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1.
Gene ; 721: 144107, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene environment interactions leading to epigenetic alterations play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Altered DNA methylation is one such epigenetic factor that could lead to altered disease etiology. In this study, we comprehensively identified methylation sites in several genes that have been previously associated with young CAD patients. METHODS: The study population consisted of 42 healthy controls and 33 young CAD patients (age group <50 years). We performed targeted bisulfite sequencing of promoter as well as gene body regions of several genes in various pathways like cholesterol synthesis and metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, apoptosis, which are implicated in the development of CAD. RESULTS: We observed that the genes like GALNT2, HMGCR were hypermethylated in the promoter whereas LDLR gene promoter was hypomethylated indicating that intracellular LDL uptake was higher in CAD patients. Although APOA1 did not show significant change in methylation but APOC3 and APOA5 showed variation in methylation in promoter and exonic regions. Glucokinase (GCK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) were hyper methylated in the promoter. Genes involved in apoptosis (BAX/BCL2/AKT2) and inflammation (PHACTR1/LCK) also showed differential methylation between controls and CAD patients. A combined analysis of the methylated CpG sites using machine learning tool revealed 14 CpGs in 11 genes that could discriminate CAD cases from controls with over 93% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique because it highlights important gene methylation alterations which might predict the risk of young CAD in Indian population. Large scale studies in different populations would be important for validating our findings and understanding the epigenetic events associated with CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto , Apolipoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sulfitos/química
2.
Lancet ; 394(10206): 1325-1334, 2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was a non-inferiority trial that compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease, and reported results up to 5 years. We now report 10-year all-cause death results. METHODS: The SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) study is an investigator-driven extension of follow-up of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial done in 85 hospitals across 18 North American and European countries. Patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to the PCI group or CABG group. Patients with a history of PCI or CABG, acute myocardial infarction, or an indication for concomitant cardiac surgery were excluded. The primary endpoint of the SYNTAXES study was 10-year all-cause death, which was assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed according to the presence or absence of left main coronary artery disease and diabetes, and according to coronary complexity defined by core laboratory SYNTAX score tertiles. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03417050. FINDINGS: From March, 2005, to April, 2007, 1800 patients were randomly assigned to the PCI (n=903) or CABG (n=897) group. Vital status information at 10 years was complete for 841 (93%) patients in the PCI group and 848 (95%) patients in the CABG group. At 10 years, 244 (27%) patients had died after PCI and 211 (24%) after CABG (hazard ratio 1·17 [95% CI 0·97-1·41], p=0·092). Among patients with three-vessel disease, 151 (28%) of 546 had died after PCI versus 113 (21%) of 549 after CABG (hazard ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·10-1·80]), and among patients with left main coronary artery disease, 93 (26%) of 357 had died after PCI versus 98 (28%) of 348 after CABG (0·90 [0·68-1·20], pinteraction=0·019). There was no treatment-by-subgroup interaction with diabetes (pinteraction=0·66) and no linear trend across SYNTAX score tertiles (ptrend=0·30). INTERPRETATION: At 10 years, no significant difference existed in all-cause death between PCI using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents and CABG. However, CABG provided a significant survival benefit in patients with three-vessel disease, but not in patients with left main coronary artery disease. FUNDING: German Foundation of Heart Research (SYNTAXES study, 5-10-year follow-up) and Boston Scientific Corporation (SYNTAX study, 0-5-year follow-up).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 138-143, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302444

