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1.
Malar J ; 19(1): 386, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far. Sri Lanka, having eliminated malaria in 2012, was certified by the World Health Organization as a malaria-free country in 2016 and now implements a rigorous programme to prevent its re-establishment owing to the high receptivity and vulnerability of the country to malaria. Sri Lanka has also dealt with the COVID-19 epidemic quite successfully limiting the cumulative number of infections and deaths through co-ordinated efforts between the health sector and other relevant sectors, namely the military, the Police Department, Departments of Airport and Aviation and Foreign Affairs, all of which have been deployed for the COVID-19 epidemic under the umbrella of a Presidential Task Force. The relevance of imported infections and the need for a multi-sectoral response are features common to both the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and the Prevention of Re-establishment (POR) programme for malaria. Sri Lanka's malaria POR programme has, therefore, creatively integrated its activities with those of the COVID-19 control programme. Through highly coordinated operations the return to the country of Sri Lankan nationals stranded overseas by the COVID-19 pandemic, many from malaria endemic countries, are being monitored for malaria as well as COVID-19 in an integrated case surveillance system under quarantine conditions, to the success of both programmes. Twenty-three imported malaria cases were detected from February to October through 2773 microscopic blood examinations performed for malaria in quarantine centres, this number being not much different to the incidence of imported malaria during the same period last year. This experience highlights the importance of integrated case surveillance and the need for a highly coordinated multi-sectoral approach in dealing with emerging new infections. It also suggests that synergies between the COVID-19 epidemic control programme and other health programmes may be found and developed to the advantage of both.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMO

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Conflitos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condições Sociais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2598-2606, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035448

RESUMO

We report the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) across different settings in Brunei. An initial cluster of SARS-CoV-2 cases arose from 19 persons who had attended the Tablighi Jama'at gathering in Malaysia, resulting in 52 locally transmitted cases. The highest nonprimary attack rates (14.8%) were observed from a subsequent religious gathering in Brunei and in households of attendees (10.6%). Household attack rates from symptomatic case-patients were higher (14.4%) than from asymptomatic (4.4%) or presymptomatic (6.1%) case-patients. Workplace and social settings had attack rates of <1%. Our analyses highlight that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 varies depending on environmental, behavioral, and host factors. We identify red flags for potential superspreading events, specifically densely populated gatherings with prolonged exposure in enclosed settings, persons with recent travel history to areas with active SARS-CoV-2 infections, and group behaviors. We propose differentiated testing strategies to account for differing transmission risk.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brunei/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1547-1548, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090982

RESUMO

Zambia is a landlocked, lower-middle income country in southern Africa, with a population of 17 million (1). The first known cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zambia occurred in a married couple who had traveled to France and were subject to port-of-entry surveillance and subsequent remote monitoring of travelers with a history of international travel for 14 days after arrival. They were identified as having suspected cases on March 18, 2020, and tested for COVID-19 after developing respiratory symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. In March 2020, the Zambia National Public Health Institute (ZNPHI) defined a suspected case of COVID-19 as 1) an acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of international travel during the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 2) acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 3) severe acute respiratory illness requiring hospitalization; or 4) being a household or close contact of a patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. This definition was adapted from World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidance issued March 20, 2020, on global surveillance for COVID-19 (2) to also include asymptomatic contacts of persons with confirmed COVID-19. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were identified through various mechanisms, including port-of-entry surveillance, contact tracing, health care worker (HCW) testing, facility-based inpatient screening, community-based screening, and calls from the public into a national hotline administered by the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit and ZNPHI. Port-of-entry surveillance included an arrival screen consisting of a temperature scan, report of symptoms during the preceding 14 days, and collection of a history of travel and contact with persons with confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days before arrival in Zambia, followed by daily remote telephone monitoring for 14 days. Travelers were tested for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, if they were symptomatic upon arrival or developed symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were tested as soon as possible after evaluation for respiratory symptoms or within 7 days of last known exposure (i.e., travel or contact with a confirmed case). All COVID-19 diagnoses were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic Acid Detection Kit, Maccura) of nasopharyngeal specimens; all patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted into institutional isolation at the time of laboratory confirmation, which was generally within 36 hours. COVID-19 patients were deemed recovered and released from isolation after two consecutive PCR-negative test results ≥24 hours apart. A Ministry of Health memorandum was released on April 13, 2020, mandating testing in public facilities of 1) all persons admitted to medical and pediatric wards regardless of symptoms; 2) all patients being admitted to surgical and obstetric wards, regardless of symptoms; 3) any outpatient with fever, cough, or shortness of breath; and 4) any facility or community death in a person with respiratory symptoms, and 5) biweekly screening of all HCWs in isolation centers and health facilities where persons with COVID-19 had been evaluated. This report describes the first 100 COVID-19 cases reported in Zambia, during March 18-April 28, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
5.
Euro Surveill ; 25(39)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006300

