Pulmonary CT angiography was performed to diagnose PTE. Unilateral subcutaneous pleural fluid was detected in the chest radiography performed in the emergency room where he was admitted to the hospital due to increased dyspnea under low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment. Triglyceride level > 110 mg/dL was observed in pleural fluid sampled by thoracentesis and diagnosed as chylothorax. He was followed by a pleuroken stool diet and received only one course of chemotherapy because of relapse NHL. Her general condition deteriorated and the patient died. The incidence of thrombosis in hematological oncology varies between 2% and 58%. PTE is a complication that must be considered in case of sudden onset of shortness of breath in hematologic oncologies. Increased shortness of breath under effective PTE treatment was considered as a secondary event and chylothorax, another pulmonary complication, was detected especially in lymphoma. Our patient with lymphoma was presented because of pulmonary complications associated with lymphoma.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma não Hodgkin/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico
18.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 64, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies clearly demonstrate a substantial association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although little is known about the shared genetics that contribute to this association. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale cross-trait genome-wide association study to investigate genetic overlap between COPD (Ncase = 12,550, Ncontrol = 46,368) from the International COPD Genetics Consortium and four primary cardiac traits: resting heart rate (RHR) (N = 458,969), high blood pressure (HBP) (Ncase = 144,793, Ncontrol = 313,761), coronary artery disease (CAD)(Ncase = 60,801, Ncontrol = 123,504), and stroke (Ncase = 40,585, Ncontrol = 406,111) from UK Biobank, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium, and International Stroke Genetics Consortium data. RESULTS: RHR and HBP had modest genetic correlation, and CAD had borderline evidence with COPD at a genome-wide level. We found evidence of local genetic correlation with particular regions of the genome. Cross-trait meta-analysis of COPD identified 21 loci jointly associated with RHR, 22 loci with HBP, and 3 loci with CAD. Functional analysis revealed that shared genes were enriched in smoking-related pathways and in cardiovascular, nervous, and immune system tissues. An examination of smoking-related genetic variants identified SNPs located in 15q25.1 region associated with cigarettes per day, with effects on RHR and CAD. A Mendelian randomization analysis showed a significant positive causal effect of COPD on RHR (causal estimate = 0.1374, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In a set of large-scale GWAS, we identify evidence of shared genetics between COPD and cardiac traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
19.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 73, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality. Patients with advanced disease often have a poor quality of life, such that guidelines recommend providing palliative care in their last year of life. Uptake and use of palliative care in advanced COPD is low; difficulty in predicting 1-year mortality is thought to be a major contributing factor. METHODS: We identified two primary care COPD cohorts using UK electronic healthcare records (Clinical Practice Research Datalink). The first cohort was randomised equally into training and test sets. An external dataset was drawn from a second cohort. A risk model to predict mortality within 12 months was derived from the training set using backwards elimination Cox regression. The model was given the acronym BARC based on putative prognostic factors including body mass index and blood results (B), age (A), respiratory variables (airflow obstruction, exacerbations, smoking) (R) and comorbidities (C). The BARC index predictive performance was validated in the test set and external dataset by assessing calibration and discrimination. The observed and expected probabilities of death were assessed for increasing quartiles of mortality risk (very low risk, low risk, moderate risk, high risk). The BARC index was compared to the established index scores body mass index, obstructive, dyspnoea and exacerbations (BODEx), dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking and exacerbations (DOSE) and age, dyspnoea and obstruction (ADO). RESULTS: Fifty-four thousand nine hundred ninety patients were eligible from the first cohort and 4931 from the second cohort. Eighteen variables were included in the BARC, including age, airflow obstruction, body mass index, smoking, exacerbations and comorbidities. The risk model had acceptable predictive performance (test set: C-index = 0.79, 95% CI 0.78-0.81, D-statistic = 1.87, 95% CI 1.77-1.96, calibration slope = 0.95, 95% CI 0.9-0.99; external dataset: C-index = 0.67, 95% CI 0.65-0.7, D-statistic = 0.98, 95% CI 0.8-1.2, calibration slope = 0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.64) and acceptable accuracy predicting the probability of death (probability of death in 1 year, n high-risk group, test set: expected = 0.31, observed = 0.30; external dataset: expected = 0.22, observed = 0.27). The BARC compared favourably to existing index scores that can also be applied without specialist respiratory variables (area under the curve: BARC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.79; BODEx = 0.48, 95% CI 0.45-0.51; DOSE = 0.60, 95% CI 0.57-0.61; ADO = 0.68, 95% CI 0.66-0.69, external dataset: BARC = 0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.72; BODEx = 0.41, 95% CI 0.38-0.45; DOSE = 0.52, 95% CI 0.49-0.55; ADO = 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.60). CONCLUSION: The BARC index performed better than existing tools in predicting 1-year mortality. Critically, the risk score only requires routinely collected non-specialist information which, therefore, could help identify patients seen in primary care that may benefit from palliative care.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1005-1012, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989377

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes have been considered a susceptible group for pulmonary dysfunction. Our aim was to assess pulmonary function on the prediabetes stage. METHODS: Pulmonary function was assessed in 4,459 non-diabetic subjects, aged between 45 and 70 years, without cardiovascular disease or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease from the ongoing study ILERVAS. A "restrictive spirometric pattern", an "abnormal FEV1" and an "obstructive ventilatory defect" were assessed. Prediabetes was defined by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 5.7 and 6.4% according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: Population was composed of 52.1% women, aged 57 [53;63] years, a BMI of 28.6 [25.8;31.8] kg/m2, and with a prevalence of prediabetes of 29.9% (n = 1392). Subjects with prediabetes had lower forced vital capacity (FVC: 93 [82;105] vs. 96 [84;106], p < 0.001) and lower forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1: 94 [82;107] vs. 96 [84;108], p = 0.011), as well as a higher percentage of the restrictive spirometric pattern (16.5% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.015) and FEV1 < 80% (20.3% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.017) compared to non-prediabetes group. In the prediabetes group, HbA1c was negatively correlated with both pulmonary parameters (FVC: r = - 0.113, p < 0.001; FEV1: r = - 0.079, p = 0.003). The multivariable logistic regression model in the whole population showed that there was a significant and independent association between HbA1c with both restrictive spirometric pattern [OR = 1.42 (1.10-1.83), p = 0.008] and FEV1 < 80% [OR = 1.50 (1.19-1.90), p = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The deleterious effect of type 2 diabetes on pulmonary function appears to be initiated in prediabetes, and it is related to metabolic control. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT03228459.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/complicações , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
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