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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656141

RESUMO

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Panstrongylus/genética , Panstrongylus/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Biologia , Ecologia , Genes de Insetos , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/genética , América Latina , Panstrongylus/fisiologia , Filogenia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533811

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and it is mainly acquired through the vector route, however, blood transfusion and congenital transmission are implicated in the spread of the illness worldwide. The congenital route can occur at any stage of pregnancy and its frequency varies. In the Federal District, in Brazil, the frequency of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and their offspring has not been updated. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and the rate of congenital transmission in the Federal District. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi from 2014 to 2016 in the population of pregnant women attended by the public health service throughout the Federal District and a descriptive cohort for the evaluation of congenital transmission. During the study, prenatal data of 98,895 women were consulted and pregnant women registered in 2016, presenting with positive T. cruzi serology, were part of the descriptive cohort. The estimated prevalence of T. cruzi infection in the three years was 0.19% and the congenital transmission rate was 1/40 (2.5%). Our results have shown that, although the main routes of transmission of CD have been interrupted, there is still a risk of congenital transmission in the Federal District. This present study highlights the need for the continuous implementation of a screening program for pregnant women and timely treatment of infected newborns and children.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 35, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-urban and urban settings have recently gained more prominence in studies on vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi due to sustained rural-to-urban migrations and reports of urban infestations with triatomines. Prompted by the finding of Triatoma infestans across the rural-to-urban gradient in Avia Terai, an endemic municipality of the Argentine Chaco, we assessed selected components of domestic transmission risk in order to determine its variation across the gradient. METHODS: A baseline vector survey was conducted between October 2015 and March 2016, following which we used multistage random sampling to select a representative sample of T. infestans at the municipal level. We assessed T. cruzi infection and blood-feeding sources of 561 insects collected from 109 houses using kinetoplast DNA-PCR assays and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. We stratified triatomines according to their collection site (domestic or peridomestic), and we further categorized peridomestic sites in ecotopes of low- or high-risk for T. cruzi infection. RESULTS: The overall adjusted prevalence of T. cruzi-infected T. infestans was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.3) and did not differ between peri-urban (1.7%) and rural (2.2%) environments. No infection was detected in bugs captured in the urban setting; rather, infected triatomines were mainly collected in rural and peri-urban domiciles, occurring in 8% of T. infestans-infested houses. The main blood-feeding sources of domestic and peridomestic triatomines across the gradient were humans and chickens, respectively. The proportion of triatomines that had fed on humans did not differ between peri-urban (62.5%) and rural (65.7%) domiciles, peaking in the few domestic triatomines collected in urban houses and decreasing significantly with an increasing proportion of chicken- and dog- or cat-fed bugs. The relative odds ratio (OR) of having a T. cruzi infection was nearly threefold higher in bugs having a blood meal on humans (OR 3.15), dogs (OR 2.80) or cats (OR: 4.02) in a Firth-penalized multiple logistic model. CONCLUSIONS: Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was likely occurring both in peri-urban and rural houses of Avia Terai. Widespread infestation in a third of urban blocks combined with high levels of human-triatomine contact in the few infested domiciles implies a threat to urban inhabitants. Vector control strategies and surveillance originally conceived for rural areas should be tailored to peri-urban and urban settings in order to achieve sustainable interruption of domestic transmission in the Chaco region.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Adulto , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Gatos , Galinhas , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
4.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105803, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373585

