Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.157
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014253

RESUMO

Since asymptomatic infections as "covert transmitter", and some patients can progress rapidly in the short term, it is essential to pay attention to the diagnosis and surveillance of asymptomatic patients with SARS-COV2 infection. CT scan has great value in screening and detecting patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the highly suspected or probable asymptomatic cases with negative RT-PCR for SARS-COV2. This study aimed to detect incidentally COVID-19 pneumonia on medical imaging for patients consulting for other reasons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Dor no Peito/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 2045341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005276

RESUMO

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. However, the study of asymptomatic patients is still rare, and the understanding of its potential transmission risk is still insufficient. In this study, epidemiological investigations were conducted in the Zhejiang province to understand the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of asymptomatic patients with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 22 asymptomatic patients and 234 symptomatic patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Zhejiang Duodi Hospital from January 21 to March 16, 2020. The characteristics of epidemiology, demography, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data of mild patients were compared and analyzed. Results: The median age was 28 years in asymptomatic patients and 48 years in symptomatic patients. The proportion who were female was 77.3% in asymptomatic patients and 36.3% in symptomatic patients (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with coexisting diseases was 4.5% in asymptomatic patients and 38.0% in symptomatic patients (p=0.002). The proportion of patients with increased CRP was 13.6% in the asymptomatic group and 61.1% in the symptomatic group (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients received antiviral therapy was 45.5% in the asymptomatic group and 97.9% in the symptomatic group (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients received oxygen therapy was 22.7% in the asymptomatic group and 99.1% in symptomatic patients (p < 0.001). By March 16, 2020, all patients were discharged from the hospital, and no symptoms had appeared in the asymptomatic patients during hospitalization. The median course of infection to discharge was 21.5 days in asymptomatic patients and 22 days in symptomatic patients. Conclusions: Asymptomatic patients are also infectious; relying only on clinical symptoms, blood cell tests, and radiology examination will lead to misdiagnosis of most patients, leading to the spread of the virus. Investigation of medical history is the best strategy for screening asymptomatic patients, especially young people, women, and people without coexisting disease, who are more likely to be asymptomatic when infected. Although the prognosis is good, isolation is critical for asymptomatic patients, and it is important not to end isolation early before a nucleic acid test turns negative.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22697, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy for asymptomatic infection of COVID-19. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched from December 2019 to December 2020: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan-fang database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases (CBM), and other databases. All published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about this topic will be included. Two independent researchers will operate article retrieval, duplication removing, screening, quality evaluation, and data analyses by Review Manager (V.5.3.5). Meta-analyses, subgroup analysis, and/or descriptive analysis will be performed based on the included data conditions. RESULTS: High-quality synthesis and/or descriptive analysis of current evidence will be provided from the time of negative nucleic acid detection for 2 consecutive times (not on the same day), cure rate, converting to clinical diagnosis rate, and side effects of acupuncture. CONCLUSION: This study will provide the evidence of whether acupuncture is an effective and safe intervention for asymptomatic infection of COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD 42020179729.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(18): 9760-9764, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with cancer are usually immunosuppressive and susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases are infective and cannot be identified by symptom-based screening. There is an urgent need to control virus spread by asymptomatic carriers at cancer centres. We aim to describe the characteristics, screening methods, and outcomes of cancer patients with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection and to further explore anti-tumour treatment for this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed patients with cancer who were admitted to Hubei Cancer Hospital in Wuhan from February 1, 2020, to April 4, 2020. We collected demographic data, laboratory findings, treatment information, nucleic acid and serum test results, chest computed tomography (CT) information and survival status of cancer patients diagnosed with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A total of 16 cancer patients with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection were confirmed. The most common cancer type was breast cancer. The blood cell counts of most patients were in the normal range. Lymphocytes of 100% of asymptomatic carriers were in the normal range. Thirteen (81.3%) patients were positive for virus-specific IgM antibodies, and three (18.8%) were positive by PCR; only one (6.3%) patient showed novel coronavirus pneumonia features on CT. Three (18.3%) patients died, and the cause of death was considered malignancy caused by delaying anti-tumour treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the lymphocytes of 100% of asymptomatic carriers were in the normal range. This result indicates that the host immunity of asymptomatic carriers is not significantly disrupted by COVID-19. Single PCR detection is not sufficient to screen among asymptomatic individuals, and a combination of PCR tests, serological tests and CT is of great importance. Unless the tumour is life-threatening or rapidly progressing, we advise restarting active anti-tumour therapy after PCR tests become negative.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026198

