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1.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 4158363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934664

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment for de novo coronary artery lesions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Background: DCB was an effective therapy for patients with in-stent restenosis. However, the efficacy of DCB in patients with de novo coronary artery lesions is still unknown. Methods: Eligible studies were searched on PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library Database. Systematic review and meta-analyses of RCTs were performed comparing DCB with non-DCB devices (such as plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), bare-metal stents (BMS), or drug-eluting stents (DES)) for the treatment of de novo lesions. Trial sequential meta-analysis (TSA) was performed to assess the false positive and false negative errors. Results: A total of 2,137 patients enrolled in 12 RCTs were analyzed. Overall, no significant difference in target lesion revascularization (TLR) was found, but there were numerically lower rates after DCB treatment at 6 to 12 months follow-up (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.01; P = 0.06; TSA-adjusted CI: 0.41 to 1.16). TSA showed that at least 1,000 more randomized patients are needed to conclude the effect on TLR. A subgroup analysis from high bleeding risk patients revealed that DCB treatment was associated with lower rate of TLR (RR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.78; P = 0.03). The systematic review illustrated that the rate of bailout stenting was lower and decreased gradually. Conclusions: DCB treatment was associated with a trend toward lower TLR when compared with controls. For patients at bleeding risk, DCB treatment was superior to BMS in TLR.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 9625181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934665

RESUMO

Background: The white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) is an indicator of inflammation in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Residual SYNTAX Score (RSS) is an objective measure of degree and complexity of residual stenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the relationship between WMR and clinical prognosis and RSS in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI). Method: Between June 2015 and December 2018, 537 patients who underwent primary PCI were evaluated for in-hospital events, and 477 patients were evaluated for clinical events during follow-up after discharge. The endpoint of our study is major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) seen in the in-hospital and follow-up periods. Results: In our study, 537 patients were stratified into two groups according to admission median WMR. There were 268 patients in the low WMR group (WMR < 1286) and 269 patients in the high WMR group (WMR ≥ 1286). RSS (p = 0.01) value of the high WMR group was higher than that of the low WMR group. The rates of in-hospital MACE (p = 0.001), cardiac death (p < 0.001), decompansated heart failure (0.007), and ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (p = 0.003) were higher in the high WMR group than in the low WMR group. The follow-up MACEs (p = 0.043), cardiac death (p = 0.026), and reinfarction (p = 0.031) ratio were higher in the high WMR group. In ROC analysis, cut-off values of in-hospital and follow-up MACEs were >1064 (sensitivity: 83.12%, and specificity: 36.29%) and >1130 (sensitivity: 69.15%, and specificity: 44.91%), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the high WMR group had the significantly lowest MACE-free survival rate (log-rank test, p = 0.006). A moderate correlation was observed between WMR and RSS (r: 456, p = 0.002). Conclusion: A higher WMR value on admission was associated with worse outcomes in patients with P-PCI and independently predicted for follow-up MACEs. The WMR provides both a rapid and an easily obtainable parameter to identify reliably high-risk patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention due to STEMI.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Leucócitos , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with CAD have substantial residual risk of mortality, and whether hitherto unknown small-molecule metabolites and metabolic pathways contribute to this risk is unclear. We sought to determine the predictive value of plasma metabolomic profiling in patients with CAD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Untargeted high-resolution plasma metabolomic profiling of subjects undergoing coronary angiography was performed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolic features and pathways associated with mortality were identified in 454 subjects using metabolome-wide association studies and Mummichog, respectively, and validated in 322 subjects. A metabolomic risk score comprising of log-transformed HR estimates of metabolites that associated with mortality and passed LASSO regression was created and its performance validated. In 776 subjects (66.8 years, 64% male, 17% Black), 433 and 357 features associated with mortality (FDR-adjusted q<0.20); and clustered into 21 and 9 metabolic pathways in first and second cohorts, respectively. Six pathways (urea cycle/amino group, tryptophan, aspartate/asparagine, lysine, tyrosine, and carnitine shuttle) were common. A metabolomic risk score comprising of 7 metabolites independently predicted mortality in the second cohort (HR per 1-unit increase 2.14, 95%CI 1.62, 2.83). Adding the score to a model of clinical predictors improved risk discrimination (delta C-statistic 0.039, 95%CI -0.006, 0.086; and Integrated Discrimination Index 0.084, 95%CI 0.030, 0.151) and reclassification (continuous Net Reclassification Index 23.3%, 95%CI 7.9%, 38.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Differential regulation of six metabolic pathways involved in myocardial energetics and systemic inflammation is independently associated with mortality in patients with CAD. A novel risk score consisting of representative metabolites is highly predictive of mortality.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790742