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with low socioeconomic status, affecting nearly 8 million people - mainly Latin Americans. The current infection risk is based on acute case reports, most of which are typically associated with oral transmissions. In the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, serious outbreaks of this transmission type have surged in the last years. One of those occurred in 2016 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Rural residents of four municipalities surrounding Marcelino Vieira ingested sugar cane juice - which was probably ground with Trypanosoma cruzi-infected insects. Eighteen cases of Chagas disease were confirmed serologically, with two deaths reported. Socioeconomic information, schooling of residents and the structure of peridomestic and domestic environments in the rural area of Marcelino Vieira, along with entomological indicators, were investigated to understand better the factors related to the outbreaks in this region. We found triatomines (mainly Triatoma brasiliensis) in 35% (24/67) of domiciliary units and all rocky outcrops inspected (n = 7). Overall, 25% (91/357) of examined T. brasiliensis were infected by T. cruzi in artificial ecotopes, with almost the same prevalence in the sylvatic environment (22%; 35/154). Among all ecotopes investigated, wood/tile/brick piles were the ones linked to high insect infestations and triatomine T. cruzi infection prevalence. Ninety-five percent of people interviewed recognized the triatomines and knew the classic route of transmission of disease - triatomine bite-dependent. However, only 7.5% admitted knowledge that Chagas disease can also be acquired orally - which poses a risk this transmission route currently recognized. Here, we highlight the physical proximity between humans and triatomine populations with high T. cruzi infection prevalence as an additional risk factor to oral/vector contaminations. In sum, residents have low income, low level of education, and/or a willful disregard for the routes of Chagas disease transmission (specifically oral transmission), a combination of factors that may have favored the Chagas disease outbreak. We here provide recommendations to avoid further outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Entomologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008932, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis of growing concern in the southern US, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. We genotyped parasites in a large cohort of PCR positive dogs to shed light on parasite transmission cycles and assess potential relationships between parasite diversity and serological test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a metabarcoding approach based on deep sequencing of T. cruzi mini-exon marker to assess parasite diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of 178 sequences from 40 dogs confirmed the presence of T. cruzi discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI and TcIV, as well as TcII, TcV and TcVI for the first time in US dogs. Infections with multiple DTUs occurred in 38% of the dogs. These data indicate a greater genetic diversity of T. cruzi than previously detected in the US. Comparison of T. cruzi sequence diversity indicated that highly similar T. cruzi strains from these DTUs circulate in hosts and vectors in Louisiana, indicating that they are involved in a shared T. cruzi parasite transmission cycle. However, TcIV and TcV were sampled more frequently in vectors, while TcII and TcVI were sampled more frequently in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations point to ecological host-fitting being a dominant mechanism involved in the diversification of T. cruzi-host associations. Dogs with negative, discordant or confirmed positive T. cruzi serology harbored TcI parasites with different mini-exon sequences, which strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite genetic diversity is a key factor affecting serological test performance. Thus, the identification of conserved parasite antigens should be a high priority for the improvement of current serological tests.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Genótipo , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Zoonoses
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0009015, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370305

RESUMO

Trypanosoma rangeli is a non-pathogenic protozoan parasite that infects mammals, including humans, in Chagas disease-endemic areas of South and Central America. The parasite is transmitted to a mammalian host when an infected triatomine injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into the host's skin during a bloodmeal. Infected mammals behave as parasite reservoirs for several months and despite intensive research, some major aspects of T. rangeli-vertebrate interactions are still poorly understood. In particular, many questions still remain unanswered, e.g. parasite survival and development inside vertebrates, as no parasite multiplication sites have yet been identified. The present study used an insect bite transmission strategy to investigate whether the vector inoculation spot in the skin behave as a parasite-replication site. Histological data from the skin identified extracellular parasites in the dermis and hypodermis of infected mice in the first 24 hours post-infection, as well as the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in a period of up to 7 days. However, qPCR analyses demonstrated that T. rangeli is eliminated from the skin after 7 days of infection despite being still consistently found on circulating blood and secondary lymphoid tissues for up to 30 days post-infection. Interestingly, significant numbers of parasites were found in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected mice during different periods of infection and steady basal numbers of flagellates are maintained in the host's bloodstream, which might behave as a transmission source to insect vectors. The presence of parasites in the spleen was confirmed by fluorescent photomicrography of free and cell-associated T. rangeli forms. Altogether our results suggest that this organ could possibly behave as a T. rangeli maintenance hotspot in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia , Trypanosoma rangeli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , América Central/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Camundongos , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Sepse/parasitologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206861

