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1.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 27-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282570

RESUMO

It is unclear how best to predict peri-operative cardiovascular risk in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing non-cardiac surgery. This study examined the accuracy of the revised cardiac risk index and three atrial fibrillation thrombo-embolic risk models for predicting 30-day cardiovascular events after non-cardiac surgery in patients with a pre-operative history of atrial fibrillation. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 28 centres from 2007 to 2013 of 40,004 patients ≥ 45 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery who were followed until 30 days after surgery for cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial injury, heart failure, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). The 2088 patients with a pre-operative history of atrial fibrillation were at higher risk of peri-operative cardiovascular events compared with the 34,830 patients without a history of atrial fibrillation (29% vs. 13%, respectively, adjusted odds ratio 1.30 (95%CI 1.17-1.45). Compared with the revised cardiac risk index (c-index 0.60), all atrial fibrillation thrombo-embolic risk scores were significantly better at predicting peri-operative cardiovascular events: CHADS2 (c-index 0.62); CHA2 DS2 -VASc (c-index 0.63); and R2 CHADS2 (c-index 0.65), respectively. Although the three thrombo-embolic risk prediction models were significantly better than the revised cardiac risk index for prediction of peri-operative cardiovascular events, none of the four models exhibited strong discrimination metrics. There remains a need to develop a better peri-operative risk prediction model.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Modelos Estatísticos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010501, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839719

RESUMO

The current scenario of in vitro and in vivo diagnostics can be summarized using the "silo metaphor", where laboratory medicine, pathology and radiology are three conceptually separated diagnostic disciplines, which will increasingly share many comparable features. The substantial progresses in our understanding of biochemical-biological interplays that characterize many human diseases, coupled with extraordinary technical advances, are now generating important multidisciplinary convergences, leading the way to a new frontier, called integrated diagnostics. This new discipline, which is currently defined as convergence of imaging, pathology and laboratory tests with advanced information technology, has an enormous potential for revolutionizing diagnosis and therapeutic management of human diseases, including those causing the largest number of worldwide deaths (i.e. cardiovascular disease, cancer and infectious diseases). However, some important drawbacks should be overcome, mostly represented by insufficient information technology infrastructures, costs and enormous volume of different information that will be integrated and delivered. To overcome these hurdles, some specific strategies should be defined and implemented, such as planning major integration of exiting information systems or developing innovative ones, combining bioinformatics and imaging informatics, using health technology assessment for assessing cost and benefits, providing interpretative comments in integrated reports, developing and using expert systems and neural networks, overcoming cultural and political boundaries for generating multidisciplinary teams and integrated diagnostic algorithms.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/metabolismo , Tomografia , Troponina/análise
3.
Kardiologiia ; 59(11): 66-75, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849301

RESUMO

The article is devoted to problems of clinical-diagnostic value of determination of cardio-specific troponins in human biological fluids. Improvement of laboratory instrumentation and emergence of high sensitivity methods of analysis have allowed to identify troponins in urine, dialysate, and oral fluid. In the review we present actual information related to measurement of troponins in blood serum, data on testing of cardio-specific troponins in urine, dialysate, and oral fluid. Special attention is paid to determination of some cardiomarkers in oral fluid with thorough analysis of diagnostic value and effectiveness of the conducted studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Troponina
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6035-6039, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are a heterogeneous class of particles that differ in size and density from each other. Small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles are considered more atherogenic than larger particles. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of sdLDL in patients who died from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or cancer in a cohort of patients followed up in the De Bellis Research Hospital for 20 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 75 participants who died of cancer and 87 who died of CVD were enrolled and they were matched for age and sex with 135 healthy controls, i.e. without CVD or cancer and are still alive. RESULTS: Patients who died from cancer had the highest value of LDL IV subfraction (0.25±1.16), followed by those who died from CVD (0.17±0.96). CONCLUSION: The integrated profile of sdLDL between CVD and cancer suggests that therapeutic modulation of sdLDL may be associated with a risk reduction for these diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(12): 785-799, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611285

RESUMO

Progresses in liquid-based assays may provide novel useful non-invasive indicators of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. By analysing circulating cells or their products in blood, saliva and urine samples, we can investigate molecular changes present at specific time points in each patient allowing sequential monitoring of disease evolution. For example, an increased number of circulating endothelial cells may be a diagnostic biomarker for diabetic nephropathy and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The assessment of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels may be useful to predict severity of acute myocardial infarction, as well as diagnose heart graft rejection. Remarkably, circulating epigenetic biomarkers, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are key pathogenic determinants of CV diseases representing putative useful biomarkers and drug targets. For example, the unmethylated FAM101A gene may specifically trace cfDNA derived from cardiomyocyte death providing a powerful diagnostic biomarker of apoptosis during ischaemia. Moreover, changes in plasma levels of circulating miR-92 may predict acute coronary syndrome onset in patients with diabetes. Now, network medicine provides a framework to analyse a huge amount of big data by describing a CV disease as a result of a chain of molecular perturbations rather than a single defect (reductionism). We outline advantages and challenges of liquid biopsy with respect to traditional tissue biopsy and summarise the main completed and ongoing clinical trials in CV diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of combining fluid-based assays, big data and network medicine to improve precision medicine and personalised therapy in this field.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Medicina de Precisão , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574853

