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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259522

RESUMO

Tobacco is well known as a risk factor for early morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the relative risk of mortality and the effects of smoking vary among the countries. Indonesia, as one of the world's largest market for smoking tobacco, is significantly affected by tobacco-related illness. Previous research has shown that smoking causes several diseases, including stroke, neoplasm and coronary heart disease. There has to date been no research on the hazard risk of smoking for all-cause mortality in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify the association between smoking and all-cause mortality rates in Indonesia. Information from a total of 3,353 respondents aged 40 years and older was collected in this study. The data were taken from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) Wave 4 (2007) to collect personal information and determine smoking status and from Wave 5 (2015) to collect information about deaths. Current smokers make up 40.3% of Indonesia's population. Current smokers were more likely to have a higher risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.11 to 1.98) than non-current smokers. The number of smokers in Indonesia remains high and is expected to increase gradually every year. A firm government policy is needed to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia which would automatically reduce the health problem of smoking-related illness in the future.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mexico is still in the growing phase of the epidemic of coronary heart disease (CHD), with mortality increasing by 48% since 1980. However, no studies have analyzed the drivers of these trends. We aimed to model CHD deaths between 2000 and 2012 in Mexico and to quantify the proportion of the mortality change attributable to advances in medical treatments and to changes in population-wide cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the previously validated IMPACT model to explain observed changes in CHD mortality in Mexican adults. The model integrates nationwide data at two-time points (2000 and 2012) to quantify the effects on CHD mortality attributable to changes in risk factors and therapeutic trends. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2012, CHD mortality rates increased by 33.8% in men and by 22.8% in women. The IMPACT model explained 71% of the CHD mortality increase. Most of the mortality increases could be attributed to increases in population risk factors, such as diabetes (43%), physical inactivity (28%) and total cholesterol (24%). Improvements in medical and surgical treatments together prevented or postponed 40.3% of deaths; 10% was attributable to improvements in secondary prevention treatments following MI, while 5.3% to community heart failure treatments. CONCLUSIONS: CHD mortality in Mexico is increasing due to adverse trends in major risk factors and suboptimal use of CHD treatments. Population-level interventions to reduce CHD risk factors are urgently needed, along with increased access and equitable distribution of therapies.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Incerteza
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108488, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035598

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure is a fatal complication of type 2 diabetes but little is known about its incidence in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We used Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial data to identify predictors of hospitalisation for heart failure (hHF) or cardiovascular (CV) death in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and IGT randomised to acarbose or placebo. METHODS: Independent hHF/CV death risk factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards models, with participants censored at first hHF event, CV death, or end of follow-up. RESULTS: During median 5-year follow-up, the composite outcome of hHF/CV death occurred in 393 (6.0%) participants. Significant hHF/CV death multivariate predictors were higher age and plasma creatinine, and prior heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke. Acarbose, compared with placebo, did not reduce hHF/CV death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.64-1.24, P = 0.48) or hHF (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74-1.10, P = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CHD and IGT at greater risk of hHF/CV death were older with higher plasma creatinine, prior HF, MI, AF or stroke. Addition of acarbose to optimised CV therapy to reduce post-prandial glucose excursions did not reduce the risk of hHF/CV death or hHF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00829660, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN91899513.


Assuntos
Acarbose/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
FEBS J ; 287(17): 3681-3688, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779891

