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1.
Urologiia ; (5): 122-126, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185359

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a relevant public health concern and one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery disease (CAD) with the underlying coronary artery atherosclerosis is the leading cause of global death. The interaction between modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these pathological conditions is discussed in the review. Elevated serum cholesterol, a known risk factor for CAD, can be associated with both development and progression of PCa. From this perspective, patients with atherosclerosis may represent a potential target group for PCa screening. Alternatively, patients with PCa should undergo examination for concomitant cardiovascular diseases as well as their risk factors. Statins are supposed to be potentially beneficial in treating atherosclerosis in men and reducing the risk of PCa development and progression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Neoplasias da Próstata , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169598

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic with over 5 million cases worldwide. The disease has imposed a huge burden on health resources. Evaluation of clinical and epidemiological profiles of such patients can help in understanding and managing the outbreak more efficiently. This study was a prospective observational analysis of 200 diagnosed COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care center from 20th march to 8th May 2020. All these patients were positive for COVID-19 by an oro-nasopharyngeal swab-rtPCR based testing. Analyses of demographic factors, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, and the outcomes were performed. The mean age of the population was 40 years with a slight male predominance (116 patients out of 200, 58%). A majority of the patients (147, 73.5 %) were symptomatic, with fever being the most common symptom (109, 54.5%), followed by cough (91, 45.5%). An older age, presence of symptoms and their duration, leukocytosis, a high quick SOFA score, a high modified SOFA score, need for ventilator support, an AST level more than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), and a serum creatinine level of 2 mg/dl or greater were at a significantly higher risk of ICU admission and mortality. Presence of diabetes mellitus, AST > three times ULN, serum creatinine 2 mg/dl or higher, and a qSOFA score of 1 or higher were all associated with significantly greater odds of critical care requirement. Triage and severity assessment helps in deciding the requirement for a hospital stay and ICU admission for COVID-19 which can easily be done using clinical and laboratory parameters. A mild, moderate and severe category approach with defined criteria and treatment guidelines will help in judicious utilization of health-care resources, especially for developing countries like India.   *Other members of the Safdarjung Hospital COVID-19 working group: Balvinder Singh (Microbiology), MK Sen (Pulmonary Medicine), Shibdas Chakrabarti (Pulmonary Medicine), NK Gupta (Pulmonary medicine), AJ Mahendran (Pulmonary Medicine), Ramesh Meena (Medicine), G Usha (Anaesthesiology), Santvana Kohli (Anaesthesiology), Sahil Diwan (Anaesthesiology), Rushika Saksena (Microbiology), Vikramjeet Dutta (Microbiology), Anupam Kr Anveshi (Microbiology).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Anemia/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucocitose/sangue , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pandemias , Faringite/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Taquipneia/fisiopatologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 906-913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116095

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity both in developed and developing countries. The body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) are some of the clinical tools enabling clinicians to assess obesity. Although for decades there have been controversy regarding the relationship between obesity and CAD; it has been assumed that high BMI is a risk factor for CAD. However, the findings of some recent studies were paradoxical. The aim of this study was to identify the best tool among BMI, WHtR and WHR to evaluate angiographically severe CAD in myocardial infarction patients. This was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out in the Department of Cardiology, Chattogram Medical College and Hospital (CMCH), Chattogram, Bangladesh from January 2017 to December 2017. Three hundred and thirty two consecutive MI patients undergoing CAG during the study period were included in the study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Severity of CAD was calculated by using Gensini score. Patients were categorized and compared according to anthropometric indices and CAD severity. The mean±SD of the age of study population was 53.62±10.36 years (range 25-92) and 276(83.1%) were male. Regarding cardiovascular risk factors, 113(34%) patients had diabetes mellitus, 108(32.5%) had dyslipidaemia, 137(41.3%) had hypertension, 205(61.7%) were current or ex-smokers and 59(17.8%) had a family history of CAD. The mean±SD of the patients' BMI was 24.05±3.24kg/m² (range 16.14-32.72), mean±SD of their WHR was 0.964±0.052 (range 0.823-1.125) and mean±SD of their WHtR was 0.546±0.059 (range 0.389-0.748). The mean±SD of the severity of CAD according to the Gensini score was 41.11±28.66 (ranged from 2 to 244). Study findings showed a positive correlation between the severity of CAD with WHtR and WHR but not with BMI, according to Gensini scores (p=0.004, p=0.023 and p=0.43 respectively). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis revealed that waist height ratio had the highest area under the curve (AUC) among the three anthropometric parameters for predicting presence of severe CAD. Study showed the superiority of WHtR over WHR and BMI for predicting angiographic severity of CAD in patients with MI. WHtR should therefore be considered as a screening tool.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 327-331, oct 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122024