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality all over the globe. Inflammation is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of CVD. While there are studies on the interrelationship of telomerase and vitamin D and their involvement in CVD, their independent contributions to long-term outcomes in patients with CVD are not well-defined. This study aimed to investigate the association of both telomerase and vitamin D concentrations with 10-year survival among candidates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS: Participants were 404 patients from Tehran Heart Center-Coronary Outcome Measurement (THC-COM) cohort who were recruited from CABG surgery candidates in 2006. In addition to demographic and clinical data including risk factors for coronary artery disease, laboratory parameters such as markers of inflammation as well as baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and telomerase concentrations were measured. Cardiac function indexes alongside outcome measures such as mortality and survival days were recorded for every patient up to 10 years after CABG. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to study the association between all-cause mortality and research parameters. RESULTS: The mean serum telomerase enzyme level was 24.92 ±21.4 nmol/L and the mean serum 25(OH)D was 27.27±10.3 ng/mL. 10-year mortality was reported in 64 (15.8%) patients. 25(OH)D was categorized into three groups (<20, 20-30, and >30) and the cut-point for telomerase was set at 25.0 nmol/L. In Cox regression analysis, higher levels of telomerase (>25 nmol/L) were significantly associated with longer survival (p = 0.041), whereas 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with survival time. Further analysis showed that telomerase concentrations significantly predicted survival only in the presence of insufficient levels of 25(OH)D (20-30 ng/mL) (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase can be regarded as a potential predictor of long-term outcomes in patients who underwent CABG. However, the association of telomerase with the mortality may be modified by vitamin D concentrations.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Telomerase/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vitamina D/sangue
5.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(10): 1953-1962, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757119

RESUMO

Negative stress echocardiography (NSE) is associated with low cardiovascular morbidity and overall mortality. We aimed to determine the clinical and echocardiographic predictors of overall and cardiovascular outcomes following NSE. Patients who underwent SE between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients with a history of solid organ transplant or being evaluated for transplant, history of end-stage renal or liver disease, and positive SE were excluded. NSE results were divided into negative diagnostic if patient reached target heart rate (THR) and had no wall motion abnormality (WMA) at rest or stress; negative non-diagnostic if patient had no WMA but did not reach THR or if image quality was non-diagnostic; and abnormal non-ischemic if patient had a resting WMA not worsened at stress along with a personal history of coronary artery disease (CAD). New CAD lesion at 1 year was defined as ≥ 50% stenosis on cardiac catheterization. Of 4119 patients with SE, 2575 were included. All-cause mortality rate was 1.1%/year and CAD rate was 3.1%/year. Predictors of all-cause mortality were age, male gender, history of smoking and being selected for dobutamine SE. Predictors of a new CAD lesion at 1 year were male gender, diabetes, personal history of CAD and abnormal non-ischemic SE. We identified clinical and echocardiographic characteristics in a subset of NSE patients who are at higher risk for subsequent adverse events. These characteristics should be accounted for during the clinical interpretation of SE, and patients found at increased risk for morbidity and mortality warrant continued follow-up.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Teste de Esforço , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 285-297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764949