RESUMO

The etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , typically transmitted by triatomines. The aim of this study was to investigate the triatomine fauna and trypanosomiasis infections in Acre State , Western Brazilian Amazon. Insect collection was performed by dissecting palm trees and installing traps. We found that T. cruzi infection rate was 24.5% and Rhodnius pictipes (57.1%) was the most abundant triatomine species. Health education as well as epidemiological and entomological surveillance are necessary to diagnose and prevent new cases of Chagas disease in the region.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deforestation, driven by anthropogenic change in land use, influences the behaviour and abundance of vector-borne diseases. For various species of Chagas disease vectors, there is evidence that change in land use affects population density and abundance. Triatoma dimidiata is the most important Chagas vector in Guatemala, and at least one million people live in T. dimidiata endemic areas; however, infestation dynamics vary among regions, from high infestation with all life stages to low seasonal infestation by sylvatic adults. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate how land-use, combined with domiciliary risk factors, influences the infestation dynamics of T. dimidiata for four villages in a dry forest region with a strong deforestation history. METHODS: Land use, measured with drone and satellite images, was classified into four categories (houses, monocultures and pastures, woodland and shrubland, and bare soil). Domiciliary risk factors and infestation were assessed through entomological surveys. Statistical analyses compared infestation indices and the ability of land use and domiciliary risk factors to explain infestation. FINDINGS: Two villages had significantly higher infestation (26 and 30% vs. 5 and 6%), yet all villages had high colonisation (71-100% of infested houses had immature insects), with no significant difference among them. Because of the high level of deforestation across the study area, land use was not related to infestation; however, domiciliary risk factors were. A model based on four weighted domiciliary risk factors (adobe or bajareque walls, intradomicile animals, intradomicile clutter, and dirt floors) explains the infestation risk. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Because almost all infested houses have reproducing populations in this deforested dry forest region and statistical analysis identified the domiciliary risk factors for infestation, intermediate and long-term control of Chagas disease vectors in this region requires management of these risk factors.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores , Triatoma , Adulto , Animais , Florestas , Guatemala , Habitação , Humanos
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008712, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies addressed changes on the insect vector behavior due to parasite infection, but little is known for triatomine bugs, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We assessed infection rates and metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi (TcVI) in fifth-instar nymphs of Triatoma rubrovaria comparing with the primary vector Triatoma infestans. Also, biological parameters related to feeding-excretion behavior were evaluated aiming to identify which variables are most influenced by T. cruzi infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifth-instar nymphs of T. rubrovaria and T. infestans were fed on mice infected with T. cruzi (TcVI). We compared the presence and the number of parasite evolutive forms in excreta of both triatomine species at 30, 60 and 90 days post-infection (dpi) with traditional statistical analyses. Moreover, both species were analyzed through generalized linear models and multinomial logistic regression hypotheses for seven behavioral parameters related to host-seeking and feeding-excretion. Triatoma rubrovaria and T. infestans had similar overall infection and metacyclogenesis rates of T. cruzi TcVI in laboratory conditions. Regarding vector behavior, we confirmed that the triatomine's tendency is to move away from the bite region after a blood meal, probably to avoid being noticed by the vertebrate host. Interspecific differences were observed on the volume of blood ingested and on the proportion of individuals that excreted after the blood meal, revealing the higher feeding efficiency and dejection rates of T. infestans. The amount of ingested blood and the bite behavior of T. rubrovaria seems to be influenced by TcVI infection. Infected specimens tended to ingest ~25% more blood and to bite more the head of the host. Noteworthy, in two occasions, kleptohematophagy and coprophagy behaviors were also observed in T. rubrovaria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Laboratory infections revealed similar rate of T. cruzi TcVI trypomatigotes in excreta of T. rubrovaria and T. infestans, one of the most epidemiological important vectors of T. cruzi. Therefore, TcVI DTU was able to complete its life cycle in T. rubrovaria under laboratory conditions, and this infection changed the feeding behavior of T. rubrovaria. Considering these results, T. rubrovaria must be kept under constant entomological surveillance in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Modelos Logísticos , Camundongos , Ninfa , Eliminação Renal , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008411, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776929