RESUMO

Introducción. La enfermedad de Kawasaki (EK) es una vasculitis sistémica inespecífica que suele presentarse en los niños; la lesión de las arterias coronarias (LAC) es la complicación más grave.Objetivos. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar los factores de riesgo de LAC en niños con EK.Materiales y métodos. Se incluyó a niños con EK según los criterios diagnósticos, hospitalizados entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2017. Se realizaron análisis univariado y multivariado de regresión logística para investigar las relaciones entre LAC y género, edad, diagnóstico clínico, velocidad de sedimentación globular (VSG), recuento de trombocitos, concentración de hemoglobina, concentración de proteína C-reactiva, recuento de leucocitos, momento de inicio de la administración de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IgIV) y duración de la fiebre.Resultados. Se dividió a los 982 niños con EK en un grupo con LAC (n = 104) y otro sin LAC (n = 878), según una ecocardiografía Doppler color. La tasa de incidencia de LAC fue del 10,6 % (104/982). En el análisis univariado, se observó una diferencia significativa entre ambos grupos en cuanto al género, la VSG, el recuento de trombocitos, el momento de inicio de la administración de IgIV y la duración de la fiebre (p < 0,05). Según el análisis multivariado de regresión logística, el sexo masculino, una VSG elevada y la administración tardía de IgIV fueron factores de riesgo independientes de EK complicada con LAC.Conclusiones. El sexo masculino, una VSG elevada y la administración tardía de IgIV fueron factores de riesgo independientes de EK complicada con LAC.


Introduction. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a non-specific systemic vasculitic disease that frequently occurs among children, and coronary artery lesion (CAL) is the most serious complication.Objectives. We aimed to study the risk factors for CAL in children with KD.Materials and methods. KD children in accordance with diagnostic criteria, who were hospitalized from January 2014 to December 2017, were selected as subjects. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between CAL and gender, age, clinical diagnosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count, hemoglobin level, C reactive protein level, white blood cell count, initiation time of IVIG administration and duration of fever.Results. The enrolled 982 KD children were divided into a CAL group (n = 104) and an NCAL group (n = 878) according to cardiac color Doppler ultrasonography. The incidence rate of CAL was 10.6 % (104/982). Univariate analysis showed that the two groups had significantly different gender, ESR, platelet count, initiation time of IVIG administration and duration of fever (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, elevated ESR and delayed use of IVIG were independent risk factors for KD complicated with CAL.Conclusions:Male gender, increased ESR and delayed use of IVIG were independent risk factors for KD complicated with CA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Vasos Coronários/lesões , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico
5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(11): 2085-2094, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955941

RESUMO

Basic and clinical research have demonstrated that osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of four polymorphic sites (rs2073618, rs3134069, rs3134070, and rs3102735) of OPG gene with premature coronary artery disease (pCAD), and with cardiometabolic parameters. The polymorphisms were genotyped using 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays with real-time PCR in 1098 individuals with pCAD and 1041 healthy controls. rs2073618 polymorphism was associated with a high risk of developing pCAD according to different inheritance models: additive (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.283), dominant (p = 0.006; OR = 1.383), recessive (p = 0.011; OR = 1.423), and codominant 2 (p = 0.001; OR = 1.646). The four polymorphisms were associated with different cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with pCAD and controls. Our results suggest that OPG rs2073618 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of pCAD. In addition, two haplotypes were associated with pCAD, one increasing the risk (CACT) and another one as protective (GACC).


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 872-878, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921669