RESUMO

Purpose: To ascertain the most appropriate treatment for chronic, stable, coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients submitted to elective coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: A total of 814 patients included in the prospective cohort study were referred for elective coronary angiography and were followed up on average for 6±1.9 years. Main outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and late revascularization and their combinations as major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE): MACCE-1 included cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke; MACCE-2 was MACCE-1 plus late revascularization. Survival curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between the type of treatment and outcomes. Results: All-cause death was lower in participants submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (0.41, 0.16-1.03, P=0.057) compared to medical treatment (MT). Coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) had an overall trend for poorer outcomes: cardiovascular death 2.53 (0.42-15.10), combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke 2.15 (0.73-6.31) and these events plus late revascularization (2.17, 0.86-5.49). The corresponding numbers for PCI were 0.27 (0.05-1.43) for cardiovascular death, 0.77 (0.32-1.84) for combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke and 2.35 (1.16-4.77) with the addition of late revascularization. These trends were not influenced by baseline blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous MI. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher risk of recurrent revascularization when submitted to PCI than CABG. Conclusion: Patients with confirmed CAD in elective coronary angiography do not have a better prognosis when submitted to CABG comparatively to medical treatment. Patients treated with PCI had a trend for the lower incidence of combined cardiovascular events, at the expense of additional revascularization procedures. Patients without significant CAD had a similar prognosis than CAD patients treated with medical therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 309-314, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706219

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare in-hospital and long-term events between bailout rotational atherectomy (RA) and planned RA. In this retrospective study, All patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using RA at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from November 2011 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Planned RA was defined as RA performed immediately before balloon pre-dilation, while bailout RA was defined as RA after failure to expand the balloon or perform any other procedure. In-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE, defined as cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and stroke) were compared between the two groups. After statistical analysis, a total of 211 patients underwent PCI with RA during the study period: 153 in the planned RA group, and 58 in the bailout group. The incidence of coronary dissection was significantly higher in the bailout RA group than in the planned RA group (22.4% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.001). However, no significant difference in in-hospital MACE was found between the two groups (12.1% vs. 13.7%, P = 0.752). There was no difference in all-cause mortality (9.1% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.504) or long-term MACE (13.8% vs. 17.1%, P = 0.560) between the groups. Bailout RA was associated with a significantly longer procedural time (139.86 ± 56.24 min vs. 105.56 ± 36.71 min, P < 0.001) than planned RA. Therefore, compared with bailout RA, planned RA is associated with shorter procedural time and reduced incidence of coronary dissection, with no difference in MACE or mortality.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Aterectomia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Aterectomia Coronária/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 215-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606718