RESUMO

Hip arthroplasty (hip replacement) surgery is a very common procedure and is particularly common in elderly individuals, where it is typically performed following traumatic hip fracture. As with any surgical procedure, hip arthroplasties are associated with a certain degree of morbidity and mortality, with many deaths occurring in the post-operative period. As most of these cases result from trauma (fractured hips), they are typically referred for medicolegal death investigation. Occasionally, sudden cardiorespiratory collapse and death occurs during hip arthroplasty surgery. In certain medicolegal jurisdictions, all intra-operative deaths must be investigated. Although many post-operative arthroplasty-related deaths might not require autopsy, those that occur intra-operatively may require autopsy. While clinical decision-making during recent years has resulted in fewer arthroplasty-related deaths, intraoperative deaths may still occur. In this review, the authors present their experience with three intra-operative arthroplasty-related deaths, followed by a discussion related to possible mechanisms involved in the deaths.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Morte Súbita/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Embolia Gordurosa/patologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(22): e159, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), there has been no convinced data on the necessity of routine invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in OHCA. We investigated clinical factors associated with obstructive CAD in OHCA. METHODS: Data from 516 OHCA patients (mean age 58 years, 83% men) who underwent ICA after resuscitation was obtained from a nation-wide OHCA registry. Obstructive CAD was defined as the lesions with diameter stenosis ≥ 50% on ICA. Independent clinical predictors for obstructive CAD were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis, and their prediction performance was compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with 10,000 repeated random permutations. RESULTS: Among study patients, 254 (49%) had obstructive CAD. Those with obstructive CAD were older (61 vs. 55 years, P < 0.001) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (54% vs. 36%, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (29% vs. 21%, P = 0.032), positive cardiac enzyme (84% vs. 74%, P = 0.010) and initial shockable rhythm (70% vs. 61%, P = 0.033). In multiple logistic regression analysis, old age (≥ 60 years) (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-3.00; P = 0.001), hypertension (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.18-2.57; P = 0.005), positive cardiac enzyme (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09-2.70; P = 0.019), and initial shockable rhythm (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.54; P = 0.007) were associated with obstructive CAD. Prediction ability for obstructive CAD increased proportionally when these 4 factors were sequentially combined (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with OHCA, those with old age, hypertension, positive cardiac enzyme and initial shockable rhythm were associated with obstructive CAD. Early ICA should be considered in these patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Eur J Radiol ; 116: 76-83, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the value of an automated model-based plaque characterization tool for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: We retrospectively included 45 patients with suspected coronary artery disease of which 16 (33%) experienced MACE within 12 months. Commercially available plaque quantification software was used to automatically extract quantitative plaque morphology: lumen area, wall area, stenosis percentage, wall thickness, plaque burden, remodeling ratio, calcified area, lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) area and matrix area. The measurements were performed at all cross sections, spaced at 0.5 mm, based on fully 3D segmentations of lumen, wall, and each tissue type. Discriminatory power of these markers and traditional risk factors for predicting MACE were assessed. RESULTS: Regression analysis using clinical risk factors only resulted in a prognostic accuracy of 63% with a corresponding area under the curve (AUC) of 0.587. Based on our plaque morphology analysis, minimal cap thickness, lesion length, LRNC volume, maximal wall area/thickness, the remodeling ratio, and the calcium volume were included into our prognostic model as parameters. The use of morphologic features alone resulted in an increased accuracy of 77% with an AUC of 0.94. Combining both clinical risk factors and morphological features in a multivariate logistic regression analysis increased the accuracy to 87% with a similar AUC of 0.924. CONCLUSION: An automated model based algorithm to evaluate CCTA-derived plaque features and quantify morphological features of atherosclerotic plaque increases the ability for MACE prognostication significantly compared to the use of clinical risk factors alone.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Lancet ; 394(10194): 230-239, 2019 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal technique of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients at high bleeding risk is not known. The hypothesis of the DEBUT trial was that percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloons is non-inferior to percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stents for this population. METHODS: The DEBUT trial is a randomised, single-blind non-inferiority trial done at five sites in Finland. Patients were eligible if they had an ischaemic de-novo lesion in a coronary artery or bypass graft that could be treated with drug-coated balloons, at least one risk factor for bleeding, and a reference vessel diameter of 2·5-4·0 mm. Those with myocardial infarction with ST-elevation, bifurcation lesions needing a two-stent technique, in-stent restenosis, and flow-limiting dissection or substantial recoil (>30%) of the target lesion after predilation were excluded. After successful predilation of the target lesion, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a computer-generated random sequence, to percutaneous coronary intervention with a balloon coated with paclitaxel and iopromide or a bare-metal stent. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. Non-inferiority was shown if the absolute risk difference was no more than 3%. All prespecified analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01781546. FINDINGS: Between May 22, 2013, and Jan 16, 2017, 220 patients were recruited for the study and 208 patients were assigned to percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloon (n=102) or bare metal stent (n=106). At 9 months, major adverse cardiac events had occurred in one patient (1%) in the drug-coated balloon group and in 15 patients (14%) in the bare-metal stent group (absolute risk difference -13·2 percentage points [95% CI -6·2 to -21·1], risk ratio 0·07 [95% CI 0·01 to 0·52]; p<0·00001 for non-inferiority and p=0·00034 for superiority). Two definitive stent thrombosis events occurred in the bare metal stent group but no acute vessel closures in the drug-coated balloon group. INTERPRETATIONS: Percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-coated balloon was superior to bare-metal stents in patients at bleeding risk. The drug-coated balloon-only coronary intervention is a novel strategy to treat this difficult patient population. Comparison of this approach to the new generation drug-eluting stents is warranted in the future. FUNDING: B Braun Medical AG, AstraZeneca, and Competitive State Research Funding of the Kuopio University Hospital Catchment Area.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Reestenose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Stents , Moduladores de Tubulina/administração & dosagem
8.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 123-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190850