RESUMO

Approximately 150 triatomine species are suspected to be infected with the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, but they differ in the risk they pose to human populations. The largest risk comes from species that have a domestic life cycle and these species have been targeted by indoor residual spraying campaigns, which have been successful in many locations. It is now important to consider residual transmission that may be linked to persistent populations of dominant vectors, or to secondary or minor vectors. The aim of this project was to define the geographical distributions of the community of triatomine species across the Chagas endemic region. Presence-only data with over 12, 000 observations of triatomine vectors were extracted from a public database and target-group background data were generated to account for sampling bias in the presence data. Geostatistical regression was then applied to estimate species distributions and fine-scale distribution maps were generated for thirty triatomine vector species including those found within one or two countries and species that are more widely distributed from northern Argentina to Guatemala, Bolivia to southern Mexico, and Mexico to the southern United States of America. The results for Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma gerstaeckeri, and Triatoma infestans are presented in detail, including model predictions and uncertainty in these predictions, and the model validation results for each of the 30 species are presented in full. The predictive maps for all species are made publicly available so that they can be used to assess the communities of vectors present within different regions of the endemic zone. The maps are presented alongside key indicators for the capacity of each species to transmit T. cruzi to humans. These indicators include infection prevalence, evidence for human blood meals, and colonisation or invasion of homes. A summary of the published evidence for these indicators shows that the majority of the 30 species mapped by this study have the potential to transmit T. cruzi to humans.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Habitação , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1487-1489, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748771

RESUMO

A collaborative investigation was initiated in rural coastal South Carolina in response to a reported triatomine bite. The eastern conenose bug, Triatoma sanguisuga, was identified and tested for Trypanosoma cruzi. The insect was negative by PCR, and no additional triatomines were found in the vicinity of the home. This is the first published report of a bite from T. sanguisuga in South Carolina despite the fact that triatomine vectors have been documented in the state since the 1850s, and specimens have been collected from homes in the past. Sylvatic T. cruzi reservoirs are common throughout the southeastern United States, and this case brings to light the possibility of human contact with infected triatomines in the state of South Carolina for public health and clinical and entomology professionals.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Triatoma/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2775-2781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737590

RESUMO

Triatoma platensis is occasionally found coexisting with Triatoma infestans in chicken coops in Argentina. Some authors have reported the presence of hybrid specimens of both species in chicken coops and other peridomestic habitats. Given the coexistence of T. infestans with T. platensis and the possibility of generating fertile hybrids, it is important to evaluate the vectorial competence of these hybrids. The objective of this study was to record the dynamics of feeding-defecation behavior in fifth-stage nymphs and adults of hybrids between both species and to compare it with T. platensis and T. infestans. Three experimental groups were formed separated by stage and sex: Hybrid group, T. infestans group, and T. platensis group. During feeding, the following variables were recorded for each group: (i) blood meal size, (ii) feeding time, (iii) number of defecations during feeding, and (iv) number of defecations at 10 and 30 min after feeding. The results indicate that adults and fifth-instar nymphs of hybrids have a feeding and defecation behavior similar to T. infestans: they achieve feeding in a short time and first defecation occurs during or just after feeding. Nevertheless, hybrid's ingestion of blood occurs at higher velocity and they require higher blood intake to provoke early defecations. Considering the blood ingestion velocity, the amount of blood ingested, and the short time required for the production of the first defecation, the results of this study suggest that hybrid can be a competent Trypanosoma cruzi vector.