RESUMO

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and coronary artery disease (CAD) share common risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in patients with angiographically diagnosed significant CAD. Patients and Methods: Male patients aged 50 years and above (including indigenous people) with angiographically diagnosed significant CAD in the recent one year were screened for AAA. Standard definition of abdominal aortic aneurysm and CAD was used. All new patients were followed up for six months for AAA events (ruptured AAA and AAA-related mortality). Results: A total of 277 male patients were recruited into this study. The total prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in this study population was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-3.1). In patients with high-risk CAD, the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA was 1.7% (95% CI 0.3-4.8). The detected aneurysms ranged in size from 35.0mm to 63.8mm. Obesity was a common factor in these patients. There were no AAA-related mortality or morbidity during the follow-up. Although the total prevalence of undiagnosed AAA is low in the studied population, the prevalence of sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation in patients with significant CAD was high at 6.6% (95% CI 3.9-10.2), in which majority were within the younger age group than 65 years old. Conclusion: This was the first study on the prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in a significant CAD population involving indigenous people in the island of Borneo. Targeted screening of patients with high-risk CAD even though they are younger than 65 years old effectively discover potentially harmful asymptomatic AAA and sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatations.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Ultrassonografia , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/epidemiologia , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Dilatação Patológica , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(4): 1479164120941809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for myocardial infarction. However, we have previously found that diabetes was not a short-term risk factor for myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2003 to 2012 and followed them by cross-linking Danish health registries. Patients were stratified according to coronary artery disease and diabetes. Endpoints included myocardial infarction, cardiac death, all-cause death and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: 86,202 patients were included in total (diabetes: n = 12,652). Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Using patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes as reference (cumulative myocardial infarction incidence 2.6%), the risk of myocardial infarction was low and not substantially increased for patients with diabetes alone (3.2%; hazard ratio 1.202, 95% confidence interval 0.996-1.451), was increased for patients with coronary artery disease alone (9.3%; hazard ratio 2.75, 95% confidence interval 2.52-3.01) and was highest for patients with both coronary artery disease and diabetes (12.3%; hazard ratio 3.79, 95% confidence interval 3.43-4.20). Similar associations were observed for cardiac death and coronary revascularization. CONCLUSION: Diabetes patients without coronary artery disease by coronary angiography have a low risk of myocardial infarction, not substantially increased compared to patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes. In the presence of coronary artery disease, however, diabetes increases the risk of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 411-420, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery have increased risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI), which may be due to unsuspected (silent) coronary ischaemia. The aim was to determine whether pre-operative diagnosis of silent ischaemia using coronary computed tomography (CT) derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) can facilitate multidisciplinary care to reduce post-operative death and MI, and improve survival. METHODS: This was a single centre prospective study with historic controls. Patients with no cardiac symptoms undergoing lower extremity surgical revascularisation with pre-operative coronary CTA-FFRCT testing were compared with historic controls with standard pre-operative testing. Silent coronary ischaemia was defined as FFRCT ≤ 0.80 distal to coronary stenosis with FFRCT ≤ 0.75 indicating severe ischaemia. End points included cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and all cause death through one year follow up. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between CT angiography (CTA-FFRCT) (n = 135) and control (n = 135) patients with regard to age (66 ± 8 years), sex, comorbidities, or surgery performed. Coronary CTA showed ≥ 50% stenosis in 70% of patients with left main stenosis in 7%. FFRCT revealed silent coronary ischaemia in 68% of patients with severe ischaemia in 53%. The status of coronary ischaemia was unknown in the controls. At 30 days, CV death and MI in the CTA-FFRCT group were not statistically significantly different from controls (0% vs. 3.7% [p = .060] and 0.7% vs. 5.2% [p = .066], respectively). Post-operative coronary revascularisation was performed in 54 patients to relieve silent ischaemia (percutaneous coronary intervention in 47, coronary artery bypass graft in seven). At one year, CTA-FFRCT patients had fewer CV deaths (0.7% vs. 5.9%; p = .036) and MIs (2.2% vs. 8.1%; p = .028) and improved survival (p = .018) compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative diagnosis of silent coronary ischaemia in patients undergoing lower extremity revascularisation surgery can facilitate multidisciplinary patient care with selective post-operative coronary revascularisation. This strategy reduced post-operative death and MI and improved one year survival compared with standard care.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20582, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702814

RESUMO

The morbidity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Uygur population of Xinjiang was much higher than the national average. Clopidogrel is the most commonly used medication worldwide in dual antiplatelet therapy for CAD, and the response of clopidogrel is affected by CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The distribution of CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, and PON1 genetic polymorphisms in Han and Uygur populations with CAD of Xinjiang has not been investigated.This study aimed to investigate the frequencies of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms, and to identify the metabolizer phenotype of CYP2C19 in Han and Uygur populations with CAD in Northwestern Xinjiang, China. We identified 602 Han and 527 Uygur patients from 2014 through 2019 and studied genotypes for selected allele polymorphisms using sequencing by hybridization.There were significantly different allele frequencies and genotype frequencies between the 2 ethnic groups in terms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, ABCB1 and PON1, (P < .05). For CYP2C19*17, the frequency of TT genotype was 2.5% in Uygur patients, but it was undetectable in Han patients. In both the intermediate and poor metabolizer groups, the genotypes polymorphisms CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 were significantly less common in Uygur patients than in Han patients (P < .001). By contrast, the proportion of ultra-metabolizers as defined by CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 polymorphisms significantly higher in Uygur patients (18.6%) than in Han patients (1.7%, P < .001). The CYP2C19*2 frequency was significantly different between Han patients and Han healthy groups (P < .001), while the CYP2C19*3 frequency was significantly different between Uygur patients and Uygur healthy groups (P < .001).Our study supports the notion of interethnic differences in terms of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 polymorphisms and CYP2C19 genotype-defined clopidogrel metabolic groups. These finding could provide valuable data and insights into personalized CAD treatment for the Uygur and Han populations in Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Idoso , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , China/etnologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21244, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702903