RESUMO

In-stent restenosis (ISR) still exists after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, even up to one year. The incidence and risk factors for neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISR have not yet been elucidated. Here, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the incidence and predictors of neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISRs.OCT was performed on ISR lesions in 185 patients in order to detect neoatherosclerosis. The median follow-up was 180 days, and neoatherosclerosis was detected in 37% of early ISR lesions. According to the presence of neoatherosclerosis, patients with ISR were divided into two groups: neoatherosclerosis (group A, n = 69) and non-neoatherosclerosis (group B, n = 116) groups.The risk factors were similar, except for hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the tissue characteristics were not significantly different between patients with and without neoatherosclerosis. Follow-up low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were divided into three grades (LDL < 70 mg/dL, 70 mg/dL≤ LDL < 100 mg/dL, and LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL). The incidence of neoatherosclerosis was significantly lower (23% versus 57%, P < 0.0001) in the LDL < 70 mg/dL group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neoatherosclerosis in patients with lipid levels between 70 and 100 mg/dL (P = 0.53). However, neoatherosclerosis was significantly more common in patients with a follow-up LDL-C level > 100 mg/dL (45% versus 15%, P < 0.0001).In patients with early ISR lesions, the LDL-C levels may be related to the formation and progression of early neoatherosclerosis, and poor LDL-C control may be a risk factor for the occurrence of early-stage neoatherosclerosis following DES implantation.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Neointima/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neointima/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
8.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2512-2521, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is utilized as a life-saving procedure and bridge to myocardial recovery for patients in refractory cardiogenic shock. Despite technical advancements, VA-ECMO retains high mortality. This study aims to identify the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality after VA-ECMO to improve risk stratification for this tenuous patient population. METHODS: The REgistry for Cardiogenic Shock: Utility and Efficacy of Device Therapy database is a multicenter, observational registry of ECMO patients. From 2013 to 2018, 789 patients underwent VA-ECMO. Bivariate analysis was performed on more than 300 variables regarding their association with in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression analyses were performed with variables chosen based upon clinical and statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. Tests were considered significant at a two-sided P < .05. RESULTS: Although 63.5% patients were successfully weaned from VA-ECMO, in-hospital mortality was 57.9%. Nonsurvivors were older (P < .0001), had higher body mass index (P = .01), higher rates of hypertension (P = .02), coronary artery disease (P = .02), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .02), chronic liver disease (P = .008), percutaneous coronary intervention (P = .02), and surgical revascularization (P = .02). Multivariate predictors for in-hospital mortality include older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.019; P = .007), cardiac arrest (OR, 2.76; P = .006), chronic liver disease (OR, 8.87; P = .04), elevated total bilirubin (OR, 1.093; P < .0001), and the presence of a left ventricular vent (OR, 2.018; P = .03). Pre-ECMO sinus rhythm was protective (OR, 0.374; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: In a large study of recent VA-ECMO patients, in-hospital mortality remains significant, but acceptable given the severe pathology manifested in this population. Identification of pre-ECMO predictors of mortality helps stratify high-risk patients when deciding on ECMO placement, prolonged support, and prognosis.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/epidemiologia
9.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 159-177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749125

RESUMO

This review delineates the potential of naturally occurring substances for coronary artery disease (CAD), mainly coronary ischemia and its management, with their active constituents and probable mechanisms of action. As per the WHO, statistical incidence of CAD has increased in several countries. The number of coronary events worldwide has been increasing, and may increase even more in the near future. Meanwhile, increased sedentary behavior and poor diet will encourage the prevalence of CAD worldwide. As far as treatment is concerned, current conventional therapies have limitations due to their increased adverse events. The current approach to the management of CAD has certain lacunas that need to be overcome. Thus, new therapeutic options should be explored using traditional literature and current scientific data on natural products. The present review article deals with current knowledge associated with naturally occurring substances for the management of CAD.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Medicina Herbária , Humanos
11.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1662-1672, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current epidemiologic data suggest beneficial cardiovascular effects of fermented dairy products (FDP). However, the relationship between FDP consumption and angiographic coronary status has not been previously studied. Furthermore, the role of novel metabolomic biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in this context is unclear. We hypothesize that short-chain acylcarnitines (SCA) reflect the link between FDP intake and angiographic extent of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 1185 patients admitted for suspected CAD [median age 62 years (interquartile range: 54-69); 714 men (60.3%)]. Prior to coronary angiography, each patient completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. In addition, venous blood was collected from each patient for whole blood metabolomic analysis, using targeted mass-spectrometry. CAD was defined by the presence of ≥1 coronary stenosis ≥50%. Patients with CAD (n = 441) reported lower median FDP intake [86.8 g/day (IQR: 53.4-127.6)] than patients without CAD [n = 744; 103.9 g/day (IQR: 62.9-152.7); p < 0.001]. Upon adjustment for relevant confounders, increased circulating SCA, particularly level of acetylcarnitine (C2) associated with both higher CAD probability [SCA:ß(SE) = 0.584 (0.235), p = 0.013; C2:ß(SE) = 0.575 (0.242), p = 0.017] and decreased FDP consumption [SCA:ß/100 g FDP-increment/day (SE) = -0.785 (0.242), p = 0.001; C2:ß(SE) = -0.560 (0.230), p = 0.015]. By mediation analysis, neither SCA nor C2 showed relevant mediator effect linking FDP consumption to the risk of CAD. CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of fermented milk was associated with lower prevalence of CAD and correlated inversely with circulating SCA, in particular with acetylcarnitine. No substantial mediator effect of SCA linking fermented milk intake with risk of CAD was found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: NCT00497887.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carnitina/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 157-162, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706205

