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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 76-78, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102743

RESUMO

Se refiere aquí una experiencia vivida en la convalecencia de una enfermedad por un cirujano cardíaco en un hospital con clientela cerrada, en una época en que no existían otros servicios en la ciudad y habiendo sido él mismo el "fundador" del Servicio, debiendo practicar cirugía de revascularización coronaria. La enfermedad, definitivamente, constituye una nueva dimensión de la sensibilidad, a veces carente de razonamiento según Broeckman, o al decir de Lolas Strepke "falla la teorización del rol de estar enfermo", y eso es lo que introduce a los médicos en el laberinto. Nos preguntamos finalmente: ¿Quién se ocupa del "cuidado del médico", o sea, del "cuidado del cuidador"? Se concluye que, por lo general, el médico, estando enfermo, no tiene imagen real de su propia enfermedad. Falta analizar los aspectos narcisistas psicológicos de los cirujanos. (AU)


What is reported here is an experience lived in the convalescence of a disease by a cardiac surgeon within a hospital of closed clientele, at a time when there were no other services in the city and having been himself the "founder" of that same service, having to practice coronary revascularization. Illness definitely constitutes a new dimension of sensitivity, sometimes lacking in reasoning according to Broeckman, or as Lolas Strepke says "the theorization on the role of being sick fails", and that is what makes physicians end up in a labyrinth. So finally, we ask ourselves, who deals with the "care of the doctor" or the "care of the caregiver"? It is concluded that generally the doctor, being sick, has no realistic image of his own illness. We lack an analysis of the psychological narcissistic aspects of surgeons. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Temas Bioéticos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Doença/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Erros Médicos/ética , Cirurgiões/ética , Presenteísmo/ética , Narcisismo
2.
Soins ; 65(843-844): 37-39, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563506

RESUMO

When the body fails a person's foundations are damaged. The wait for a diagnosis, the physical pain, the chronic disease weaken the patient who may be overwhelmed by fears and anxiety. For patients from another country, this distressing experience adds to their vulnerability inherent to the separation from the home country the effects of which are intensified when illness strikes.


Assuntos
Doença/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Ansiedade , Características Culturais , Medo , Humanos , Angústia Psicológica
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and health outcomes is similar across states and persists net of ACEs associations with smoking, heavy drinking, and obesity. METHODS: We use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 14 states. Logistic regressions yield estimates of the direct associations of ACEs exposure with health outcomes net of health risk factors, and indirect ACEs-health associations via health risk factors. Models were estimated for California (N = 22,475) and pooled data from 13 states (N = 110,076), and also separately by state. RESULTS: Exposure to ACEs is associated with significantly higher odds of smoking, heavy drinking, and obesity. Net of these health risk factors, there was a significant and graded relationship in California and the pooled 13-state data between greater ACEs exposure and odds of depression, asthma, COPD, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease. Four or more ACEs were less consistently associated across states with cancer and diabetes and a dose-response relationship was also not present. There was a wide range across individual states in the percentage change in health outcomes predicted for exposure to 4+ ACEs. ACEs-related smoking, heavy drinking, and obesity explain a large and significant proportion of 4+ ACEs associations with COPD and cardiovascular disease, however some effect, absent of risk behavior, remained. CONCLUSIONS: ACE's associations with most of the health conditions persist independent of behavioral pathways but only asthma, arthritis, COPD, cardiovascular disease, and depression consistently exhibit a dose-response relationship. Our results suggest that attention to child maltreatment and household dysfunction, mental health treatment, substance abuse prevention and promotion of physical activity and healthy weight outcomes might mitigate some adverse health consequences of ACEs. Differences across states in the pattern of ACEs-health associations may also indicate fruitful areas for prevention.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença/psicologia , Epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 70, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703607