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are frequently excluded from coronary artery disease trials. The aim of this assessment was to study the clinical outcomes of polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent implantations in patients with impaired renal function.Large-scale, international, single-armed, multicenter, 'all comers' observational studies (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were used for this post-hoc subgroup analysis to compare the clinical outcomes in patients with normal renal function (NRF) to those with renal insufficiency (CKD, dialysis dependence). The accumulated target lesion revascularization rate was the primary endpoint at 9 to 12 months whereas the accumulated major adverse cardiac event, stent thrombosis (ST) and procedural success rates were part of the secondary endpoints.There were 6791 patients with NRF, whereas 369 patients had CKD and 83 patients were dialysis dependent. The target lesion revascularization rate at 9 to 12 months was significantly higher in dialysis patients (2.1% vs 3.3% vs 6.7%, P = .011). The accumulated major adverse cardiac events rates in the dialysis and in the CKD group were significantly higher as compared to patients with NRF (13.3% vs 4.0%, P < .001; 6.5% vs 4.0%, P = .024). Finally, ST rates (NRF: 0.7%, CKD: 0.6%, dialysis: 1.3%) were not statistically different between subgroups (P = .768). All-cause cumulative mortality rates were 3.3% (CKD) and 4.0% (dialysis) respectively.Percutaneous coronary interventions with polymer-free, ultra-thin strut sirolimus-eluting stents have comparable revascularization rates in CKD and dialysis dependent patients as compared to percutaneous coronary interventions with other 2nd generation drug-eluting stents. ST and all-cause mortality rates were low as compared to available literature references.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Insuficiência Renal , Sirolimo , Idoso , Ásia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 26(3): 125-132, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475890

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCAB) has become a common practice for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Japan, with approximately 65% CABG procedures currently being performed using OPCAB. However, it is unclear whether OPCAB is superior in terms of associated mortality, incidence of complications, graft patency rate, and long-term outcomes compared with conventional CABG (CCABG). METHODS: Literature consideration was performed, mainly based on observational studies involving large samples and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: Many RCTs indicated that the acute-phase and long-term mortality rates were comparable between CCABG and OPCAB or that OPCAB was inferior to CCABG. In contrast, many observational studies indicated that OPCAB was superior to CCABG. CONCLUSION: CABG is a delicate procedure, the outcomes of which vary in accordance with the patient's condition as well as the level of expertise of the associated institution and surgeon. In the future, we hope that reports will emerge with excellent results, including long-term results, from Japanese institutions experienced in performing OPCAB.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
14.
Am Heart J ; 226: 24-25, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425197

RESUMO

Using Mt. Sinai (New York City) EMR health system data, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 8438 COVID-19 patients seen between March 1 and April 22, 2020. Risk of intubation and of death rose as a function of increasing age and as a function of greater cardiovascular comorbidity. Combining age and specific comorbidity markers showed patterns suggesting that cardiovascular comorbidities increased relative risks for adverse outcomes most substantially in the younger subjects with progressively diminishing relative effects at older ages.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Troponina I/sangue
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 127: 9-15, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418719