RESUMO

We report the brief experience of the Nephrology Center located in a "no-COVID" Hospital in Massa Marittima. We describe the actions taken to prevent the transmission of the virus SARS-CoV-2 among hemodialysis patients and healthcare workers and the methods for diagnosing COVID-19, with particular attention to serological tests and nasopharyngeal swabs in asymptomatic subjects. The detection of IgM and IgG antibodies through the serological test performed on 34 patients, all negative for nasopharyngeal swabs, showed positivity in 41,18% of cases. These have been classified as false positives following repeated negative nasopharyngeal swabs, the evaluation of clinical and epidemiological history and of clinical manifestations and, finally, a second serological test performed after 18 days, which resulted negative for all patients. Interpreting serological tests is not easy; the strategies for diagnosis should include clinical and epidemiological history and clinical manifestations, as well as the results of confirmation tests and the evaluation over a precise observation period. Otherwise, there is a risk of considering as protected by antibodies subjects that are in fact false positives.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9136157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062043

RESUMO

Since the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) on March 02, 2020, Saudi Arabia has not reported quite a rapid COVD-19 spread as seen in America and many European countries. Possible causes include the spread of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. To characterize the transmission of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, a susceptible, exposed, symptomatic, asymptomatic, hospitalized, and recovered dynamical model was formulated, and a basic analysis of the model is presented including model positivity, boundedness, and stability around the disease-free equilibrium. It is found that the model is locally and globally stable around the disease-free equilibrium when R 0 < 1. The model parameterized from COVID-19 confirmed cases reported by the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia (MOH) from March 02 till April 14, while some parameters are estimated from the literature. The numerical simulation showed that the model predicted infected curve is in good agreement with the real data of COVID-19-infected cases. An analytical expression of the basic reproduction number R 0 is obtained, and the numerical value is estimated as R 0 ≈ 2.7.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Bioestatística , Simulação por Computador , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
7.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 297-298, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020341