RESUMO

Purpose: Disturbed metabolism of cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TGs) carries increased risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, the exact relationship between individual lipid species and CAC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify disturbances in lipid profiles involved in the calcification process, in an attempt to propose potential biomarker candidates. Patients and methods: We studied 70 patients at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease who had undergone coronary calcification assessment using computed tomography and Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS). Patients were divided into three groups: with no coronary calcification (NCC; CACS: 0; n=26), mild coronary calcification (MCC; CACS: 1-250; n=27), or severe coronary calcification (SCC; CACS: >250; n=17). Patients' serum samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in an untargeted lipidomics approach. Results: We identified 103 lipids within the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and sterol lipid classes. After false discovery rate correction, phosphatidylcholine (PC)(16:0/20:4) in higher levels and PC(18:2/18:2), PC(36:3), and phosphatidylethanolamine(20:0/18:2) in lower levels were identified as correlates with SCC compared to NCC. There were no significant differences in the levels of individual TGs between the three groups; however, clustering the lipid profiles showed a trend for higher levels of saturated and monounsaturated TGs in SCC compared to NCC. There was also a trend for lower TG(49:2), TG(51:1), TG(54:5), and TG(56:8) levels in SCC compared to MCC. Conclusion: In this study we investigated the lipidome of patients with coronary calcification. Our results suggest that the calcification process may be associated with dysfunction in autophagy. The lipidomic biomarkers revealed in this study may aid in better assessment of patients with subclinical coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Metabolômica/métodos , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Autofagia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15797, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical value of drug-coated balloons for patients with small-vessel coronary artery disease (SVD). METHODS: A computerized literature search was performed using the databases to conduct a meta-analysis and evaluate the clinical value of drug-coated balloons among patients with SVD. RESULTS: This review enrolling 1545 patients receiving drug-coated balloons and 1010 patients receiving stents (including drug-eluting stents and bare-metal stents). The meta-analysis results showed that the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with SVD did not significantly differ between the drug-coated balloon group and the stent group within 1 postoperative year (odds ratio = 0.81, P = .5). A subgroup analysis showed that the incidence of myocardial infarction among the drug-coated balloon group was significantly lower than that among the stent group (odds ratio = 0.58, P = .04). Nevertheless, the late lumen loss of the drug-coated balloon group was significantly lower than that of the stent group (mean difference = 0.31, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Drug-coated balloons can be used to effectively reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with SVD within 1 year and decrease the extent of late lumen loss without increasing the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1563-1572, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053979

RESUMO

The measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) and superficial wall stress (SWS) identifies inducible myocardial ischemia and plaque vulnerability, respectively. A simultaneous evaluation of both FFR and SWS is still lacking, while it may have a major impact on therapy. A new computational model of one-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) was implemented and used to perform a total of 54 analyses in virtual coronary lesion models, based on plaque compositions, arterial remodeling patterns, and stenosis morphologies under physiological conditions. Due to a greater lumen dilation and more induced strain, FFR in the lipid-rich lesions (0.81 ± 0.15) was higher than that in fibrous lesions (0.79 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and calcified lesions (0.79 ± 0.16, P = 0.001). Four types of lesions were further defined, based on the combination of cutoff values for FFR (0.80) and maximum relative SWS (30 kPa): The level of risk increased from (1) plaques with mild-to-moderate stenosis but negative remodeling for lipid-rich (Type A: non-ischemic, stable) to (2) lipid-rich plaques with mild-to-moderate stenosis and without-to-positive remodeling (Type B: non-ischemic, unstable) or plaques with severe stenosis but negative remodeling for lipid-rich (Type C: ischemic, stable) to (3) lipid-rich plaques with severe stenosis and without-to-positive remodeling (Type D: ischemic, unstable). The analysis of FSI to simultaneously evaluate inducible myocardial ischemia and plaque stability may be useful to identify coronary lesions at a high risk and to ultimately optimize treatment. Further research is warranted to assess whether a more aggressive treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with non-ischemic, intermediate, and unstable lesions.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Hemodinâmica , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Placa Aterosclerótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ruptura Espontânea , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Amino Acids ; 51(6): 977-982, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049693

RESUMO

High plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low homoarginine (hArg) predict adverse renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. In patients with chronic kidney disease and stable coronary artery disease, plasma OPG correlated with hArg (r = - 0.37, P = 0.03) and the hArg/ADMA molar ratio (r = - 0.46, P = 0.009), which was maintained upon adjustment for renal function. Elevated OPG levels and decreased hArg/ADMA ratios independently predicted 4-year composite CV and renal endpoints (CV death or progression to dialysis). Thus, high OPG and low hArg/ADMA ratio, albeit interrelated, appear to independently contribute to adverse clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Homoarginina/sangue , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Idoso , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(7): 1319-1325, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093894

RESUMO

To demonstrate the potential for differentiating normal and diseased myocardium without Gadolinium using rest and stress T1-mapping. Patients undergoing 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of clinical work-up due to suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. Adenosine stress perfusion MRI and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging were performed to identify ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Patients were retrospectively categorized into an ischemic, infarct and control group based on conventional acquisitions. Patient with both ischemic and infarcted myocardium were excluded. A total of 64 patients were included: ten with myocardial ischemia, 15 with myocardial infarction, and 39 controls. A native Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) T1-mapping acquisition was performed at rest and stress. Pixel-wise myocardial T1-maps were acquired in short-axis view with inline motion-correction. Short-axis T1-maps were manually contoured using conservative septal sampling. Regions of interest were sampled in ischemic and infarcted areas detected on perfusion and LGE images. T1 reactivity was calculated as the percentage difference in T1 values between rest and stress. Remote myocardium was defined as myocardium without defects in the ischemic and infarcted group whereas normal myocardium is found in the control group only. Native T1-values were significantly higher in infarcted myocardium in rest and stress [median 1044 ms (interquartile range (IQR) 985-1076) and 1053 ms (IQR 989-1088)] compared to ischemic myocardium [median 961 ms (IQR 939-988) and 958 ms (IQR 945-988)]. T1-reactivity was significantly lower in ischemic and infarcted myocardium [median 0.00% (IQR - 0.18 to 0.16) and 0.41% (IQR 0.09-0.86)] compared to remote myocardium [median 3.54% (IQR 1.48-5.78) and 3.21% (IQR 1.95-4.79)]. Rest-stress T1-mapping is able to distinguish between normal, ischemic, infarcted and remote myocardium using native T1-values and T1-reactivity, and holds potential as an imaging biomarker for tissue characterization in MRI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Miocárdio/patologia , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(21): e15622, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-coated balloon as a novel therapeutic strategy has been used to treat restenosis in cases of bare metal and drug-eluting stents. However, evidence of its safety and efficacy is scarce in de novo small coronary artery vessel disease. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the drug-coated balloon and the drug-eluting stent. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases were searched for studies published up to October 17, 2018. Studies comparing the drug-coated balloon with the drug-eluting stent strategy in patients with de novo small coronary artery vessel disease (reference diameter, <3 mm) were identified. The clinical outcomes were nonfatal myocardial infarction, cardiac death, all-cause death, target lesion revascularization, and target-vessel revascularization. Data were analyzed using the statistical software RevMan (version 5.3). Fixed effects models were performed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Sensitivity analyses were used to detect potential sources of heterogeneity, while subgroup analyses were implemented to assess the differential effects. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials and 3 nonrandomized controlled studies were identified. Six studies including a total of 1800 patients compared the differences between the drug-coated balloon and the drug-eluting stent strategies in patients with de novo small coronary artery vessel disease. The results indicated that the drug-coated balloon strategy was associated with a significant reduction in nonfatal myocardial infarction (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.90, P = .02) compared with the drug-eluting stent strategy, while insignificant inter-strategy differences were observed in cardiac death (OR 1.56, 95% CI 0.73-3.33, P = .25), all-cause death (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.25-1.23, P = .15), target lesion revascularization (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.73-2.1, P = .43), and target-vessel revascularization (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.52, P = .84). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the drug-coated balloon strategy is noninferior to the drug-eluting stent strategy, delivering a good outcome in nonfatal myocardial infarction, and can be recommended as an optimal treatment strategy in patients with de novo small coronary artery vessel disease. Larger randomized controlled studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to further confirm the benefits of the drug-coated balloon strategy.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Desenho de Prótese , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Malays J Pathol ; 41(1): 51-54, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025638

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare event and commonly associated with pregnancy and female gender. This condition can reduce or completely obstruct the blood flow to the heart, causing a myocardial ischaemia, abnormalities in heart rhythm or sudden death. We present a case of a 28-year-old Indian male with no previous medical illness who complained sudden onset of chest pain prior to his death. Autopsy revealed a left anterior descending coronary artery dissection associated with plaque rupture. The anterior wall of left ventricle showed contraction band necrosis. There was also atheroma present in the right coronary artery which was insignificant. Histologically, dissection was associated with atherosclerosis. There was no evidence of vasculitis. The cause of death was given as coronary artery dissection due to coronary artery atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Adulto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/mortalidade , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Vasculares/patologia
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(8): 957-962, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Saphenous vein grafts disease (SVGD) is a common complication after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and normally treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The most common complication after SVG-PCI is slow or no-reflow. It is known that the no-reflow phenomenon occurs in up to 15% of the SVG-PCI and is associated with high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and mortality, therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that could predict the clinical outcome of PCI for risk stratification and guiding interventions. In recent years, the spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency data (virtual histology-IVUS [VH-IVUS]) has been used to provide quantitative assessment on both plaque compositions and morphologic characteristics. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Embase, and Central databases were searched for possible relevant studies published from 1997 to 2018 using the following index keywords: "Coronary artery bypass grafting," "Saphenous venous graft disease," "Virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound," "Virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound," and "Percutaneous coronary intervention." STUDY SELECTION: The primary references were Chinese and English articles including original studies and literature reviews, were identified and reviewed to summarize the advances in the application of VH-IVUS techniques in situ vascular and venous graft vascular lesions. RESULTS: With different plaque components exhibiting a defined spectrum, VH-IVUS can classify atherosclerotic plaque into four types: fibrous tissue (FT), fibro fatty (FF), necrotic core (NC), and dense calcium (DC). The radiofrequency signal is mathematically transformed into a color-coded representation, including lipid, fibrous tissue, calcification, and necrotic core. Several studies have demonstrated the independent relationship between VH-IVUS-defined plaque classification or plaque composition and MACEs, but a significant association between plaque components and no-reflow after PCI in acute coronary syndrome. In recent years, VH-IVUS are applied to assess the plaque composition of SVGD, based on the similarity of pathophysiological mechanisms between coronary artery disease (CAD) and SVGD, further studies with the larger sample size, the long-term follow-up, multicenter clinical trials may be warranted to investigate the relationship between plaque composition of saphenous vein graft (SVG) by VH-IVUS and clinical outcomes in patients with SVGD undergoing PCI. CONCLUSIONS: In degenerative SVG lesions, VH-IVUS found that plaque composition was associated with clinical features, future studies need to explore the relationship between VH-IVUS defined atherosclerotic plaque components and clinical outcomes in SVGD patients undergoing PCI, an innovative prediction tool of clinical outcomes can be created.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Veia Safena/patologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9602783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984786