RESUMO

We found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the nucleoprotein gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a patient interfered with detection in a widely used commercial assay. Some 0.2% of the isolates in the EpiCoV database contain this SNP. Although SARS-CoV-2 was still detected by the other probe in the assay, this underlines the necessity of targeting two independent essential regions of a pathogen for reliable detection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Primers do DNA , Erros de Diagnóstico , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Genes Virais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Nucleoproteínas/análise , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Romênia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Proteínas Virais/análise
6.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108386

RESUMO

This study integrates the daily intercity migration data with the classic Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model to construct a new model suitable for describing the dynamics of epidemic spreading of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Daily intercity migration data for 367 cities in China were collected from Baidu Migration, a mobile-app based human migration tracking data system. Early outbreak data of infected, recovered and death cases from official source (from January 24 to February 16, 2020) were used for model fitting. The set of model parameters obtained from best data fitting using a constrained nonlinear optimisation procedure was used for estimation of the dynamics of epidemic spreading in the following months. The work was completed on February 19, 2020. Our results showed that the number of infections in most cities in China would peak between mid February to early March 2020, with about 0.8%, less than 0.1% and less than 0.01% of the population eventually infected in Wuhan, Hubei Province and the rest of China, respectively. Moreover, for most cities outside and within Hubei Province (except Wuhan), the total number of infected individuals is expected to be less than 300 and 4000, respectively.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transportes , Viagem , Big Data , Telefone Celular , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
8.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094715

RESUMO

An outbreak of 59 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) originated with 13 cases linked by a 7 h, 17% occupancy flight into Ireland, summer 2020. The flight-associated attack rate was 9.8-17.8%. Spread to 46 non-flight cases occurred country-wide. Asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic transmission in-flight from a point source is implicated by 99% homology across the virus genome in five cases travelling from three different continents. Restriction of movement on arrival and robust contact tracing can limit propagation post-flight.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Exposição Ambiental , Características da Família , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Genoma Viral , Hospitalização , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Estações do Ano , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-09. (OPAS/IMS/PHE/COVID-19/20-0043).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52935

RESUMO

Este documento foi elaborado pela Repartição Sanitária Pan-Americana em cumprimento da resolução sobre A Pandemia de COVID-19 na Região das Américas, aprovada pelo 58º Conselho Diretor da OPAS em setembro de 2020. No documento são resumidas as considerações relativas ao processo de decisão para a retomada das viagens internacionais não essenciais no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19 e, considerando que esse risco não pode ser eliminado, são incluídas as principais medidas que devem ser implementadas para aceitar e mitigar o risco de propagação internacional do SARS-CoV-2. Também são fornecidos mais detalhes sobre o possível uso de testes para a COVID-19, destacando os desafios primários (biológicos, técnicos e epidemiológicos) e as limitações secundárias (legais, operacionais e de recursos).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Controle de Infecções , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Controle Sanitário de Fronteiras , América
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966315