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease, and in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), remains an important contributor of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Classic symptomatology of CAD and effectiveness of established therapeutic measures is less frequent in patients with CKD. This suggests unique characteristics of CAD among patients with CKD. Two important features of CAD in CKD include increased calcific density of atherosclerotic plaques and of the vessels themselves (coronary artery calcification -- CAC), as well as a decrease in microcirculatory function -- or coronary microcirculatory dysfunction. A multitude of pathophysiologic pathways have been identified that contribute to CAC in CKD; less is known about the pathophysiology of microcirculatory dysfunction. It is not well established if these two processes are directly related to each other, but the combination results in a greater severity of effect on overall myocardial function and may in part explain the greater preponderance of silent myocardial infarction. Further investigation is needed to better understand these unique aspects of CAD in CKD as well as the role they play in overall CVD in this group, and ultimately therapeutics that may lessen the burden of disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
14.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(3): 229-235, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to a major concern and caused a pandemic globally. The goal of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of recovery and death in patients with severe or critical COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, clinical data were collected from 74 severe or critical COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Fourth Hospital between Jan. 25th and Feb. 26th, 2020. All patients were divided into a recovery group or a death group according to clinical outcomes, and the differences between the groups were compared. RESULTS: Of the 74 patients enrolled in the study, 48 (64.9%) were severe cases and 26 (35.1%) were critical cases. Sixty (81.1%) patients were recovered and 14 (18.9%) died. Compared with recovery patients, patients in the death group were older, and had higher incidences of hypertension, coronary disease and dyspnea at admission. Laboratory tests for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide and D-dimer indicated higher levels in the death group. The PaO2:FiO2 ratio and minimum SpO2 were lower in the death group, and a higher proportion of these patients received noninvasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 or death. Patients with a low blood gas index and poor coagulation function at admission had a high mortality rate. For such patients, comprehensive treatment should be performed as soon as possible to improve the prognosis and reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 215-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606718

RESUMO

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and coronary artery disease (CAD) share common risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in patients with angiographically diagnosed significant CAD. Patients and Methods: Male patients aged 50 years and above (including indigenous people) with angiographically diagnosed significant CAD in the recent one year were screened for AAA. Standard definition of abdominal aortic aneurysm and CAD was used. All new patients were followed up for six months for AAA events (ruptured AAA and AAA-related mortality). Results: A total of 277 male patients were recruited into this study. The total prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in this study population was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-3.1). In patients with high-risk CAD, the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA was 1.7% (95% CI 0.3-4.8). The detected aneurysms ranged in size from 35.0mm to 63.8mm. Obesity was a common factor in these patients. There were no AAA-related mortality or morbidity during the follow-up. Although the total prevalence of undiagnosed AAA is low in the studied population, the prevalence of sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation in patients with significant CAD was high at 6.6% (95% CI 3.9-10.2), in which majority were within the younger age group than 65 years old. Conclusion: This was the first study on the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in a significant CAD population involving indigenous people in the island of Borneo. Targeted screening of patients with high-risk CAD even though they are younger than 65 years old effectively discover potentially harmful asymptomatic AAA and sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatations.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Ultrassonografia , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/epidemiologia , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Dilatação Patológica , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 28-34, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650921