RESUMO

Background: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) has been detected in coronary plaques. However, the association between serum GGT levels and coronary atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) as detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been investigated. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of consecutively enrolled CAD patients undergoing preintervention OCT examination during coronary angiography. Plaque vulnerability was defined as the presence of ruptured plaques or thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) upon OCT. The association between serum GGT levels and coronary plaque vulnerability was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 142 patients were included in our analysis. OCT examination detected ruptured plaques in 16 patients, nonruptured plaques with TCFA in 17 patients, and nonruptured plaques and non-TCFA in 109 patients. Univariate analyses showed that gender, diabetes, Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were associated with plaque vulnerability (P all < 0.05). Patients grouped according to serum GGT tertiles did not differ statistically in baseline characteristics or OCT findings. Results of multivariate logistic analyses showed that diabetes and diagnosis of ACS were associated with plaque rupture and TCFA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: GGT serum levels were not associated with OCT detected coronary vulnerability in our cohort of CAD patient.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/patologia , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 92, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the pathways and genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) and the associated mechanisms. METHODS: Two array data sets of GSE19339 and GSE56885 were downloaded. The limma package was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in normal and CAD specimens. Examination of DEGs through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment and Gene Ontology annotation was achieved by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The Cytoscape software facilitated the establishment of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) was performed for the significant modules. RESULTS: We identified 413 DEGs (291 up-regulated and 122 down-regulated). Approximately 256 biological processes, only 1 cellular component, and 21 molecular functions were identified by GO analysis and 10 pathways were enriched by KEGG. Moreover, 264 protein pairs and 64 nodes were visualized by the PPI network. After the MCODE analysis, the top 4 high degree genes, including interleukin 1 beta (IL1B, degree = 29), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1, degree = 25), Jun proto-oncogene (JUN, degree = 23) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, degree = 20) had been identified to validate in RT-PCR and Cox proportional hazards regression between CAD and normals. CONCLUSIONS: The relative expression of IL1B, ICAM1 and CCL2 was higher in CAD than in normal controls (P < 0.05-0.001), but only IL1B and CCL2 genes were confirmed after testing the gene expression in blood and/or analyzing in Cox proportional hazards regression (P < 0.05-0.001), and the proper mechanism may involve in the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, fluid shear stress, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Atlas como Assunto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/sangue , Software
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4069097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008104