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms are highly various in each patient. CXR are routinely used to monitor the disease progression. However, it is not known whether chest X-Ray (CXR) is a good modality to assess COVID-19 pneumonia.Male, 55 years-old, with pneumonia caused by COVID-19. Discordance was found between patient's clinical status and CXR lesion. On the 7th day of symptoms, patient was clinically well despite severe lesion shown on CXR. On the following day, patient clinically deteriorated despite the improvement on CXR lesion.Improvement of CXR does not always correlate well with patient's clinical status. Clinician have to be careful when using CXR to monitor patient with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost 100 countries, infected over 31 M patients and resulted in 961 K deaths worldwide as of 21st September 2020. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with multi-functional failure as a result of a cytokine storm with increased serum levels of cytokines. The pathogenesis of the respiratory failure in COVID-19 is yet unknown, but diffuse alveolar damage with interstitial thickening leading to compromised gas exchange is a plausible mechanism. Hypoxia is seen in the COVID-19 patients, however, patients present with a distinct phenotype. Intracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the vasodilation of small vessels. To elucidate the intracellular levels of NO inside of RBCs in COVID-19 patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. METHODS: We recruited 14 COVID-19 infected cases who had pulmonary involvement of their disease, 4 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (without pulmonary involvement and were not hypoxic) and 2 hypoxic non-COVID-19 patients subjects who presented at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital of Tehran, Iran between March-May 2020. Whole blood samples were harvested from patients and intracellular NO levels in 1 × 106 red blood cells (RBC) was measured by DAF staining using flow cytometry (FACS Calibour, BD, CA, USA). RESULTS: The Mean florescent of intensity for NO was significantly enhanced in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control subjects (P ≤ 0.05). As a further control for whether hypoxia induced this higher intracellular NO, we evaluated the levels of NO inside RBC of hypoxic patients. No significant differences in NO levels were seen between the hypoxic and non-hypoxic control group. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates increased levels of intracellular NO in RBCs from COVID-19 patients. Future multi-centre studies should examine whether this is seen in a larger number of COVID-19 patients and whether NO therapy may be of use in these severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Gasometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pressão Parcial , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Vasodilatação , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003346, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is disagreement about the level of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We conducted a living systematic review and meta-analysis to address three questions: (1) Amongst people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2, what proportion does not experience symptoms at all during their infection? (2) Amongst people with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are asymptomatic when diagnosed, what proportion will develop symptoms later? (3) What proportion of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is accounted for by people who are either asymptomatic throughout infection or presymptomatic? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Embase, bioRxiv, and medRxiv using a database of SARS-CoV-2 literature that is updated daily, on 25 March 2020, 20 April 2020, and 10 June 2020. Studies of people with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) that documented follow-up and symptom status at the beginning and end of follow-up or modelling studies were included. One reviewer extracted data and a second verified the extraction, with disagreement resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Risk of bias in empirical studies was assessed with an adapted checklist for case series, and the relevance and credibility of modelling studies were assessed using a published checklist. We included a total of 94 studies. The overall estimate of the proportion of people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 and remain asymptomatic throughout infection was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-25) with a prediction interval of 3%-67% in 79 studies that addressed this review question. There was some evidence that biases in the selection of participants influence the estimate. In seven studies of defined populations screened for SARS-CoV-2 and then followed, 31% (95% CI 26%-37%, prediction interval 24%-38%) remained asymptomatic. The proportion of people that is presymptomatic could not be summarised, owing to heterogeneity. The secondary attack rate was lower in contacts of people with asymptomatic infection than those with symptomatic infection (relative risk 0.35, 95% CI 0.10-1.27). Modelling studies fit to data found a higher proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infections resulting from transmission from presymptomatic individuals than from asymptomatic individuals. Limitations of the review include that most included studies were not designed to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and were at risk of selection biases; we did not consider the possible impact of false negative RT-PCR results, which would underestimate the proportion of asymptomatic infections; and the database does not include all sources. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this living systematic review suggest that most people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 will not remain asymptomatic throughout the course of the infection. The contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic infections to overall SARS-CoV-2 transmission means that combination prevention measures, with enhanced hand hygiene, masks, testing tracing, and isolation strategies and social distancing, will continue to be needed.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520958594, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide range of severity, ranging from an asymptomatic presentation to a severe illness requiring intensive care unit admission. Identification of a strategy to manage the severity of this disease will not only help to reduce its case fatality but also help to remove some of the burden from the already overwhelmed health care systems. While successful management of symptoms in general is important, identifying measures to modify the severity of the illness is a key factor in the fight against this pandemic. METHODS: This paper presents a short literature review to suggest a new treatment modality for COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 is less severe and rarely fatal in children than in adults, which could be caused by greater fluctuations of plasma epinephrine in children. Our literature survey endorses this hypothesis according to both the epidemiological and immunological findings. CONCLUSION: Application of epinephrine pulses with a specific amplitude may be considered an intervention to minimize the severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Epinefrina/sangue , Epinefrina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Imunológicos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5853-5860, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The optimal treatment sequencing for asymptomatic de novo metastatic rectal cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of upfront radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy on risk for local complications, in patients with asymptomatic advanced metastatic rectal cancer treated with palliative intention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with de novo metastatic rectal cancer diagnosed between January 2008 and December 2017 in two healthcare regions in Sweden (Örebro län, Sörmland) were identified and data were extracted from electronic medical records. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on treatment sequence: upfront radiotherapy, upfront chemotherapy, and only palliative surgery. RESULTS: In total, 102 patients were included in the study cohort, 30 patients in upfront radiotherapy group, 54 in upfront chemotherapy, and 18 in only palliative surgery group. Patients with only upfront CT [odds ratio (OR)= 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-20.91, p=0.024] had a higher risk to suffer from a local complication compared to those who received upfront radiotherapy. Cause-specific Cox regression analysis among patients who received oncological therapy revealed that female patients [cause-specific hazard ratio (csHR)=3.61; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-7.81] and upfront chemotherapy [csHR=1.85; 95% CI=1.11-3.77] were associated with increased cumulative incidence of local complication over time, whereas primary surgery with ostomy or stent with lower risk [csHR=0.45; 95% CI=0.21-0.99]. CONCLUSION: Patients who received upfront radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, had fewer local complications due to primary tumor compared to patients who only received chemotherapy. This could indicate that radiotherapy to the primary tumor could be discussed with the patients as a first treatment option for asymptomatic metastatic rectal cancer to prevent local complications later during the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Doenças Raras/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Raras/patologia , Doenças Raras/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1221-1226, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881855