RESUMO

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients who underwent coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with multisite artery disease (MSAD) (16.9%) including cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) according to vascular territories involved, and in relation to most-recent lipid levels attained, were analyzed. Patients with MSAD were older with higher burden of co-morbidities. The rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) and its individual components increased with the number of affected vascular beds. Adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for MACE was 1.41 (1.24 to 1.59) in patients with CAD and CBVD, 1.46 (1.33 to 1.62) in CAD and PAD, and 1.69 (1.49 to 1.92) in those with CAD and CBVD and PAD, compared with CAD alone. Most-recent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <55 mg/dl and <70 mg/dl were attained by 21.8% and 44.6% of patients with CAD alone, in comparison to 22.7% and 43.3% in MSAD. Compared with patients with most-recent LDL-C > 100 mg/dl, attaining LDL-C < 70 mg/dl had an adjusted HR for MACE of 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57) in CAD only patients and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78) in MSAD patients. In conclusion, the presence of CBVD and/or PAD in patients with CAD is associated with higher burden of co-morbidities and progressive increase in long-term MACE. More than half of CAD patients with or without MSAD do not achieve lipid goals, which are associated with a significantly lower risk for adverse events.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 104, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol (RC) has been underlined by recent guidelines, which was linked to coronary artery disease (CAD), especially for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of plasma RC in the patients with CAD under different glucose metabolism status. METHODS: Fasting plasma RC were directly calculated or measured in 4331 patients with CAD. Patients were followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and categorized according to both glucose metabolism status [DM, pre-DM, normoglycemia (NG)] and RC levels. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 541 (12.5%) MACEs occurred. The risk for MACEs was significantly higher in patients with elevated RC levels after adjustment for potential confounders. No significant difference in MACEs was observed between pre-DM and NG groups (p > 0.05). When stratified by combined status of glucose metabolism and RC, highest levels of calculated and measured RC were significant and independent predictors of developing MACEs in pre-DM (HR: 1.64 and 1.98; both p < 0.05) and DM (HR: 1.62 and 2.05; both p < 0.05). High RC levels were also positively associated with MACEs in patients with uncontrolled DM. . CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale and long-term follow-up cohort study, data firstly demonstrated that higher RC levels were significantly associated with the worse prognosis in DM and pre-DM patients with CAD, suggesting that RC may be a target for patients with impaired glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Remanescentes de Quilomícrons/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 631-643, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes. METHODS: This large prospective study-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-consisted of 338,325 participants who completed a dietary questionnaire. HRs with 95% CIs for a CHD event, in relation to intake of GI, GL, and carbohydrates, were estimated using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After 12.8 y (median), 6378 participants had experienced a CHD event. High GL was associated with greater CHD risk [HR 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.31) highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend 0.035; HR 1.18 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) per 50 g/day of GL intake]. The association between GL and CHD risk was evident in subjects with BMI (in kg/m2) ≥25 [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.35) per 50 g/d] but not in those with BMI <25 [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.22) per 50 g/d) (P-interaction = 0.022). The GL-CHD association did not differ between men [HR: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.30) per 50 g/d] and women [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40) per 50 g/d] (test for interaction not significant). GI was associated with CHD risk only in the continuous model [HR: 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 5 units/d]. High available carbohydrate was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) per 50 g/d]. High sugar intake was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) per 50 g/d]. CONCLUSIONS: This large pan-European study provides robust additional support for the hypothesis that a diet that induces a high glucose response is associated with greater CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
19.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(4): 1479164120941809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for myocardial infarction. However, we have previously found that diabetes was not a short-term risk factor for myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2003 to 2012 and followed them by cross-linking Danish health registries. Patients were stratified according to coronary artery disease and diabetes. Endpoints included myocardial infarction, cardiac death, all-cause death and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: 86,202 patients were included in total (diabetes: n = 12,652). Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Using patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes as reference (cumulative myocardial infarction incidence 2.6%), the risk of myocardial infarction was low and not substantially increased for patients with diabetes alone (3.2%; hazard ratio 1.202, 95% confidence interval 0.996-1.451), was increased for patients with coronary artery disease alone (9.3%; hazard ratio 2.75, 95% confidence interval 2.52-3.01) and was highest for patients with both coronary artery disease and diabetes (12.3%; hazard ratio 3.79, 95% confidence interval 3.43-4.20). Similar associations were observed for cardiac death and coronary revascularization. CONCLUSION: Diabetes patients without coronary artery disease by coronary angiography have a low risk of myocardial infarction, not substantially increased compared to patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes. In the presence of coronary artery disease, however, diabetes increases the risk of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 1982-1989, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673526

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that involves multiple vascular beds. The pathological characteristics and clinical presentation, however, vary among the different vascular territories. Acute coronary syndrome is a relatively common manifestation of coronary atherosclerotic disease, wherein the thrombosis occurs secondary to disruption (65%-75%) and erosion (25%-35%) of the fibrous caps of atheromatous plaques. The plaques associated with plaque rupture have large necrotic cores and thin and inflamed fibrous caps. However, the pathological manifestations of peripheral artery disease result from thrombosis regardless of the extent of atherosclerosis. Approximately 75% of peripheral arteries with significant stenosis demonstrate presence of thrombi, of which two-thirds have thrombi associated with insignificant atherosclerosis. The presence of obliterative thrombi in peripheral arteries of patients with critical limb ischemia in the absence of coronary artery-like lesions suggests a locally thrombogenic or remotely embolic basis of disease. Extensive calcification of the medial vascular layer is commonly observed. In this review, we have described and compared the pathological basis of coronary and peripheral artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome and critical limb ischemia. It is expected that pathogenetic characterization would allow for definition of strategic targets for superior management of peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/patologia , Artérias/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Trombose/patologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Ruptura Espontânea , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/epidemiologia
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