RESUMO

Recent experimental studies have suggested that galectin-3 has an interaction with aldosterone, and modifies its adverse effects. We therefore aimed to elucidate whether the relationship between plasma aldosterone concentrations (PACs) and long-term fatal cardiovascular (CV) events would depend on plasma galectin-3 levels. A total of 2,457 patients (median age: 63.5 [interquartile range (IQR) = 56.3 to 70.6] years, 30.1% women) from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study, with a median follow-up of 9.9 (IQR = 8.5 to 10.7) years, were included. We tested the interaction between aldosterone and galectin-3 for CV-mortality using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, reporting hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Adjustments for multiple CV risk factors as well as medication use were included. Mean PAC was 79.0 (IQR = 48.0 to 124.0) pg/ml and there were 558 (16.8%) CV deaths. There was a significant interaction between PAC and galectin-3 (p = 0.021). When stratifying patients by the median galectin-3, there was a significant association between aldosterone and CV-mortality for those above (HR per 1 standard deviation = 1.14; 95%CI [1.01 to 1.30], p = 0.023), but not below the cut-off value (HR per 1 standard deviation = 1.00; 95%CI [0.87 to 1.15], p = 0.185). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates for the first time a modifying effect of galectin-3 on the association between aldosterone and CV-mortality risk in humans. These findings indicate that galectin-3 is an intermediate between aldosterone and adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Galectina 3/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(9): 1182-1188, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The clinical consequences of coincident RA and coronary artery disease (CAD) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of RA on the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with and without CAD. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients registered in the Western Denmark Heart Registry, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) between 2003 and 2016, was stratified according to the presence of RA and CAD. Endpoints were myocardial infarction (MI), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; MI, ischaemic stroke and cardiac death) and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 125 331 patients were included (RA: n=1732). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Using patients with neither RA nor CAD as reference (cumulative MI incidence 2.7%), the 10-year risk of MI was increased for patients with RA alone (3.8%; adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRRadj) 1.63, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.54), for patients with CAD alone (9.9%; IRRadj 3.35, 95% CI 3.10 to 3.62), and highest for patients with both RA and CAD (12.2%; IRRadj 4.53, 95% CI 3.66 to 5.59). Similar associations were observed for MACE an all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing CAG, RA is significantly associated with the 10-year risk of MI, MACE and all-cause mortality regardless of the presence of CAD. However, patients with RA and CAD carry the largest risk, while the additive risk of RA in patients without CAD is minor. Among patients with RA, risk stratification by presence or absence of documented CAD may allow for screening and personalised treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD002785, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chelation therapy is promoted and practiced around the world as a form of alternative medicine in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested as a safe, relatively inexpensive, non-surgical method of restoring blood flow in atherosclerotic vessels. However, there is currently limited high-quality, adequately-powered research informing evidence-based medicine on the topic, specifically regarding clinical outcomes. Due to this limited evidence, the benefit of chelation therapy remains controversial at present. This is an update of a review first published in 2002. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) chelation therapy versus placebo or no treatment on clinical outcomes among people with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials register to 6 August 2019. We searched the bibliographies of the studies retrieved by the literature searches for further trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies if they were randomised controlled trials of EDTA chelation therapy versus placebo or no treatment in participants with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The main outcome measures we considered include all-cause or cause-specific mortality, non-fatal cardiovascular events, direct or indirect measurement of disease severity, and subjective measures of improvement or adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using standard Cochrane procedures. A third author considered any unresolved issues, and we discussed any discrepancies until a consensus was reached. We contacted study authors for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies with a total of 1993 randomised participants. Three studies enrolled participants with peripheral vascular disease and two studies included participants with coronary artery disease, one of which specifically recruited people who had had a myocardial infarction. The number of participants in each study varied widely (from 10 to 1708 participants), but all studies compared EDTA chelation to a placebo. Risk of bias for the included studies was generally moderate to low, but one study had high risk of bias because the study investigators broke their randomisation code halfway through the study and rolled the placebo participants over to active treatment. Certainty of the evidence, as assessed by GRADE, was generally low to very low, which was mostly due to a paucity of data in each outcome's meta-analysis. This limited our ability to draw any strong conclusions. We also had concerns about one study's risk of bias regarding blinding and outcome assessment that may have biased the results. Two studies with coronary artery disease participants reported no evidence of a difference in all-cause mortality between chelation therapy and placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.28; 1792 participants; low-certainty). One study with coronary artery disease participants reported no evidence of a difference in coronary heart disease deaths between chelation therapy and placebo (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.48; 1708 participants; very low-certainty). Two studies with coronary artery disease participants reported no evidence of a difference in myocardial infarction (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.14; 1792 participants; moderate-certainty), angina (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.67; 1792 participants; very low-certainty), and coronary revascularisation (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.25; 1792 participants). Two studies (one with coronary artery disease participants and one with peripheral vascular disease participants) reported no evidence of a difference in stroke (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.92; 1867 participants; low-certainty). Ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI; also known as ankle brachial index) was measured in three studies, all including participants with peripheral vascular disease; two studies found no evidence of a difference in the treatment groups after three months after treatment (mean difference (MD) 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.06; 181 participants; low-certainty). A third study reported an improvement in ABPI in the EDTA chelation group, but this study was at high risk of bias. Meta-analysis of maximum and pain-free walking distances three months after treatment included participants with peripheral vascular disease and showed no evidence of a difference between the treatment groups (MD -31.46, 95% CI -87.63 to 24.71; 165 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty). Quality of life outcomes were reported by two studies that included participants with coronary artery disease, but we were unable to pool the data due to different methods of reporting and varied criteria. However, there did not appear to be any major differences between the treatment groups. None of the included studies reported on vascular deaths. Overall, there was no evidence of major or minor adverse events associated with EDTA chelation treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of chelation therapy in improving clinical outcomes of people with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. More high-quality, randomised controlled trials are needed that assess the effects of chelation therapy on longevity and quality of life among people with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/terapia , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Quelação/métodos , Ácido Edético/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Terapia por Quelação/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
Int Heart J ; 61(3): 470-475, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350212