RESUMO

Health care personnel (HCP) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might be at high risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Understanding the prevalence of and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among frontline HCP who care for COVID-19 patients are important for protecting both HCP and their patients. During April 3-June 19, 2020, serum specimens were collected from a convenience sample of frontline HCP who worked with COVID-19 patients at 13 geographically diverse academic medical centers in the United States, and specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Participants were asked about potential symptoms of COVID-19 experienced since February 1, 2020, previous testing for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the past week. Among 3,248 participants, 194 (6.0%) had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seroprevalence by hospital ranged from 0.8% to 31.2% (median = 3.6%). Among the 194 seropositive participants, 56 (29%) reported no symptoms since February 1, 2020, 86 (44%) did not believe that they previously had COVID-19, and 133 (69%) did not report a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Seroprevalence was lower among personnel who reported always wearing a face covering (defined in this study as a surgical mask, N95 respirator, or powered air purifying respirator [PAPR]) while caring for patients (5.6%), compared with that among those who did not (9.0%) (p = 0.012). Consistent with persons in the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection, many frontline HCP with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic during infection, and infection might be unrecognized. Enhanced screening, including frequent testing of frontline HCP, and universal use of face coverings in hospitals are two strategies that could reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Spanish registry of Covid-19 in Spanish pregnant women, made up of 100 centers, is created in response to the need to know the morbidity that Covid-19 generates in pregnant women and their newborns, to know the real incidence of the disease in this population group and to establish and monitor the package of measures to improve their care. The aim of this paper was the creation of a registry of pregnant women with Covid-19 infection in order to establish the interventions and measures necessary to improve the care of these patients during hospital admission. METHODS: To prepare the registry, the main researcher of each center collected weekly / biweekly the number of total pregnant women screened, as well as the total number of positive and negative, sending these data to the responsible researchers so that it could be available in real time of the percentage of infected asymptomatic pregnant population and the evolution by weeks in the centers of each participating province. The data were analyzed using the linear regression test and the Mantel test. RESULTS: As of May 31stsup> 2020, 16,308 screening tests were carried out in these hospitals, in which 338 pregnant women were positive, which translates into 2.07% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.86-2.30) of the asymptomatic pregnant women we attended in our centers were carriers of the virus and could develop the disease in subsequent days. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish epidemiological registry allows us to know the incidence of infection in pregnant women attended in the Spanish delivery centers, as well as the weekly and / or fortnightly evolution of the same, observing a significant decrease in the proportion of positive pregnant women over the total of screenings throughout this period, with an average of 6.5% in early April 2020 to an average of 0.93% positive in late May 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994333

RESUMO

Characterizing the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was aimed at determining asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a suburban, Southern U.S. population during a period of state restrictions and physical distancing mandates. This is one of the first published seroprevalence studies from North Carolina and included multicenter, primary care, and emergency care facilities serving a low-density, suburban and rural population since description of the North Carolina state index case introducing the SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogen to this population. To estimate point seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic individuals over time, two cohort studies were examined. The first cohort study, named ScreenNC, was comprised of outpatient clinics, and the second cohort study, named ScreenNC2, was comprised of inpatients unrelated to COVID-19. Asymptomatic infection by SARS-CoV-2 (with no clinical symptoms) was examined using an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)-approved antibody test (Abbott) for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This assay as performed under CLIA had a reported specificity/sensitivity of 100%/99.6%. ScreenNC identified 24 out of 2,973 (0.8%) positive individuals among asymptomatic participants accessing health care during 28 April to 19 June 2020, which was increasing over time. A separate cohort, ScreenNC2, sampled from 3 March to 4 June 2020, identified 10 out of 1,449 (0.7%) positive participants.IMPORTANCE This study suggests limited but accelerating asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic infections, like symptomatic infections, disproportionately affected vulnerable communities in this population, and seroprevalence was higher in African American participants than in White participants. The low, overall prevalence may reflect the success of shelter-in-place mandates at the time this study was performed and of maintaining effective physical distancing practices among suburban populations. Under these public health measures and aggressive case finding, outbreak clusters did not spread into the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Obrigatórios , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911518