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), higher morbidity and mortality are associated with age, male gender, and comorbidities, such as chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, hypertension, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. All of the above conditions are characterized by increased sympathetic discharge, which may exert significant detrimental effects on COVID-19 patients, through actions on the lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, metabolism, and/or immune system. Furthermore, COVID-19 may also increase sympathetic discharge, through changes in blood gases (chronic intermittent hypoxia, hyperpnea), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)1/ACE2 imbalance, immune/inflammatory factors, or emotional distress. Nevertheless, the potential role of the sympathetic nervous system has not yet been considered in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In our opinion, sympathetic overactivation could represent a so-far undervalued mechanism for a vicious circle between COVID-19 and comorbidities.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , /mortalidade , /virologia , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Doença das Coronárias/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/virologia , Masculino , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , /patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/virologia
5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1706-1713, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio may play a role in predicting cardiovascular events. We aimed to prospectively explore the association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), ischemic stroke, as well as coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective cohort study included 9368 participants from four Chinese populations in the People's Republic of China-United States of America (PRC-USA) Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Epidemiology. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, 624 cases of ASCVD events including 458 ischemic stroke events and 166 CHD events were recorded. The relationship between the TG/HDL-C ratio and the endpoints was evaluated through multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounding variables, including age, sex, urban or rural residence, northern or southern China, occupational type, education, physical exercise, smoking status, drinking status, body mass index, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, and antihypertensive medication use at baseline. With the lowest TG/HDL-C tertile as the reference, the middle and highest tertiles had the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.13 (0.91, 1.40), 1.36 (1.10, 1.67) respectively for ASCVD (p for trend = 0.0028), and 1.19 (0.93, 1.54),1.47 (1.15, 1.87) respectively for ischemic stroke (p for trend = 0.0016). However, no significant association was found for CHD events. CONCLUSION: TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the risk of ASCVD and ischemic stroke events in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
6.
BMJ ; 370: m2297, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between prediabetes and the risk of all cause mortality and incident cardiovascular disease in the general population and in patients with a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Updated meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar) up to 25 April 2020. REVIEW METHODS: Prospective cohort studies or post hoc analysis of clinical trials were included for analysis if they reported adjusted relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios of all cause mortality or cardiovascular disease for prediabetes compared with normoglycaemia. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Random effects models were used to calculate the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcomes were all cause mortality and composite cardiovascular disease. The secondary outcomes were the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies were included, involving 10 069 955 individuals for analysis. In the general population, prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (relative risk 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.17), composite cardiovascular disease (1.15, 1.11 to 1.18), coronary heart disease (1.16, 1.11 to 1.21), and stroke (1.14, 1.08 to 1.20) in a median follow-up time of 9.8 years. Compared with normoglycaemia, the absolute risk difference in prediabetes for all cause mortality, composite cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke was 7.36 (95% confidence interval 9.59 to 12.51), 8.75 (6.41 to 10.49), 6.59 (4.53 to 8.65), and 3.68 (2.10 to 5.26) per 10 000 person years, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance carried a higher risk of all cause mortality, coronary heart disease, and stroke than impaired fasting glucose. In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (relative risk 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.54), composite cardiovascular disease (1.37, 1.23 to 1.53), and coronary heart disease (1.15, 1.02 to 1.29) in a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, but no difference was seen for the risk of stroke (1.05, 0.81 to 1.36). Compared with normoglycaemia, in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the absolute risk difference in prediabetes for all cause mortality, composite cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke was 66.19 (95% confidence interval 38.60 to 99.25), 189.77 (117.97 to 271.84), 40.62 (5.42 to 78.53), and 8.54 (32.43 to 61.45) per 10 000 person years, respectively. No significant heterogeneity was found for the risk of all outcomes seen for the different definitions of prediabetes in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (all P>0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in the general population and in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Screening and appropriate management of prediabetes might contribute to primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634156