RESUMO

To what extent can one's mind promote direct changes to the body? Can one's beliefs about the body become a physical reality, without mediating effects from behaviors? Specifically, can medical symptoms and the course of a disease be directly affected by a person's mindset about the illness?There is a vast literature about placebo and nocebo effects, that promote physical changes by creating the expectation of a change through a primer (for example, a fake pill). Placebos, however, often imply deception, or at least ambiguity, to be effective. The concept of Illness Expectation describes the expectations, both implicit and explicit, that a person who has received a diagnosis makes about the course of the disease. It can be characterized by different degrees of rigidity, and it is argued here that these expectations can ultimately lead to changes in the disease progression. These changes may happen through behavior modifications, or through a non-behavioral pathway, which may deserve exploration efforts from the scientific literature.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Doença/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Efeito Nocebo , Psicofisiologia
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(11): 2705-2716, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234736

RESUMO

Tactile cues are said to be potent elicitors of disgust and reliable markers of disease. Despite this, no previous study had explored what the full range of tactile properties are that cue disgust, nor how interpretation of these sensations influences disgust. To answer these questions, participants were asked to touch nine objects, selected to cover the range of tactile properties, and evaluate their sensory, affective, and risk-based characteristics (primarily how sick they thought the object would make them). Object contact was manipulated in four ways, with participants randomly allocated to corresponding groups-one that could see the objects (i.e., the control) and three that could not (i.e., the blind groups). To manipulate disease risk interpretation of the objects, labelling was used on the blind groups, with one receiving Disgust-Labels, one True-Labels and one no labels. Disgust was strongly associated with sticky and wet textures, and moderately with viscous, cold, and lumpy textures, suggesting adherence-to-skin may predict disgust. The participants in the disgust-labelled condition had the highest disgust ratings, and this was mediated by their increased sickness belief and fear of the objects. Object identification was poor when labels or visual cues were absent. Our findings suggest that tactile disgust may reflect a bottom-up sensory component-skin adhesion-moderated by judgements of disease-related threat.


Assuntos
Doença/psicologia , Asco , Medo/psicologia , Percepção do Tato , Tato , Adulto , Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Reação de Fuga , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226156

RESUMO

Biased transmission of health knowledge has far-reaching effects on information reproduction and health-related cognitions. We examined whether transmissions of different types of disorder and etiological information influence recollections of health knowledge and evaluations of patients, by simulating the digital transmission of information. Transmission chains of four non-interacting persons (i.e., four generations) were formed. The first generation read three vignettes describing fictitious patients with one of three disorders (physiological, psychological, culture-bound) uniquely paired with one of three etiologies (genetic, environmental, unknown etiology). Next, they evaluated patients' well-being, rated desired social distance, and recalled the vignettes. These written recollections replaced the original vignettes for a second-generation of participants, whose recollections were used for the third generation and so on. The framing of disorders affected recollections of etiology, in which culture-bound framings resulted in the poorest recall of etiologies. Participants also perceived the culture-bound disorder as the least serious but desired the most social distance from patients diagnosed with it, when compared to other disorders. The study showed that health information is selectively attended to and reproduced, possibly affected by perceived self-relevance. Faulty recollections and framing of disorders affect health cognitions, potentially instigating biased transmission of disorder- and patient-related narratives.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Doença/etiologia , Disseminação de Informação , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Narração , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Viés , Comunicação , Cultura , Doença/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Anamnese/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(3): 53-60, May.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011154

RESUMO

Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports an association between psychological well-being and overall health, however, much remains to be understood about this association. The current study addresses this issue by presenting a new perspective focusing on health perceptions. Additionally, it examines the impact of each of six dimensions of psychological well-being on health perception. Methods Data for this study were collected from a sample of 1,155 Portuguese adults in various settings. Findings reveal that psychological well-being dimensions' impact differently on prior, current, and health outlookperceptions. Furthermore, the dimension depressed mood influences current health perception; in turn, current health perception is the strongest predictor for psychological well-being. Our results provide support for a bidirectional relationship between health perception and psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Percepção , Saúde , Saúde Mental , Portugal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Doença/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Processos Mentais
10.
G Ital Nefrol ; 36(1)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758158

RESUMO

This review aims at analysing the links between medicine and spirituality, two seemingly distant concepts. Medicine at its beginnings was imbued with rituals that invoked the intervention of supernatural powers, as man were unable to treat diseases and struggled to bear the suffering caused by them and the fragility of their own bodies. Today, in the post-genomic era, medicine has gained great benefits from new and extraordinary scientific and technological achievements, permitting sophisticated therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, which assure cures not previously possible. Even considering these great accomplishments in medicine and technology, it should be borne in mind that diseases not only induce bodily changes in sufferers, but also affect their emotional state and social interactions. Illness, especially when serious and in presence of a poor prognosis, raises profound questions around the meaning of life, affections, suffering and death. In the last few decades scientists, doctors, theologians, psychologists and others, in considering these questions, have emphasized the importance of spirituality as a relevant factor in the care of the sick and their illnesses. Drawing from some thoughts expressed in the book, "When the Breath Becomes Air," authored by the physician Paul Kalanithi, we claim that spirituality should be perceived as an important contributing factor in the therapeutic path. Our aim is to deepen the meaning of spirituality, differentiating it from religion, faith and mysticism, and to understand how it should be integrated with post-genomic medicine to enhance its positive aspects and effects.


Assuntos
Doença/psicologia , Medicina , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Medicina/tendências , Terapêutica
11.
Qual Health Res ; 29(10): 1433-1446, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762486

RESUMO

To understand how individuals come to "know" that their family members are not experiencing their health issues as severely as they claim, we interviewed 32 individuals (nine men and 23 women, M age = 35.28 years, SD = 9.91 years) about a family member who they believe falsifies or exaggerates his or her health condition(s). Our analyses illuminate two interlinked processes of knowledge construction: (a) developing evidentiary standards and (b) gathering evidence. In engaging these processes, participants sought two types of consistency: correspondence with external "facts" (e.g., medical information, cultural [mis]conceptions), and internal coherence (i.e., complaints were highly self-contradictory and unpredictable or were overly predictable). When initial inconsistencies made participants doubt their family member, participants gathered additional evidence, including experiential, behavioral, and interactional evidence, to test and revise their initial suspicions. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and for families coping with illness.


Assuntos
Doença/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
12.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 19-25, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181019

RESUMO

Los modelos cognitivos sobre la hipocondría postulan que las experiencias tempranas con la enfermedad promueven el desarrollo de creencias disfuncionales sobre la enfermedad. Estas creencias pueden permanecer latentes y activarse ante un incidente crítico. Los estudios publicados aportan datos que avalan de manera indirecta estos planteamientos. Teniendo en cuenta que en el núcleo familiar primario se comparten experiencias sobre la enfermedad, examinamos la relación entre las creencias disfuncionales que los progenitores y sus descendientes mantienen sobre la enfermedad y los pensamientos, tales como la intolerancia a la incertidumbre y la sobreestimación de la amenaza, y las relaciones entre dichas creencias, la sintomatología hipocondríaca y depresiva. Cuarenta estudiantes universitarios y sus progenitores (27 padres y 36 madres) completaron auto-informes sobre creencias disfuncionales acerca de la enfermedad, los pensamientos y síntomas hipocondríacos y depresivos. Los resultados mostraron que las creencias disfuncionales sobre la enfermedad y la sobrestimación de la amenaza de los padres, pero no de las madres, se asociaban con las de sus hijos e hijas. Asimismo, las creencias disfuncionales de padres, hijos, e hijas, se relacionaron con síntomas de hipocondría y depresión