RESUMO

We investigate phase transitions associated with three control methods for epidemics on small world networks. Motivated by the behavior of SARS-CoV-2, we construct a theoretical SIR model of a virus that exhibits presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and symptomatic stages in two possible pathways. Using agent-based simulations on small world networks, we observe phase transitions for epidemic spread related to: 1) Global social distancing with a fixed probability of adherence. 2) Individually initiated social isolation when a threshold number of contacts are infected. 3) Viral shedding rate. The primary driver of total number of infections is the viral shedding rate, with probability of social distancing being the next critical factor. Individually initiated social isolation was effective when initiated in response to a single infected contact. For each of these control measures, the total number of infections exhibits a sharp phase transition as the strength of the measure is varied.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(36): e328, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 in China, and then it has disseminated worldwide. In Korea, a religious group-related super-spreading event triggered a sudden outbreak in Daegu city and Gyeongsangbuk-do in southeast Korea. This study was undertaken to document the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in Gyeongsangbuk-do. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-two patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection hospitalized at Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital or at the Andong Medical Center between February 18th and June 30th were enrolled in this study. Medical records were reviewed and demographic and clinical features, including comorbidities, symptoms, radiological and laboratory findings on admission were analyzed. In addition, we sought to identify risk factors of mortality. RESULTS: Mean age of the 352 study subjects was 56 years (range, 14-95). The mortality rate was 6.8% and mean age at death was 81 years (range, 57-91). The most common symptom was cough (31.8%) followed by a febrile sensation (28.4%), sputum (17.0%), sore throat (15.6%), and myalgia (13.1%). Eighty-one (23.0%) patients were asymptomatic, but a half of these patients exhibited pneumonic infiltration at presentation. Chest radiology showed no active lesion in 41.8% of the study subjects, bilateral pneumonia in 46.9%, and unilateral pneumonic infiltration in 11.4%. Among 24 patients that died, 18 subjects were transferred from a care facility. An age of ≥ 70 years, previous history of malignancy or diabetes, and fever (≥ 37.5°C) on admission were found to be significant risk factors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients aged ≥ 70 years, those with fever on admission, and patients with an underlying malignancy or diabetes were found to be more likely to succumb to COVID-19. Elderly in care facilities or hospitalized patients with an underlying disease should receive more attention and be considered for preventive quarantine.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Quarentena , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the performance of an extended questionnaire in identifying cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among obstetric patients. 2. To evaluate the rate of infection among healthcare workers involved in women's care. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of obstetric patients admitted to MBBM Foundation and Buzzi Hospital (Lombardy, Northern Italy) from March 16th to May 22nd, 2020. Women were screened on admission by a questionnaire investigating major and minor symptoms of infection and high-risk contacts in the last 14 days. SARS-CoV-2 assessment was performed by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. Till April 7th, a targeted SARS-CoV-2 testing triggered by a positive questionnaire was used; from April 8th, a universal testing approach was implemented. RESULTS: There were 1,177 women screened by the questionnaire, which yielded a positive result in 130 (11.0%) cases. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was performed in 865 (73.5%) patients, identifying 51 (5.9%) infections. During the first period, there were 29 infected mothers, 4 (13.8%) of whom had a negative questionnaire. After universal testing implementation, there were 22 (3%, 95% CI 1.94% - 4.04%) infected mothers, 13 (59.1%) of whom had a negative questionnaire; rate of infection among asymptomatic women was 1.9%. Six of the 17 SARS-CoV-2-positive women with a negative questionnaire reported symptoms more than 14 but within 30 days before admission. Isolated olfactory or taste disorders were identified in 15.7% of infected patients. Rate of infection among healthcare workers was 5.8%. CONCLUSIONS: An exhaustive triage questionnaire can effectively discriminate women at low risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of a targeted and a universal viral testing approach. In 15.7% of infected women, correct classification as a suspected case of infection was due to investigation of olfactory and taste disorders. Extension of the assessed time-frame to 30 days may be worth considering to increase the questionnaire's performance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Triagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA