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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488265

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the application of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Screening Questionnaire and pulmonary function test in dust-exposed migrant workers. Methods: In May 2019, 149 cases of dust exposed migrant workers were selected as the research subjects through the free clinic in the countryside. COPD Screening Questionnaire and lung function test were carried out to analyze the high-risk groups and the influencing factors of positive pulmonary function test results. Results: Among 149 cases of dust-exposed migrant workers, 107 (71.8%) were positive for questionnaire screening, 73 (49.0%) were positive for pulmonary function test, 75 (50.3%) were diagnosed with coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and 101 (67.8%) were diagnosed with lung function injury. The positive rate of pulmonary function of migrant workers with positive questionnaire screening results was significantly higher than that of those with negative results (P<0.05) . The results of multivariate analysis showed that compared with non-pneumoconiosis, the risk of positive pulmonary function test results was higher in dust-exposed migrant workers with stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis (OR=16.462, 95%CI: 3.390-79.946; P<0.01) . Compared with non-smoking, the risks of positive pulmonary function test results of dust-exposed migrant workers with smoking index of 11-20 package years and >20 package years were higher (OR=19.814, 95%CI: 3.854-101.883; OR=9.733, 95%CI: 2.310-41.008; P<0.01) . Conclusion: The risk of COPD in dust-exposed migrant workers is high, so we should strengthen the early examination of the high pneumoconiosis stage and smoking population. The screening questionnaire can better screen out the high-risk groups of COPD, and it can be used as a basic screening tool.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Migrantes , Poeira , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2397-2406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465987

RESUMO

Background: Beta-blockers have been proposed to improve COPD-related outcomes, yet studies report conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the effect of beta blockers on time-to-first exacerbation and all-cause mortality in high-risk COPD outpatients. Methods: All COPD outpatients managed at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital - Hvidovre, Denmark in 2016 were followed for 3.5 years in this retrospective, registry-based cohort study. Outcomes were time-to-first acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) or death. The association was estimated using time-varying crude and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, sex, BMI, use of COPD medication, smoking status, cardiovascular disease and COPD severity. Results: The cohort comprised 950 COPD outpatients, mean age 71 (SD 11) years, and FEV1 44% predicted (IQR 33%; 57%). The annual exacerbation rate was 0.88 (SD 1.68) and 211 patients (22%) had a history of hospitalization requiring AECOPD within 12 months. Of the enrolled patients, 247 (26%) were prescribed beta blockers. Beta-blocker use was associated, although with borderline significance, with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.37 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.89, p = 0.059)). On the other hand, beta blocker use did not reduce the risk of AECOPD (HR = 0.89 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.10; p = 0.270)), which remained non-significant after stratifying for severity of exacerbations. Conclusion: We found an association between beta blocker use and all-cause mortality in high-risk COPD outpatients. No association was found between beta blocker use and risk of AECOPD.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2407-2417, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465988

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies evaluating the predictive value of different variables on future exacerbations suggest exacerbation history as the strongest predictor. We examined the effect of exacerbation history on subsequent events in a large sample population with over 250,000 COPD patients using up to 8 years of longitudinal healthcare data from Germany. Methods: Patients 40 years or older with any COPD diagnosis in primary or secondary care were included from 2011 to 2017 (index period) from healthcare insurance claims (Germany; WIG2 research database), with 12 months before index date as baseline and at least 12-month follow-up. Exacerbations during baseline were defined as moderate (treatment with oral corticosteroids or antibiotics, J01AA, J01CA) or severe (emergency visit or hospitalization). Results: Patients without (category A), with one moderate (category B), or with either one severe or several baseline exacerbations (category C) experienced an average of 0.9 (CI 0.9-0.9), 1.9 (CI 1.9-1.9), and 6.3 (CI 6.1-6.3) exacerbations during the first 3 years of follow-up, respectively. By 8 years, 87.0% (CI 86.6-87.4), 70.5% (CI 69.9-71.0) and 49.1% (CI 48.9-49.3) of category C, B and A patients had experienced a subsequent exacerbation. Conclusion: Baseline exacerbations increased the likelihood of, and reduced time to subsequent exacerbations. Even patients without baseline exacerbations experienced exacerbations within three years, emphasizing the importance of adequate treatment in patients with less severe disease presentation as well.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2433-2443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465989