RESUMO

Given recent slowing of declines in national all-cause, heart disease, and stroke mortality, examining spatiotemporal distributions of coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates and trends can provide data critical to improving the cardiovascular health of populations. This paper documents county-level CHD death rates and trends by age group, race, and gender from 1979 through 2017. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and a Bayesian multivariate space-time conditional autoregressive model, we estimated county-level age-standardized annual CHD death rates for 1979 through 2017 by age group (35-64 years, 65 years and older), race (white, black, other), and gender (men, women). We then estimated county-level total percent change in CHD death rates during four intervals (1979-1990, 1990-2000, 2000-2010, 2010-2017) using log-linear regression models. For all intervals, national CHD death rates declined for all groups. Prior to 2010, although most counties across age, race, and gender experienced declines, pockets of increasing CHD death rates were observed in the Mississippi Delta, Oklahoma, East Texas, and New Mexico across age groups and gender, and were more prominent among non-white populations than whites. Since 2010, across age, race, and gender, county-level declines in CHD death rates have slowed, with a marked increase in the percent of counties with increasing CHD death rates (e.g. 4.4% and 19.9% for ages 35 and older during 1979-1990 and 2010-2017, respectively). Recent increases were especially prevalent and geographically widespread among ages 35-64 years, with 40.5% of counties (95% CI: 38.4, 43.1) experiencing increases. Spatiotemporal differences in these long term, county-level results can inform responses by the public health community, medical providers, researchers, and communities to address troubling recent trends.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
8.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(4): 106093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653618

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia and the adaptation of the population to the virus in March to June 2020. Two groups were investigated: 1) 12 082 individuals already proven positive for SARS-CoV-2 (clinical information was studied); 2) 7864+4458 individuals with suspected respiratory infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] tests and clinical information were studied). In the latter, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals comprised 5.37% in March and 11.42% in June 2020. Several viral co-infections were observed for SARS-CoV-2. Rhinoviruses accounted for the largest proportion of co-infections (7.91% of samples were SARS-CoV-2-positive); followed by respiratory syncytial virus (7.03%); adenoviruses (4.84%); metapneumoviruses (3.29%); parainfluenza viruses (2.42%); enterovirus D68 (1.10%) and other viruses (entero-, echo-, parecho-) (<1%). Average SARS-CoV-2 case fatality rate in the group of 12 537 individuals was determined to be 0.6% (in contrast to official Russian government statistics of 1.5% mortality). This rate is within the range of mortality caused by other common seasonal respiratory viruses (0.01-2.21% in Russia in 2012 to 2020). Most fatalities occurred in individuals with comorbidities, as for other respiratory viruses. The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic carriers was 56.68% in March and 70.67% in June 2020. This new pathogen presents a substantial risk to human beings as it was not contained at the start of its outbreak in Wuhan and spread worldwide. However, surveillance, prevention and treatment must be strictly evidence-based and not dictated by fear.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1175-1181, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552022

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the United States have declined by up to two thirds in recent decades. Closer examination of these trends reveals substantial inequities in the distribution of mortality benefits. It is worrying that the uneven distribution of CHD that exists from lowest to highest social class-the social gradient-has become more pronounced in the United States since 1990 and is most pronounced for women.Here we consider ways in which this trend disproportionately affects premenopausal women aged 35 to 54 years. We apply a social determinants of health framework focusing on intersecting axes of inequalities-notably gender, class, ethnicity, geographical location, access to wealth, and class-among other power relations to which young and middle-aged women are especially vulnerable, and we argue that increasing inequalities may be driving these unprecedented deteriorations. We conclude by discussing interventions and policies to target and alleviate inequality axes that have potential to promote greater equity in the distribution of CHD mortality and morbidity gains.The application of this framework in the context of women's cardiovascular health can help shed light regarding why we are seeing persistently poorer outcomes for premenopausal US women.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am Heart J ; 225: 97-107, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. METHODS: EBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly. RESULTS: In 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model. At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, ß-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108509, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National health-system hospitals of Lombardy faced a heavy burden of admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on patients of European origin affected by COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged ≥18 years, coming from North-East of Milan's province and admitted at San Raffaele Hospital with COVID-19, between February 25th and March 24th, were reported, all patients were followed for at least one month. Clinical and radiological features at admission and predictors of clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 500 patients admitted to the Emergency Unit, 410 patients were hospitalized and analyzed: median age was 65 (IQR 56-75) years, and the majority of patients were males (72.9%). Median (IQR) days from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 8 (5-11) days. At hospital admission, fever (≥ 37.5 °C) was present in 67.5% of patients. Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314). Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16). More than half of the patients (56.3%) had comorbidities, with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney failure being the most common. The probability of overall survival at day 28 was 66%. Multivariable analysis showed older age, coronary artery disease, cancer, low lymphocyte count and high RALE score as factors independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of COVID-19 patients of European origin, main risk factors for mortality were older age, comorbidities, low lymphocyte count and high RALE.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/imunologia , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Itália/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Edema Pulmonar/imunologia , Edema Pulmonar/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Virus Res ; 286: 198043, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502551