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the influence of statins on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD). Participants: 23,494 patients who received coronary angiography (CAG) were included. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Perfusion Grading (TMPG), a useful angiographic method, was used to evaluate CMVD. Results: Using multivariate analysis, NYHA III/IV (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.01; P=0.031), PCI history (HR, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.57-5.31; P<0.001), TG (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P=0.001), creatinine (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P<0.001), cTnT (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99; P<0.001), heart rate (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P=0.001), ß-blocker (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.91; P=0.008), aspirin (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24-0.61; P<0.001), and statins (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.60; P<0.001) significantly correlated with reduced MACE in CMVD patients. In subgroups analysis, statins decreased MACE overall (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.59; P<0.001) and in CMVD patients with smoking history (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.93; P=0.014), diabetes (HR,0.27; 95% CI,0.12-0.61; P=0.002), hypertension (HR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.36; P=0.001), and hypertension and diabetes (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.014-0.53; P=0.008). Conclusion: Statins could reduce MACE in patients with CMVD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 63-72, mar.-abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182575

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La cardiopatía isquémica constituye un importante problema de salud. Las características de las placas de ateroma condicionan la evolución de los pacientes. El objetivo fue determinar el grado histológico de las lesiones ateroscleróticas de las coronarias en fallecidos tras una revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica e identificar las complicaciones de las placas graves. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, prospectivo, de 21 piezas anatómicas de fallecidos durante un período de 3 años. Las coronarias epicárdicas se seccionaron transversalmente cada 1cm y se seleccionaron los fragmentos impares y las regiones de la anastomosis con los injertos. Se incluyeron en parafina, se colorearon con hematoxilina-eosina y las láminas histológicas se describieron con un microscopio Olympus BHM. Resultados: Predominaron la edad mayor de 50 años (85,7%), el sexo masculino (81,0%) y el tabaquismo (66,7%). El infarto perioperatorio (38,1%) y el shock cardiogénico (33,3%) fueron las principales causas directas de muerte. La mayoría de los injertos fueron venosos (64,6%). Se detectaron 149 lesiones: 116 (77,8%) fueron placas graves y el 47,4% de ellas se localizaban en la descendente anterior. El 81,9% de las lesiones se localizaron en los segmentos arteriales proximales al injerto. Se identificaron 255 complicaciones histológicas en las placas graves; el 75,0% presentó calcificación. Los hipertensos tenían más placas con más complicaciones, pero no se encontró relación estadística significativa entre estas variables. Conclusiones: Predominaron las placas graves, localizadas mayoritariamente en los segmentos proximales de las coronarias, y la descendente anterior fue la más afectada. La calcificación fue la complicación más observada en las placas graves


Background and aim: Ischaemic heart disease is an important health problem. The characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques determine patient outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the histological grade of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in deceased patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and to identify the complications of the severe plaques. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study was carried out on 21 anatomical pieces of deceased patients over a period of 3 years. The epicardial coronary arteries were sectioned transversally every 1cm, and the odd numbered fragments and the regions of the anastomosis with the grafts were selected. They were embedded in paraffin, stained with haematoxylin-eosin, and the histological slides were studied using an Olympus BHM microscope. Results: An age over 50 years (85.7%), male gender (81.0%), and smoking (66.7%) predominated. Peri-operative infarction (38.1%) and cardiogenic shock (33.3%) were the main direct causes of death. The majority of the grafts were of venous origin (64.6%), and 149 lesions were detected, of which 116 (77.8%) were severe plaques, and 47.4% of them were located in the left anterior descending artery. The large majority (81.9%) of the lesions were located in the arterial segments proximal to the graft. A total of 255 histological complications were detected in the severe plaques, with 75.0% showing calcification. Hypertensive patients had more plaques with more complications, but no statistically significant association was found between these variables. Conclusions: Severe plaques predominated, mostly located in the proximal segments of the coronary arteries, and the left anterior descending was the most affected artery. Calcification was the most observed complication in the severe plaques


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Revascularização Miocárdica , Fatores de Risco
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