RESUMO

Following its initial appearance in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly spread around the globe. Here, we evaluated the role of climate (temperature and precipitation), region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility (BCG vaccination factors, malaria incidence, and percentage of the population aged over 65 years), and human mobility (relative amounts of international visitors) in shaping the geographical patterns of COVID-19 case numbers across 1,020 countries/regions, and examined the sequential shift that occurred from December 2019 to June 30, 2020 in multiple drivers of the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases. Our regression model adequately explains the cumulative COVID-19 case numbers (per 1 million population). As the COVID-19 spread progressed, the explanatory power (R2) of the model increased, reaching > 70% in April 2020. Climate, host mobility, and host susceptibility to COVID-19 largely explained the variance among COVID-19 case numbers across locations; the relative importance of host mobility and that of host susceptibility to COVID-19 were both greater than that of climate. Notably, the relative importance of these factors changed over time; the number of days from outbreak onset drove COVID-19 spread in the early stage, then human mobility accelerated the pandemic, and lastly climate (temperature) propelled the phase following disease expansion. Our findings demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic is deterministically driven by climate suitability, cross-border human mobility, and region-specific COVID-19 susceptibility. The identification of these multiple drivers of the COVID-19 outbreak trajectory, based on mapping the spread of COVID-19, will contribute to a better understanding of the COVID-19 disease transmission risk and inform long-term preventative measures against this disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Regressão , Clima , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877446

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in Wuhan, China and has since become pandemic. In response to the first cases identified in the United States, close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases were investigated to enable early identification and isolation of additional cases and to learn more about risk factors for transmission. Close contacts of nine early travel-related cases in the United States were identified and monitored daily for development of symptoms (active monitoring). Selected close contacts (including those with exposures categorized as higher risk) were targeted for collection of additional exposure information and respiratory samples. Respiratory samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Four hundred four close contacts were actively monitored in the jurisdictions that managed the travel-related cases. Three hundred thirty-eight of the 404 close contacts provided at least basic exposure information, of whom 159 close contacts had ≥1 set of respiratory samples collected and tested. Across all actively monitored close contacts, two additional symptomatic COVID-19 cases (i.e., secondary cases) were identified; both secondary cases were in spouses of travel-associated case patients. When considering only household members, all of whom had ≥1 respiratory sample tested for SARS-CoV-2, the secondary attack rate (i.e., the number of secondary cases as a proportion of total close contacts) was 13% (95% CI: 4-38%). The results from these contact tracing investigations suggest that household members, especially significant others, of COVID-19 cases are at highest risk of becoming infected. The importance of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers is also underlined. Isolation of persons with COVID-19, in combination with quarantine of exposed close contacts and practice of everyday preventive behaviors, is important to mitigate spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Rep ; 31(9): 13-26, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults spend a large proportion of their day at work. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) have been shown to vary considerably between occupations. The objective of this study is to describe occupational differences in accelerometer-measured and self-reported PA and SB for Canadian full-time workers. DATA AND METHODS: Using combined data from three cycles of the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 4,080), three activity groups (high, intermediate, low) were created based on a composite ranking of accelerometer-derived steps, proportion of time spent sedentary (SED%) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of ⋝10 minutes (MVPAbouted). Differences between groups were assessed for accelerometer-derived and self-reported PA and SB, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: On average, Canadians employed in full-time work were sedentary for 68.9% of their day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.3% to 69.6%), took 8,984 steps per day (95% CI: 8,719 to 9,249) and accumulated 79.5 minutes per week of MVPAbouted (95% CI: 71.1 to 87.9). Among Canadians employed in full-time work, 18.5% met the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. The high-activity group took significantly more steps and had a lower SED%, but spent a higher proportion of time in light-intensity PA compared with the intermediate- and low-activity groups. No differences were observed for MVPA. The low-activity group reported more recreational and active travel-related PA and leisure reading, while those in the high-activity group reported more work and domestic PA and leisure screen time. DISCUSSION: The majority of full-time working adults are not getting adequate MVPA and spend most of their day sedentary, regardless of occupation. Findings support workplace policies to improve MVPA levels among Canadian workers and to promote awareness for the potential benefit of occupation-specific messaging around PA and SB.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Canadá , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2713-2716, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946370

RESUMO

Four persons with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection had traveled on the same flight from Boston, Massachusetts, USA, to Hong Kong, China. Their virus genetic sequences are identical, unique, and belong to a clade not previously identified in Hong Kong, which strongly suggests that the virus can be transmitted during air travel.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e177, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741410