RESUMO

An epidemic caused by SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has appeared in Wuhan City in December 2019. The disease has shown a "clustering epidemic" pattern, and family-clustered onset has been the main characteristic. We collected data about 130 cases from 35 cluster-onset families (COFs) and 41 cases from 16 solitary-onset families (SOFs). The incidence of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in COFs was significantly higher than that of SOFs. Our study also showed that patients with exposure to high-risk factors (respiratory droplets and close contact), advanced age, and comorbidities were more likely to develop COVID-19 in the COFs. In addition, advanced age and elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were risk factors for death in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the COFs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(8): 1337-1346, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The association of serum cholesterol levels with the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality during a follow-up of 50 years was rarely investigated previously. Thus, we took advantage of results at hand in 10 pooled cohorts of men aged 40-59 years from the Seven Countries Study (9063 individuals and 2057 CHD fatal events) and we assessed this. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards models were run with CHD fatal events (as dependent variable) and cholesterol levels (as independent variables) at years 0, 10, and 25 (in 5 cohorts). Cumulative events during subsequent decades (cumulative approach: CA) and separately in each subsequent decade (partitioned approach: PA) were analyzed. The ecological correlation of average baseline serum cholesterol levels with CHD mortality was very high (R = 0.97). Serum cholesterol and CHD mortality for 50 years were associated at the individual level, and the association estimated by the Cox's coefficients (and related hazards ratios) was initially strong in both CA and PA, but slightly declined during later decades. Hazards ratios (for a difference of 40 mg/dl) ranged from 1.39 to 1.20 for CA and from 1.39 to 0.80 for PA. Coefficients were larger for CA than for PA and the decline was more evident for the latter. Partitioned coefficient became negative and significant in the last decade (from year 40-50). Coefficients derived from cholesterol levels measured at year 10 of follow-up showed similar trends but their magnitude was smaller. CONCLUSION: Thus, the relationship of serum cholesterol levels with CHD mortality remained relatively stable during at least 40 years after a single cholesterol measurement at baseline in middle-aged men.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Surg Res ; 254: 1-6, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed in patients on dialysis. Our aim was to assess patency of internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts and saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) in these patients. METHODS: From 1/1997 to 1/2018, 500 patients on dialysis underwent primary CABG with or without concomitant procedures at Cleveland Clinic, 40 of whom had 48 postoperative angiograms for recurrent ischemic symptoms. Complete follow-up was obtained on all but 1 patient lost to follow-up 1 y after CABG. Thirty-six ITA grafts and 65 SVGs were evaluable for stenosis and occlusion. RESULTS: Two of 40 patients (5%) had emergency CABG; 3 (7.5%) with calcified aortas had a change in operative strategy to avoid ascending aortic manipulation, 2 (5%) had poor conduit quality, and 12 (30%) had severe diffuse atherosclerotic disease with calcification of the coronary targets causing technical difficulties. Thirty-three patients (82%) were bypassed with an in situ ITA and 3 (7.5%) had a free ITA graft. Three of 36 ITA grafts were occluded at 0.78, 1.8, and 9.4 y (too few to model). SVG patency was 52% and 37% at 1 and 2 y, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients on dialysis who underwent CABG, coronary angiography for ischemic symptoms in a select subset revealed that SVG patency was lower than expected from published reports in the general CABG population and may contribute to the poor prognosis of this cohort. Further work is needed to guide graft selection and improve graft patency in dialysis patients.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Diálise Renal , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Safena/transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(4): 16, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440852