Assuntos
Defecação/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844905

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the spatial distribution and assess entomological indicators of synanthropic triatomines in Piaui State, Northeastern Brazil. We used surveillance data on the detection, identification and assessment of natural infection with trypanosomatids from triatomines in the State from 2014 to 2017. The State was divided into four macroregions. In relation to the dispersion rates of triatomines, they were much lower in the North, when compared to Southwest, Southeast and Central North macroregions. Infestation rates were higher in the Southwest and Southeast and intradomicile infestation rates varied during the study period, reaching high values in all regions. Insects belonging to the species Triatoma brasiliensis complex, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, and to the genus Panstrongylus spp. and Rhodnius spp. were collected during this period. T. brasiliensis was collected from all four regions of the State, but more frequently in those located in the Southeast. A similar pattern was observed for T. pseudomaculata. T. sordida was detected in the municipalities in the Southeast and Southwest regions, and less frequently in the Central North municipalities. Rhodnius spp. was detected in the Central North and North regions, and Panstrongylus spp. in the Central North and Southeast regions. The highest trypanosomatid-positivity rate of T. brasiliensis and Panstrongylus spp. was in the Southeast region. A significant proportion of the municipalities of Piaui State presents entomological parameters that indicate a risk of Chagas disease by vector transmission.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Triatominae/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Triatominae/parasitologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3305-3313, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651636

RESUMO

The genetic structure of natural populations offers insight into the complexities of their dynamics, information that can be relevant to vector control strategies. Microsatellites are useful neutral markers to investigate the genetic structure and gene flow in Triatoma infestans, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in South America. Recently, a heterogeneous pyrethroid-resistant hotspot was found in the Argentine Gran Chaco, characterized by the highest levels of deltamethrin resistance found at the present time. We applied population genetics analyses to microsatellite and village data and search for associations between the genetic variability and the heterogeneous toxicological pattern previously found. We genotyped 10 microsatellite loci in 67 T. infestans from 6 villages with no, low, and high pyrethroid resistance. The most genetically diverse populations were those susceptible or with low values of resistance. In contrast, high-resistance populations had lower herozygosity and some monomorphic loci. A negative association was found between variability and resistant ratios. Global and pairwise FSTs indicated significant differentiation between populations. The only susceptible population was discriminated in all the performed studies. Low-resistance populations were also differentiated by a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and were composed mostly by the same two genetic clusters according to STRUCTURE Bayesian algorithm. Individuals from the high-resistance populations were overlapped in the DAPC and shared significant proportions of a genetic cluster. These observations suggest that the resistant populations might have a common origin, although more genetic markers and samples are required to test this hypothesis more rigorously.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Triatoma/genética , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 967-969, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602437

RESUMO

In the United States, Chagas disease is diagnosed in less than 1% of the estimated > 300,000 people who have the disease. However, the actual prevalence remains unknown, and these estimates may be wide of the mark (too high or too low). The greater part of those living with the disease acquired the infection in an endemic region of Latin America, but autochthonous transmission in the United States is increasingly being described. These cases are considered rare, and the transmission routes are largely unknown. Although triatomines or "kissing bugs" harbor Trypanosoma cruzi in North America, most autochthonous cases are presumed rather than confirmed exposures to naturally infected kissing bugs. Public knowledge of Chagas is growing, and efforts are underway to provide greater awareness, but what are the risk factors for human transmission of Chagas disease in the United States?


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Incerteza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3517-3522, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617725

RESUMO

The parasite-vector interaction of Chagas disease is still poorly understood and the understanding of this relationship can help in the development of new strategies to control Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which is the etiological agent of this disease. Considering the need to know if T. cruzi can cause some pathology in the reproductive system of the Chagas disease vectors, we investigated the spermatogenesis of Triatoma infestans infected by T. cruzi through histological and cytogenetic analysis. Trypanosoma cruzi Bolivia strain infection was not pathogenic for the reproductive system of T. infestans, because all the analyzed males had normal spermatogenesis, with all phases (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis and spermiogenesis) happening without any change. Thus, we demonstrated that the presence of T. cruzi Bolivia strain does not have influence in the spermatogenesis of T. infestans and we suggest that the influences on reproductive system observed for other species were a result of the action of the parasite on gametogenesis of females.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Masculino , Triatoma/fisiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 735-744, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524965