Cognitive models about hypochondriasis postulate that early experiences with illness can lead individuals to develop dysfunctional beliefs about having an illness. These beliefs can remain in a latent state and be triggered by a critical incident. Published studies have provided data partially supporting these assumptions. Considering that the primary family context shares experiences about illness, we examined the relationships between the dysfunctional beliefs that parents and their offsprings maintain about illness and thoughts, such as intolerance to uncertainty and over-estimation of threat, as well as the relationships between these beliefs with hypochondriacal and depressive symptoms. Forty university students and their parents (27 fathers and 36 mothers) completed self-reports on dysfunctional beliefs about illness, thoughts and symptoms of hypochondriasis and depression. Results indicated that the fathers' dysfunctional beliefs about illness and overestimation of threat, but not those of mothers, were associated with their sons and daughters beliefs. Likewise, the dysfunctional beliefs of fathers, sons, and daughters were related to symptoms of hypochondriasis and depression


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Família/psicologia , Doença/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Health Psychol ; 38(2): 172-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression predict poor physical health longitudinally, but are neglected in primary care settings compared to other risk factors such as obesity and smoking. Further, anxiety has been less commonly studied than depression, and whether anxiety has unique predictive effects for physical health is unknown. We compared anxiety and depression to obesity and smoking as predictors of physical health indices and examined unique predictive effects of anxiety and depression. METHOD: Using data from the Health and Retirement study, a US population-based cohort study of older adults, we tested longitudinal associations of anxiety and depression symptoms with onset of self-reported physical health indices (N = 15,418; M age = 68). Medical illnesses (heart disease, stroke, arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer) and somatic symptoms (stomach problems, shortness of breath, dizziness, back pain, headache, pain, and eyesight difficulties) were assessed on two occasions over four years. Anxiety and depression were measured at the initial time point and tested as predictors of medical illness and somatic symptom onset. RESULTS: Anxiety and depression symptoms predicted greater incidence of nearly all medical illnesses and somatic symptoms. Effects were as strong as or stronger than those of obesity and smoking, and anxiety and depression independently increased risk for most physical health indices assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that anxiety and depression are as strongly predictive of poor future physical health as obesity and smoking and that anxiety is independently linked to poor physical health. Greater attention should be paid towards these conditions in primary care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Doença/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Obesidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia
14.
Health Promot Int ; 34(2): 344-355, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237027

RESUMO

In this paper, we explore the connection between poverty and health (poverty-related diseases: PRDs) by investigating the factors that play a role in how two groups of people in Cameroon cope with health challenges: workers in a large agro-industrial organization (living in 'camps') and students in two major universities (living on 'campuses'). We investigated factors reported in the literature as being associated with coping, summarized under the 'salutogenic umbrella', as well as demographic, social and environmental factors. A total of 509 respondents from camps and campuses participated in this study. We used a combination of standardized and un-standardized survey instruments to measure coping. We used χ2 and ANOVA tests to investigate bivariate differences and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine which significant survey factors predicted coping. Our results showed expected and unexpected differences between the settings. Individual dispositional factors such as sense of coherence (SOC), self-efficacy (SE), subjective wellbeing and self-rated health differed significantly between the settings. Expected coping resources such as income and SE did not differ between non-copers and copers. Two factors emerged as predictors of coping: living environment (setting) and SOC. Our results highlight the need for a multidimensional perspective on poverty and also the need to apply the salutogenic approach in PRD research. In particular, the emphasis this approach puts on stressors and the capacity to employ a variety of resources to overcome stressors is a fruitful way to better understand PRDs and the importance of location-specific circumstances where poverty, health and diseases are connected.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Doença/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Senso de Coerência , Adulto , Camarões , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
16.
Estud. interdiscip. envelhec ; 23(3): 95-110, dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1010349

RESUMO

A autopercepção da saúde é um determinante multidimensional e subjetivo do indivíduo para análise de sua própria saúde, considerado um fator para evidências de declínio funcional e de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a associação da autopercepção do envelhecimento e autopercepção da saúde. Trata-se de um estudo com delineamento transversal, descritivo e de associação. A amostra foi constituída de 224 indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, de ambos os sexos, sendo 64,4% indivíduos femininos e 35,5% masculinos, todos residentes no Distrito Federal. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de questionário sociodemográfico e pelo Questionário de Autopercepção do Envelhecimento (QAPE), versão brasileira. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, comparativas de grupo e correlações. Verificou-se que não ocorreu diferença estatística significativa entre a autopercepção do envelhecimento e a autopercepção da saúde, contudo, os dados demonstram que quanto melhor a autopercepção da saúde, melhor a autopercepção do envelhecimento. (AU)


The self-perception of health is a multidimensional and subjective, determinant factor for an individual to analyze their own health, considered part of evidence of functional decline and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-perception of aging and self-perception of health. It is a cross-sectional, descriptive and associative study. The sample consisted of 224 individuals over 60 years of age, of both sexes, with 64.4% female and 35.5% male individuals, resident in the Federal District. Data collection was performed using a demographic questionnaire and the Aging Self- -Perception Questionnaire (QAPE), Brazilian version. Descriptive, comparative analysis group and correlations were performed. It was verified that there was no significant statistical difference between the self-perception of aging and the self-perception of health, however, the data shows that the better the self-perception of health, the better the self-perception of aging. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoimagem , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Doença/psicologia
17.
J Vis Commun Med ; 41(4): 201-205, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328729
19.
J Health Commun ; 23(7): 634-642, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about people's awareness of the link between insufficient physical activity and increased risk for multiple health outcomes. METHODS: Of 1161 respondents to an online cross-sectional survey of the US population, we randomly selected 361 and used content analysis to code up to three responses to an open-ended question asking what illnesses are caused by insufficient physical activity. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests examined relations between disease codes and socio-demographics; t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests examined relations between codes and physical activity intentions and behavior. RESULTS: Ten codes emerged: cardiovascular (63.5% of participants), metabolic (65.8%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), fatigue (2.0%), psychiatric (8.0%), respiratory (3.4%), gastrointestinal (0.9%), cancer (3.4%), other (2.8%), unexpected interpretation (1.4%). 55.6% of participants named < 3 diseases. Code frequencies were generally similar across demographic groups, ps > .05. Physical activity intentions and behavior were higher among people who either mentioned cardiovascular (pintentions = .001, pbehavior = .001) or metabolic (pintentions = .01, pbehavior = .005) conditions, or who named < 3 diseases (pintentions = .006, pbehavior = .001). CONCLUSION: In our socio-demographically diverse sample, awareness of diseases that are associated with insufficient physical activity was largely related to cardiovascular and metabolic problems. Future health communication efforts should raise awareness of the harms of insufficient physical activity for cancer and other diseases.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Doença/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Intenção , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
BMJ Open ; 8(5): e023688, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health disorders early in life have tremendous impact on children's developmental trajectories. Almost 80% of children with health disorders lack the developmental skills to take full advantage of school-based education relative to 27% of children without a health disorder. In Canada, there is currently a dearth of nationally representative data on the social determinants of early childhood development for children with health disorders. Evidence from Canada and other countries indicate that poorer developmental outcomes in typically developing children are associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES). However, to date, it is not known whether this relationship is stronger among children with health disorders. The study's objectives are to estimate the prevalence and to investigate social determinants of developmental outcomes for young children with health disorders, using the Early Development Instrument (EDI). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Study objectives will be achieved through three steps. First, using existing EDI data for 10 provinces and 2 territories collected from 2004 to 2015, we will investigate differences in developmental health outcomes among children with identified health disorders. Second, population-level EDI data will be linked with neighbourhood sociodemographic census data to explore associations between socioeconomic characteristics and rates of specific diagnoses among children aged 5-6 years, including trends over time. Third, for 3 of these 12 regions, additional health and/or education databases will be linked at an individual level. These data will be used to establish differences in EDI outcomes in relation to the age-of-onset of diagnosis, and presence of intervention or treatment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study methodologies have been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board. The results of the analyses of developmental health outcomes for children with health disorders combined with SES will have implications for both health service delivery and school-based intervention strategies. Results will contribute to a framework for public policy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Epidemiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Classe Social
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