RESUMO

Cardiovascular events still occur despite statin-based lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). LR11, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, is a novel marker for the proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells, which are critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation. We evaluated the impact of LR11 on long-term clinical outcomes in CAD patients treated with statins after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This study included 223 consecutive CAD patients (age, 64.5 ± 9.6 years; male, 81.2%) treated with statin after first PCI between March 2003 and December 2004 at our institution. Patients were stratified to two groups according to LR11 levels (median). Composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome and non-fatal stroke were compared between groups.The rate of CVD endpoints was significantly higher in the high LR11 group (log-rank, P = 0.0029) during the median follow-up period of 2844 days. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a higher LR11 level was significantly associated with adverse clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for composite CVD endpoints, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.92; P = 0.006).Elevated levels of LR11 were significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among CAD patients treated with statins after first PCI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
Int Heart J ; 61(3): 447-453, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418963

RESUMO

Although an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with the adverse outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD), less is known about its prognostic value among patients with low high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. We enrolled 2,591 consecutive patients with stable CAD who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and had available data on preprocedural hs-CRP and NLR between 2000 and 2016. Of these patients, 1,951 with low-grade hs-CRP levels (< 2.0 mg/L) were divided into quartiles based on the NLR values. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke after the index PCI. Clinical follow-up data were obtained up to 5 years. The median NLR was 1.9 (interquartile range: 1.5-2.5). During the follow-up, 102 events occurred (5.2%), with a cumulative incidence that was significantly higher in the highest NLR group than in the other groups (log-rank, P = 0.02). After adjusting for the other cardiovascular risk factors, the risk for the primary endpoint was significantly higher for the highest than in the lowest NLR group (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.54, P = 0.02). Increasing NLR as a continuous variable was associated with the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events (HR 1.85 per log 1 NLR increase, 95% CI 1.19-2.88, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the adverse long-term clinical outcomes of CAD patients with low-grade hs-CRP levels has been independently predicted by increased NLR level. NLR could be useful for risk stratification of CAD patients with increased inflammatory marker levels.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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