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study to is report the findings of a systemic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the association between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The caliber of retinal vessels has been recognized as an important biomarker for risk stratification in various cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and mortality. Non-invasively quantifying retinal vasculature may be useful in screening individuals who are at risk of cardiovascular disease. Further evaluating the role of retinal vessel anatomy and incorporating it into a scoring system on risk of cardiovascular diseases are needed in future studies.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Vasos Retinianos/anormalidades , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
16.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104431, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the death rate of COVID-19 is less than 3%, the fatality rate of severe/critical cases is high, according to World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, screening the severe/critical cases before symptom occurs effectively saves medical resources. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, all 336 cases of patients infected COVID-19 in Shanghai to March 12th, were retrospectively enrolled, and divided in to training and test datasets. In addition, 220 clinical and laboratory observations/records were also collected. Clinical indicators were associated with severe/critical symptoms were identified and a model for severe/critical symptom prediction was developed. RESULTS: Totally, 36 clinical indicators significantly associated with severe/critical symptom were identified. The clinical indicators are mainly thyroxine, immune related cells and products. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and optimized combination of age, GSH, CD3 ratio and total protein has a good performance in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. The area under receiving operating curve (AUROC) reached 0.9996 and 0.9757 in the training and testing dataset, respectively. When the using cut-off value as 0.0667, the recall rate was 93.33 % and 100 % in the training and testing datasets, separately. Cox multivariate regression and survival analyses revealed that the model significantly discriminated the severe/critical cases and used the information of the selected clinical indicators. CONCLUSION: The model was robust and effective in predicting the severe/critical COVID cases.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo CD3/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Sobrevida , Tiroxina/sangue
17.
Heart Vessels ; 35(10): 1419-1428, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361848

RESUMO

The effects of serum iron level without anemia on long-term prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with chronic heart failure (CHF) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of serum iron level without anemia on long-term prognosis of patients with CHD complicated with CHF. In this retrospective cohort study, 221 patients with CHD complicated with CHF were consecutively investigated. These patients were divided into three groups according to the tertiles of the serum iron level: low-iron group (n = 71), medium-iron group (n = 76) and high-iron group (n = 74). The overall serum iron without anemia was 13.0 ± 5.50 µmol/L and serum iron in each group was 7.58 ± 1.63 µmol/L, 11.94 ± 1.79 µmol/L, and 19.37 ± 3.81 µmol/L, respectively. Composite endpoint events were composed of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including recurrent heart failure, all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ischemic stroke. The median follow-up duration was 239 days. After adjusting relevant confounding risk factors, we found that excessively low or high serum iron level is correlated to the MACCE in patients with CHD complicated with CHF and that the prognosis of patients with excessively high serum iron level is poorer than that of patients with excessively low serum iron level. We further revealed the effect of serum iron level on MACCE is U-shaped, but not linear relationship. Sensitivity analysis showed that the correlation between serum iron level and MACCE is stable. In addition, according to the test for interaction, the variables that modify the effect including CRP (P for interaction < 0.0001), diuretics (P for interaction = 0.0212) and antiplatelet drugs (P for interaction = 0.0167). This study showed that excessively low or high serum iron level without anemia is an independent risk factor of MACCE in patients with CHD complicating with CHF.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ferro/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Card Surg ; 35(6): 1195-1201, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularization approach for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD) is controversial. We sought to investigate outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS: Adult patients with MVCAD and NSTEMI undergoing either CABG or PCI at a single institution between 2011 and 2018 were included. Multivariable analysis was utilized to determine independent predictors of death, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and readmissions. A subanalysis examined patients undergoing complete revascularization. RESULTS: A total of 2001 patients were included, of whom 1480 (74.0%) underwent CABG. CABG was associated with a lower risk-adjusted hazard for death (hazard ratio, 0.59, P < .001) and with improved survival at 1 year (92.0 vs 81.8%, P < .001) and 5 years (80.7 vs 63.3%, P < .001). Additionally, freedom from MACCE (P < .001) was greater in the CABG group and cumulative readmission, rates of MI, and rates of repeat revascularization were lower with CABG (each P < .001). Among patients undergoing complete revascularization, overall survival (1 year: 92.7 vs 83.9%, P = .010; 5 years: 81.1 vs 69.4%, P < .001) and freedom from MACCE (1 year: 92.3 vs 75.2%, P < .001; 5 years: 81.7 vs 61.4%, P < .001) remained higher for the CABG group; cumulative incidence of readmission was also decreased in those undergoing CABG (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world analysis of patients with MVCAD presenting with NSTEMI, revascularization with CABG resulted in improved survival with lower rates of MACCE and readmission as compared to PCI, which persisted when accounting for complete revascularization.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399249