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a lethal, neglected tropical disease. Unfortunately, aggressive insecticide-spraying campaigns have not been able to eliminate domestic infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the native vector in Guatemala. To target interventions toward houses most at risk of infestation, comprehensive socioeconomic and entomologic surveys were conducted in two towns in Jutiapa, Guatemala. Given the exhaustively large search space associated with combinations of risk factors, traditional statistics are limited in their ability to discover risk factor interactions. Two recently developed statistical evolutionary algorithms, specifically designed to accommodate risk factor interactions and heterogeneity, were applied to this large combinatorial search space and used in tandem to identify sets of risk factor combinations associated with infestation. The optimal model includes 10 risk factors in what is known as a third-order disjunctive normal form (i.e., infested households have chicken coops AND deteriorated bedroom walls OR an accumulation of objects AND dirt floors AND total number of occupants ≥ 5 AND years of electricity ≥ 5 OR poor hygienic condition ratings AND adobe walls AND deteriorated walls AND dogs). Houses with dirt floors and deteriorated walls have been reported previously as risk factors and align well with factors currently targeted by Ecohealth interventions to minimize infestation. However, the tandem evolutionary algorithms also identified two new socioeconomic risk factors (i.e., households having many occupants and years of electricity ≥ 5). Identifying key risk factors may help with the development of new Ecohealth interventions and/or reduce the survey time needed to identify houses most at risk.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Materiais de Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Triatoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas , Cães , Instalação Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Acta Trop ; 209: 105530, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439318

RESUMO

Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the most important vector species of Chagas disease in Ecuador. This species is distributed in the Central coast region and in the south Andean region, and an incipient speciation process between these geographical populations was previously proposed. The current population genetics study only focused on the Central coast region and analyzed 96 sylvatic specimens of R. ecuadoriensis associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees. We used Cytb and 16S-rRNA sequences and a Cytb-16S-rRNA concatenated set to explore (i) the genetic variability, spatial structuring, and demographic history of R. ecuadoriensis, and to determine (ii) the relationship between the genetic and climatic variabilities. A particularly high genetic variability was observed without detectable general genetic structure; only some terminal genetic clusters were observed. We did not observe isolation by geographical distance (IBD), and it is likely that ancient expansion occurred, according to Fs index and mismatch distribution for Cytb-16S-rRNA concatenated sequences. Hierarchical clustering showed that the current locality origins of the bugs were grouped into four bioclimatic clusters. Genetic and bioclimatic distances were not correlated, but some genetic clusters were associated with bioclimatic ones. The results showed an ancient evolution of the species in the region with a possible old expansion. The absence of spatial genetic structure could be due to climatic conditions (possible selection of singular genotypes) and to passive transportation of palms tree materials where R. ecuadoriensis are living.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/genética , Rhodnius/genética , Clima Tropical , Animais , Variação Genética
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 428-436, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458775

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease that infects more than seven million people in Latin America. The parasite is transmitted by triatomine insects, of which some species are often associated with palms. The establishment of oil palm plantations (Elaeis guineensis) in the Orinoco region (Colombia) has been rapidly growing, possibly constituting a new environment for the establishment and increase in triatomine populations. In this study, the potential of Rhodnius prolixus to colonize E. guineensis plantations and maintain T. cruzi transmission was assessed. Fieldwork was conducted in two areas located in the department of Casanare for sampling E. guineensis and Attalea butyracea palms, sampling for triatomines to determine their abundance and prevalence of T. cruzi infection. To assess T. cruzi transmission potential in the area, sylvatic and domestic mammals were sampled. Results showed that palm infestation with triatomines was higher in A. butyracea than in E. guineensis palms and T. cruzi infection in triatomines varied between habitats for one study area, but was constant in the other site. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mammals in the E. guineensis plantations were mainly generalist rodents, suggesting that these mammals could have an important role in T. cruzi transmission in plantations. In conclusion, E. guineensis plantations in the Orinoco region are suitable habitats for R. prolixus and T. cruzi transmission.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Florestas , Gambás/parasitologia , Óleo de Palmeira , Roedores/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463835
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