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that is mainly caused by smoking, and most patients with COPD are either former or current smokers. The optimal way to slow down disease progression and reduce overall mortality is for patients to stop smoking. Patients with COPD are known to have lower socio-economic status and to be more nicotine-dependent than most other smokers and therefore face difficulties when attempting to quit smoking. Pharmacological smoking cessation treatment is known to be the most effective. However, the extent to which this treatment is actually offered to Danish smokers with COPD is unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with COPD were more likely to redeem a prescription for smoking cessation medication compared with matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a registry-based, non-interventional case-control study. All Danish patients with COPD (ICD-10-code J 44 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) diagnosed between 2009 and 2015 were included (130,797 cases). Controls (252,216) were matched on age, gender and geography. Primary outcome was the number of redeemed prescriptions for smoking cessation medication. Results: We found that 12% of patients with COPD redeemed a prescription for smoking cessation medication during the eight-year study period. The odds ratio (OR) for redeeming a prescription on smoking cessation medicine was OR 6.22 for patients with COPD compared with their matched controls. We also found that patients with COPD were more likely to redeem smoking cessation medication if they were younger, female or single. Conclusion: There is substantial room for improvement with respect to pharmacological smoking cessation treatment in Danish patients with COPD. In-depth knowledge of factors contributing to the patients choice of smoking cessation treatment might allow for more personalized guidance of patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vareniclina
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2419-2431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471349

RESUMO

Background: Clinicians' selection of glucocorticoids during hospitalization of COPD patients is often based on the medical staff's judgment of the patient's condition, and there is no objective judgment standard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of severe COPD deterioration in patients treated with glucocorticoid and without glucocorticoid during hospitalization. Methods: This study was an observational cohort study. Data on hospitalization with severe COPD deterioration were collected and followed up for 1 year. One year after discharge, the re-hospitalization due to COPD was collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into glucocorticoid group and control group according to whether the patients were given glucocorticoid therapy or not when they were admitted to hospital for the first time. The primary outcome was rate of future COPD exacerbations, while the secondary outcome was hospital stay, treatment cost and COPD-related readmission time. These results are analyzed by using Poisson model and Cox regression model. Results: A total of 91 patients were enrolled in the study, including 39 in the control group and 52 in the glucocorticoid group. The annual rate of future COPD exacerbations in the glucocorticoid group was significantly lower than that in the control group (RR,0.50 [95% CI, 0.26-0.98]; P = 0.045). The risk of COPD recurrence in the glucocorticoid group was lower than that in the control group, as assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis (HR,0.46[95% CI 0.22-0.97]; P = 0.042). Subgroup analysis found that in patients with blood eosinophil <100 cells/µ l, the future annual severe exacerbation rate of glucocorticoid group was significantly lower than that in the control group (adjusted RR,0.37 [95% CI 0.17-0.83]; P = 0.016). Conclusion: The use of glucocorticoids during hospitalization in COPD can more effectively reduce the severe deterioration of COPD than without glucocorticoids.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Eosinófilos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Can Fam Physician ; 67(9): 661-667, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To facilitate distinction between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in day-to-day primary care practice, and provide practical treatment strategies using spirometric cases to outline how to recognize the clinical and spirometric overlap between asthma and COPD. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: The approaches described here were developed using evidence-based guidelines and the expertise of the authors, including research findings by the authors in the areas of asthma, COPD management, and spirometric testing in primary care. MAIN MESSAGE: There are patients with clinical or spirometric features of both asthma and COPD. Both asthma and COPD are associated with some degree of inflammation of the respiratory tract, mediated by the increased expression of inflammatory proteins. However, there are clear differences between asthma and COPD in the pattern of inflammation that occurs in the lungs. Diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma is most likely to arise in older patients with respiratory complaints, particularly against a background that includes cigarette smoke or workplace exposure. Both asthma and COPD are clinical diagnoses based on patient history, symptoms, physical examination findings, and objective measures of lung function. Postbronchodilator spirometry is always needed to confirm a new diagnosis of COPD and should also be performed prebronchodilator for the diagnosis of asthma. However, in many cases, the interpretation of spirometry results is not straightforward. CONCLUSION: Understanding the nature and extent of the spirometric overlap between asthma and COPD is critical for tailoring a therapeutic strategy that is based on factors that include medical and family history, signs and symptoms, and a clear interpretation of spirometry data. This information will be leveraged differently for individual patients to arrive at the correct clinical diagnosis and to select the most appropriate therapy.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pulmão , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espirometria
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2467-2474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483658

RESUMO

Purpose: Elevated blood eosinophils have been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progression and exacerbation. We aim to investigate clinical predictors of high blood eosinophils in a Chinese COPD cohort. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Sichuan province, a Southwest province with high prevalence of COPD in China. All patients in this cohort were extracted from the Chinese Pulmonary Health study, a large cross-sectional study on COPD epidemiology in China. Demographics, personal and family history, living condition, spirometry and blood eosinophil counts were obtained. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of high blood eosinophils. Results: A total of 375 COPD patients were included in this cohort. The median absolute blood eosinophil count was 138.8 cells/µL, and the prevalence of COPD with high blood eosinophils was 66.7% and 14.7% when using the thresholds of 100 cells/µL and 300 cells/µL, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, lower body mass index, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), lower family income, raising pets and biomass use were significantly associated with high blood eosinophils (p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression model further revealed male gender (unstandardized coefficient (B)=66.125, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 16.350 to 115.900, p=0.009), age (B=2.819, 95% CI 0.639 to 5.000, p=0.012) predicted high blood eosinophil level, whereas HDL (B=-64.682, 95% CI -123.451 to -5.914, p=0.031) was a negative predictor for high blood eosinophils. Conclusion: This retrospective cohort study suggests male gender, oldness and lower HDL could be clinical predictors of high blood eosinophils in Chinese COPD patients.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2133-2148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345170

RESUMO

Introduction: Understanding clinical evolution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial for improving disease management. Materials and Methods: STORICO (NCT03105999), an Italian, multicenter, non-interventional, observational study conducted in 40 pulmonology centers, aimed to describe the 1-year clinical evolution and health status of clinicallbased phenotypes. Baseline and follow-up data of COPD subjects with a chronic bronchitis (CB) or emphysema (EM) phenotype were collected. The frequency of COPD symptoms during the 24 hours (gathered via the night-time, morning and day-time symptoms of COPD questionnaire) and the anxiety and depression levels (via the HADS Scale) were recorded at each visit. Results: A total of 261 CB and 159 EM patients were analyzed. CB patients with ≥1 night-time symptom seemed to be more frequent (51.7%, 41.8% and 41.4% at baseline, 6-month and 12-month follow-up, respectively) than EM (37.7%, 32.1% and 30.2% at study visits) even if no statistical differences were observed at time points between phenotypes (chi-square test p-values presence/absence of night-time symptoms in CB vs EM at study visits >0.0007). In the first 6 months, the frequency of patients with ≥1 night-time symptom decreased of 9.9% in CB and of 5.6% in EM. A clinically relevant decline of DLCO % predicted over 1 year in EM was observed, the mean (SD) being 61.5 (20.8) % at baseline and 59.1 (17.4) % at 12-month follow-up. EM had higher levels of anxiety and depression than CB (median (25th-75th percentile) HADS total score in CB: 7.0 (4.0-13.0) and 7.0 (3.0-12.0), in EM: 9.0 (3.0-14.0) and 9.5 (3.0-14.0) both at baseline and at 6-month follow-up, respectively), considering 1.17 as minimally clinical important difference (MCID) for the total score. Conclusion: EM patients, evaluated in a real-world setting, seem to suffer from a worse clinical condition and health status compared to CB patients, appearing to have "more treatable" traits.


Assuntos
Bronquite Crônica , Enfisema , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Bronquite Crônica/diagnóstico , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2203-2215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349506

RESUMO

Background: Chronic mucous hypersecretion (CMH or chronic bronchitis) per se or when associated with chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has several adverse clinical consequences. The sputum fluid phase has several candidate proteins including mucins which have the potential of being therapeutic targets, but has not yet been explored in-depth. This study aimed at exploring the profile of sputum proteins in various airway diseases. Methods: Sputum from thirty-one patients with various airway diseases was collected and the fluid phase analyzed by LC-MS/MS and subsequently by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragments ion spectra (SWATH) (n = 15) for protein quantitation. Hierarchical clustering and functional grouping were performed. Results: A total of 185 proteins were quantitated by SWATH of which 21 proteins were identified which could distinguish between the clinical phenotypes by hierarchical clustering. Functional protein clustering revealed 4 groups: those that are inflammation related, oxidative stress related, mucin related and a cytoskeletal and calcium related group. The levels of eight proteins (Azurocidin1, Neutrophil defensin 3, Lactotransferrin, Calmodulin 3, Coronin1A, Mucin 5B, Mucin 5AC and BPI fold containing family B1) were significantly altered (relative to mean) in exacerbator prone subjects compared to nonexacerbators. Another simple but useful metric which emerged from this study was total protein concentration in sputum which was significantly higher in frequent exacerbators. Conclusion: Sputum proteins can detect the various airway disease clinical phenotypes. Total protein concentration and eight other proteins are biomarkers for frequent exacerbators. The clinical and therapeutic implications of the functional groups of proteins need further evaluation.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Escarro , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2217-2226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349507

RESUMO

Purpose: Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is becoming increasingly widespread. The aim of this study was to provide an accurate description of the current practices and clinical characteristics of COPD patients on HMV in Portugal. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional, multicenter real-life study of COPD patients established on HMV for at least 30 days. Data related to clinical characteristics, adaptation and ventilatory settings were collected. Results: The study included 569 COPD patients on HMV from 15 centers. The majority were male, with a median age of 72 years and a high prevalence of obesity (43.2%) and sleep apnea (45.8%). A high treatment compliance was observed (median 8h/day), 48.7% with inspiratory positive airway pressure ≥20 cmH2O and oronasal masks were the preferred interface (91.7%). There was an equal distribution of patients starting HMV during chronic stable condition and following an exacerbation. Patients in stable condition were initiated in the outpatient setting in 92.3%. Despite the differences in criteria and setting of adaptation and a slightly lower BMI in patients starting HMV following an exacerbation, we found no significant differences regarding age, gender, ventilation pressures, time on HMV, usage, severity of airflow obstruction or current arterial blood gas analysis (ABGs) in relation to patients adapted in stable condition. Conclusion: Patients were highly compliant with the therapy. In agreement with most recent studies and recommendations, there seems to be a move towards higher ventilation pressures, increased use of oronasal masks and an intent to obtain normocapnia. This study shows that chronic hypercapnic and post exacerbation patients do not differ significantly regarding patient characteristics, physiological parameters or ventilatory settings with one exception: chronic hypercapnic patients are more often obese and, subsequently, more frequently present OSA.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Ventilação não Invasiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
12.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2227-2242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354348

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung condition affecting 10% of the global population over 45 years. Currently, there are no disease-modifying treatments, with current therapies treating only the symptoms of the disease. COPD is an inflammatory disease, with a high infiltration of leukocytes being found within the lung of COPD patients. These leukocytes, if not kept in check, damage the lung, leading to the pathophysiology associated with the disease. In this review, we focus on the main leukocytes found within the COPD lung, describing how the release of chemokines from the damaged epithelial lining recruits these cells into the lung. Once present, these cells become active and may be driven towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. These cells release their own subtypes of inflammatory mediators, growth factors and proteases which can all lead to airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion and emphysema. Finally, we describe some of the current therapies and potential new targets that could be utilized to target aberrant leukocyte function in the COPD lung. Here, we focus on old therapies such as statins and corticosteroids, but also look at the emerging field of biologics describing those which have been tested in COPD already and potential new monoclonal antibodies which are under review.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Leucócitos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 04 29.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346592

RESUMO

COPD is the third most common chronic disease in the Netherlands and the number of patients is still rising. This article reviews causes of COPD, assesses the role of spirometry in diagnosing COPD, and considers ways to differentiate between COPD and heart failure, which can be difficult due to overlapping symptoms. To avoid a 'one size fits all' treatment, we elaborate on treatable traits - patient characteristics leading to specific treatment options- in order to optimize treatment for each individual patient. This applies both during stable disease and during exacerbations.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Espirometria
14.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(9): 906-920, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387701

RESUMO

The attributable proportion of occupation-related influences on airway and lung diseases is 10-30%. In patients with obstructive airway diseases it is extremely important to sufficiently document findings during the period of activities burdening the airway as compared to periods off work. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can have a work-related (partial) cause even in smokers. Regarding occupational infectious diseases, the main cause up to 2019 was tuberculosis but the corona pandemic has led to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being the most frequent occupational disease. For the occupational medical assessment of interstitial and malignant pulmonary diseases, checklists can be helpful to support the medical history.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Profissionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2291-2299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408411

RESUMO

Introduction: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a low cost, high impact intervention that ameliorates the disability associated with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). PR is becoming increasingly recognized in low resource settings where the burden of CRD is rapidly increasing. To aid the implementation of PR in Uganda, we conducted a study to assess the attitudes and opinions towards PR among patients with CRD in Uganda and explore barriers faced by health care workers (HCWs) in referring to PR. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising two survey populations: people living with CRD and HCWs regarded as potential PR referrers and PR deliverers. This exploratory study sought initial opinions and thoughts regarding PR, as well as baseline knowledge and potential barriers faced in the referral process. Results: Overall, 30 HCWs (53% female, 43% doctors) and 51 adults with CRD (63% female) participated in the survey. Among those with CRD, the majority reported breathlessness as a major problem (86%) and breathlessness affected their ability to do paid and unpaid work (70%). Interest in PR was high amongst adults with CRD (92%) with preference for a hospital-based programme (67%) as opposed to community-based (16%) or home-based (17%). All HCWs considered PR important in lung disease management, but 77% do not refer patients due to a lack of information about PR. HCWs' free-text responses identified the need for training in PR, patient education and streamlining the referral process as key elements to develop successful PR referral services. Conclusion: To successfully set up a PR service for people with CRD in Uganda, there is a great need for appropriately tailored training and education of prospective referrers about CRD and PR programs. Educating patients about the benefits of PR as well as streamlining the referral process is critical in expanding PR services across Uganda to fulfill this unmet need.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2327-2336, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413641

RESUMO

Background: The study investigated if a web-based clinical decision-support system (CDSS) tool would improve general practitioners' (GPs) accuracy of diagnosis and classification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and whether nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment would be better aligned with the COPD guidelines. Methods: GPs were randomized to either a single use of the CDSS or continuing standard of care. The clinical recommendations of the CDSS were based on the GOLD guidelines and provided suggestions for treatment and management of COPD. Data were collected digitally from GPs and patients in both groups using a tablet computer. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to the GPs 1 year after the conclusion of the study. Results: A total of 25 GPs (31% women, mean age 41 years) participated, 12 randomized to using the CDSS tool and 13 followed standard of care when assessing their next five to ten COPD patients. In sum, 149 patients with presumed COPD were included (88 CDSS group, 61 standard-of-care group). In the CDSS group, no COPD misdiagnoses occurred, 98% received vaccine recommendations, and all smokers (n=39) received smoking-cessation advice. The standard-of-care group had 23% misdiagnosis (P<0.001), only 67% received vaccine recommendations (P<0.001), and 87% smoking-cessation advice (P=0.022. All told, 31% of patients did not receive medication as recommended according to guidelines, with no significant differences between the groups. GPs rated the CDSS as very useful. Mean usage time was 3 minutes, 26 seconds. A majority (13 of 19, 68%) of the GPs continued using the CDSS after the conclusion of the study. CAT score identified twice as many patients as having more symptoms than the mMRC, indicating the added value of the multi-item questionnaire. Conclusion: Use of the CDSS was associated with preventing misdiagnosis of COPD and improved adherence to recommended nonpharmacological measures, but a single use did not improve pharmacological treatment considerations.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Clínicos Gerais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2301-2322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413639

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are managed predominantly in primary care. However, key opportunities to optimize treatment are often not realized due to unrecognized disease and delayed implementation of appropriate interventions for both diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals. The COllaboratioN on QUality improvement initiative for achieving Excellence in STandards of COPD care (CONQUEST) is the first-of-its-kind, collaborative, interventional COPD registry. It comprises an integrated quality improvement program focusing on patients (diagnosed and undiagnosed) at a modifiable and higher risk of COPD exacerbations. The first step in CONQUEST was the development of quality standards (QS). The QS will be imbedded in routine primary and secondary care, and are designed to drive patient-centered, targeted, risk-based assessment and management optimization. Our aim is to provide an overview of the CONQUEST QS, including how they were developed, as well as the rationale for, and evidence to support, their inclusion in healthcare systems. Methods: The QS were developed (between November 2019 and December 2020) by the CONQUEST Global Steering Committee, including 11 internationally recognized experts with a specialty and research focus in COPD. The process included an extensive literature review, generation of QS draft wording, three iterative rounds of review, and consensus. Results: Four QS were developed: 1) identification of COPD target population, 2) assessment of disease and quantification of future risk, 3) non-pharmacological and pharmacological intervention, and 4) appropriate follow-up. Each QS is followed by a rationale statement and a summary of current guidelines and research evidence relating to the standard and its components. Conclusion: The CONQUEST QS represent an important step in our aim to improve care for patients with COPD in primary and secondary care. They will help to transform the patient journey, by encouraging early intervention to identify, assess, optimally manage and followup COPD patients with modifiable high risk of future exacerbations.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2337-2350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421298

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore to what extent a combined counselling and pulmonary rehabilitation program (PR) influences the perception of physical activity (PA) and motivation for behavioral change in PA in individuals with COPD. The results of previous quantitative trial that investigated the effect of this combined treatment on daily PA were inconclusive. It is conjectured that a more targeted tailoring of the counselling and PR intervention could improve its effectiveness. Patients and Methods: Eighteen individuals with COPD (median age 69, 8 females) who had participated in the PneumoReha program were interviewed twice (following PR and at three-month follow-up). These interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Based on the codes thus identified, three categories 'perception of PA intensity', 'quality of motivation to perform PA', and 'strategies to cope with barriers' were used to differentiate 'types' of participants. Results: Four different types of COPD individuals were distinguished. Study findings indicate that those individuals who participated in the PR program combined with embedded counselling tended to be more active and intrinsically motivated. Conclusion: A typology of four types of people with COPD was developed, characterized by their perception of activity, individual motivation and strategies for managing barriers. The patients' physical activity level might be influenced by their concept of physical activity and the quality of motivation. Recognizing patients' different activity behaviors is important for improving the quality of outpatient PR programs and developing tailored (according to each type) counselling interventions embedded in outpatient PR programs. Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered on the website of https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ with the identifier NCT02455206 (27/05/2015), as well as on the Swiss National Trails Portal SNCTP000001426 (05/21/2015).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2351-2362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429593

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the COPD molecular subtypes reflecting pulmonary function damage on the basis of metabolism-related gene expression, which provided the opportunity to study the metabolic heterogeneity and the association of metabolic pathways with pulmonary function damage. Methods: Univariate linear regression and the Boruta algorithm were used to select metabolism-related genes associated with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) in the Evaluation of COPD to Longitudinally Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) cohort. COPD subtypes were further identified by consensus clustering with best-fit. Then, we analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics, metabolic pathways, immune cell characteristics, and transcription features among the subtypes. Results: This study identified two subtypes (C1 and C2). C1 exhibited higher levels of lower pulmonary function and innate immunity than C2. Ten metabolic pathways were confirmed as key metabolic pathways. The pathways related to N-glycan, hexosamine, purine, alanine, aspartate and glutamate tended to be positively associated with the abundance of adaptive immune cells and negatively associated with the abundance of innate immune cells. In addition, other pathways had opposite trends. All results were verified in Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) datasets. Conclusion: The two subtypes reflect the pulmonary function damage and help to further understand the metabolic mechanism of pulmonary function in COPD. Further studies are needed to prove the prognostic and therapeutic value of the subtypes.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2363-2373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429594

RESUMO

Current pharmacological treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are mostly limited to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Azithromycin can contribute to exacerbation prevention. Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor administered orally, also prevents exacerbations in selected patients with chronic bronchitis, recurrent exacerbations, severe airflow limitation and concomitant therapy with long-acting inhaled bronchodilators. This outcome likely results from anti-inflammatory effects since PDE4 is expressed by all inflammatory cell types involved in COPD. The use of this agent is, however, limited by side-effects, particularly nausea and diarrhea. To address remaining unmet needs and enrich therapeutic options for patients with COPD, inhaled dual PDE3/4 inhibitors have been developed, with the aim of enhancing bronchodilation through PDE3 inhibition and modulating inflammation and mucus production though PDE4 inhibition, thus producing a potentially synergistic effect on airway calibre. Experimental preclinical data confirmed these effects in vitro and in animal models. At present, RPL554/ensifentrine is the only agent of this family in clinical development. It decreases sputum markers of both neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with COPD. Clinical Phase II trials confirmed its bronchodilator effect and demonstrated clinically meaningful symptom relief and quality of life improvements in these patients. The safety profile appears satisfactory, with less effects on heart rate and blood pressure than salbutamol and no other side effect. Altogether, these data suggest that ensifentrine could have a role in COPD management, especially in addition to inhaled long-acting bronchodilators with or without corticosteroids since experimental studies suggest potentiation of ensifentrine effects by these agents. However, results from ongoing and future Phase III studies are needed to confirm both beneficial effects and favourable safety profile on a larger scale and assess other outcomes including exacerbations, lung function decline, comorbidities and mortality.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Animais , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 3/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/efeitos adversos , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
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