RESUMO

Increased population movements and increased mobility made it possible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is mainly spread by respiratory droplets, to spread faster and more easily. This study tracked and analysed the development of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the top 100 cities that were destinations for people who left Wuhan before the city entered lockdown. Data were collected from the top 100 destination cities for people who travelled from Wuhan before the lockdown, the proportion of people travelling into each city, the intensity of intracity travel and the daily reports of COVID-19. The proportion of the population that travelled from Wuhan to each city from 10 January 2020 to 24 January 2020, was positively correlated with and had a significant linear relationship with the cumulative number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in each city after 24 January (all P < 0.01). After the State Council launched a multidepartment joint prevention and control effort on 22 January 2020 and compared with data collected on 18 February, the average intracity travel intensity of the aforementioned 100 cities decreased by 60-70% (all P < 0.001). The average intensity of intracity travel on the nth day in these cities during the development of the outbreak was positively related to the growth rate of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases on the n + 5th day in these cities and had a significant linear relationship (P < 0.01). Higher intensities of population movement were associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 during the pandemic. Restrictions on population movement can effectively curb the development of an outbreak.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Regressão
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 732-736, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794462

RESUMO

Bangladesh reported the first three laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases on March 8, 2020 in Dhaka and Narayanganj cities. As of April 8, 2020, 218 confirmed cases across the country, they have mostly detected from Dhaka (56.4%) and Narayanganj (21%) cities where the hotspots of an outbreak of COVID-19 disease. There were 6 cases in Dhaka district excluding metropolitan areas and rest of 43 (20%) cases in the 19 other regions. Local government-enforced completely shut down the hotspots areas on April 8 2020. However, peoples from hotspots travelled openly to the other districts. We aimed to understand the risk of open movement from hotspots. We studied 40 individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus later at their destination. We developed a route map and density maps using Geographic Information System (GIS). Among the studied people, the average distance was 140.1 (75.1) kilometers (Km), and the range of distance was from 20.3 to 321.7 kilometers. Among them, 42.5% traveled <100 Km, 40.0% traveled between 100 and 200 Km and 17.5% traveled above 200 Km. Case numbers were increased 13.5 times more on April 20 than the cases as of April 8, 2020. Our analysis suggests that relaxed travel restriction could play an important role to spread COVID-19 transmission domestically. To reduce further spread of COVID-19, the government should closely monitor the public health intervention to stop the casual movement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Migrantes , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
19.
Math Biosci ; 329: 108442, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777227

RESUMO

On February 5 the Japanese government ordered the passengers and crew on the Diamond Princess to start a two week quarantine after a former passenger tested positive for COVID-19. During the quarantine the virus spread rapidly throughout the ship. By February 20, there were 651 cases. We model this quarantine with a SEIR model including asymptomatic infections with differentiated shipboard roles for crew and passengers. The study includes the derivation of the basic reproduction number and simulation studies showing the effect of quarantine with COVID-19 or influenza on the total infection numbers. We show that quarantine on a ship with COVID-19 will lead to significant disease spread if asymptomatic infections are not identified. However, if the majority of the crew and passengers are immune or vaccinated to COVID-19, then quarantine would slow the spread. We also show that a disease similar to influenza, even with a ship with a fully susceptible crew and passengers, could be contained through quarantine measures.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena , Navios , Viagem , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Japão/epidemiologia , Computação Matemática , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/métodos , Medicina de Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 2993-2999, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Weifang, China. METHODS: The demographic data of 43 COVID-19 patients identified in Weifang were used to investigate whether they had traveled to epidemic areas and whether they had close contact with confirmed cases. On admission, patients' symptoms and results of laboratory tests and imaging were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 43 COVID-19 patients. including 9 third generation infected cases, 16 (37.2%) were imported, who infected the rest. Most cases were middle-aged with approximate sex ratio. A "super spreader", Mr. Zhang made it necessary to quarantine 69 medical personnel. Mr. Zhang directly infected six individuals who, in turn, infected another six individuals. Another patient, Mr. Wang, spread the infection to his five family members at a family gathering. Subsequently, the daughter infected her husband. The most common COVID-19 symptoms were fever, weakness, dry cough, and cough sputum. In most patients, white blood cell counts were not elevated and lymphocyte counts were decreased. Elevated C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) levels were commonly observed. There was no death among the patients or infection among the medical staff. CONCLUSIONS: The infection by the COVID-19 in Weifang was mostly the result of close contact with imported cases. These circumstances underscore the need to comprehensively strengthen the management for patients to prevent and control the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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