RESUMO

Objective: To assess secondary prevention and outcomes in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF), focusing on disease overlap. Methods: We analysed the data of 10 517 outpatients with a diagnosis of CAD, AF and/or HF included in a prospective cohort study. Follow-up (median 3.2 years) was achieved in 10 478 (99.6%) patients. Seven mutually exclusive patient groups were formed: CAD alone (n=4303), AF alone (n=2604), CAD+AF (n=700), HF alone (n=513), HF+CAD (n=728), HF+AF (n=1087) and HF+CAD+AF (n=582). Results: Patients with disease overlaps represented 29.4% of the total population. The level of secondary prevention was high in all subgroups and in accordance with European class I - level A guidelines. Among patients with CAD, 99% received an antithrombotic and 91% received a statin. Among patients with AF, 81.7% were treated with an anticoagulant if indicated. Among HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, 90.9% received a renin-angiotensin system antagonist and 91% a beta-blocker. Three-year all cause/cardiovascular mortality rates were: 6.4%/2%, 9.7%/3.3%, 15.6%/6.7%, 19.2%/9.4%, 24.3%/13.6%, 28%/15.7% and 35.4%/24.8%, for patients with CAD alone, AF alone, CAD+AF, HF alone, HF+CAD, HF+AF and HF+CAD+AF, respectively. In all groups with HF, observed all-cause mortality was higher (p<0.0001) than expected mortality for age-matched, gender-matched and geography-matched persons. In contrast, observed mortality was lower than expected for patients with CAD alone and AF alone (p<0.0001). Conclusions: In a context of adequate secondary prevention, overlap between diseases is a frequent and high-risk situation with incremental increases in mortality. These patients deserve specific attention.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevenção Secundária , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , França , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Open Heart ; 7(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that Sami have a similar risk of myocardial infarction and a higher risk of stroke compared with non-Sami living in the same geographical area. DESIGN: Participants in the SAMINOR 1 Survey (2003-2004) aged 30 and 36-79 years were followed to the 31 December 2016 for observation of fatal or non-fatal events of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary heart disease (CHD), ischaemic stroke (IS), stroke and a composite endpoint (fatal or non-fatal AMI or stroke). AIM: Compare the risk of AMI, CHD, IS, stroke and the composite endpoint in Sami and non-Sami populations, and identify intermediate factors if ethnic differences in risks are observed. METHODS: Cox regression models. RESULTS: The sex-adjusted and age-adjusted risks of AMI (HR for Sami versus non-Sami 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.17), CHD (HR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.15) and of the composite endpoint (HR 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.24) were similar in Sami and non-Sami populations. Sami ethnicity was, however, associated with increased risk of IS (HR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.68) and stroke (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.58). Height explained more of the excess risk observed in Sami than conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of IS and stroke were higher in Sami and height was identified as an important intermediate factor as it explained a considerable proportion of the ethnic differences in IS and stroke. The risk of AMI, CHD and the composite endpoint was similar in Sami and non-Sami populations.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Povos Indígenas , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estatura/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
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