RESUMO

As a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, presence of hypertension (HT) necessitates the awareness of asymptomatic organ damage (AOD). The aim of this study was to measure plasma micro RNA-21 (miR-21) and the parameters that reflect AOD such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), microalbuminuria (MAU) in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.This study was designed as a cross-sectional observational study. The study includes 2 groups: 32 patients with HT and 32 healthy controls. First, we compared these 2 groups. Then, to underline the relationship between plasma miR-21 and HT, hypertensive patients were divided into 2 groups: with AOD and without AOD.Sixteen patients with HT had AOD. MiR-21 levels significantly correlated with clinical systolic and diastolic blood pressure, MAU, C-reactive protein, and CIMT. CIMT, miR-21, and MAU levels were significantly higher in patients with AOD.Our study showed increased miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , MicroRNA Circulante/análise , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(5): 203-209, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184162

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the management of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) in routine clinical practice in the Primary Care (PC) setting in Spain. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a structured questionnaire designed for this study and addressed to PC physicians. The questionnaire content was based on a literature review and was validated by 3 experts in AD. Results: A total of 1029 PC physicians participated in the study. 96.99% indicated that AD is determinant for cardiovascular risk, even if LDL-C levels are appropriate. 88.43% evaluated residual cardiovascular risk in their clinical practice, however, only 27.89% of them evaluated it in secondary prevention. Regarding diagnosis, 82.22% reported that TC, TG, HDL-C and non-HDL-C are essential measures when evaluating AD. Almost all physicians reported that they can request fractionated cholesterol to assess HDL-C and LDL-C, however 3.69% could not. Physicians (95.63%) considered that the first step in AD treatment should be diet, regular exercise, smoking cessation and pharmaceutical treatment, if necessary. 19.1% agreed partially or completely that gemfibrozil is the most suitable fibrate to associate with statins. 74.83% completely agreed that fenofibrate is the most suitable fibrate to combine with statins. Conclusions: Physicians have access to general Spanish guidelines and recommendations associated with AD management, however, it is necessary to continue rising awareness about the importance of early detection and optimal control of AD to reduce patients' cardiovascular risk


Objetivo: Describir el manejo de la dislipemia aterogénica (DA) en la práctica clínica, en el ámbito de la atención primaria (AP) en España. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, por medio de un cuestionario ad-hoc estructurado, dirigido a médicos de AP. El contenido del cuestionario se basó en una revisión de la literatura y fue validado por 3 expertos en DA. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio 1.029 médicos de AP. El 96,99% coincidió en que la DA constituye un factor determinante del riesgo cardiovascular aunque los niveles de cLDL sean adecuados. Un 88,43% indicó que evaluaba el riesgo residual cardiovascular en su práctica clínica habitual, aunque un 27,89% lo evaluaba solo en prevención secundaria. Un 82,22% consideró que para la valoración de un paciente con DA es imprescindible conocer el colesterol total, los triglicéridos, el cHDL, el cLDL y el no-cHDL. La mayoría indicó que podía solicitar fraccionamiento del colesterol total para valorar el cHDL y el cLDL, de forma rutinaria sin restricciones, pero el 3,69% indicó que no. Un 95,63% consideró que el primer paso en el tratamiento implica un control de la dieta, ejercicio físico, abandono del tabaco y si se precisa, tratamiento farmacológico. Un 19,1% estaba parcial o completamente de acuerdo en que el gemfibrozilo es el fibrato más adecuado para asociar con estatinas. El 74,83% estaba completamente de acuerdo en que el fenofibrato es el fibrato más apropiado para combinar con estatinas. Conclusiones: Los médicos tienen acceso a las guías y recomendaciones clínicas sobre el manejo de la DA, pero es necesario continuar concienciando de la importancia de su detección precoz y control óptimo para limitar su riesgo cardiovascular


Assuntos
Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/diagnóstico , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Espanha , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1049-1054, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184625

RESUMO

Introduction: anthropometric indicators (AIs) such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip index (WHpI), waist/height index (WHtI) and body fat percentage (BFP) are useful tools for the diagnosis of nutritional status (NS) in adolescents. Each of these parameters has advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the association of these AIs (WC, BMI, WHpI, WHtI, and BFP) to evaluate nutritional status and estimate the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in Mexican adolescents. Material and method: in a cross-sectional descriptive study, the NS was analyzed through various AIs and CMR with the WHtI criteria. Nine hundred and seventeen adolescents between 15 and 17 years old participated in the study, of whom 488 (52.9%) were female and 429 (47.1%) male, all students of middle school in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico. Results and conclusion: women presented a higher prevalence of obesity according to most indicators. The WHtI was the parameter that detected the highest prevalence of obesity (31%), correlating with the BMI and the BFP. Moreover, there was evidence of a significant relation between NS (assessed by all the anthropometric indicators) and CMR. The WHtI could be considered as an adequate tool for the diagnosis of obesity associated with CMR in adolescents


Introducción: los indicadores antropométricos (IA) como la circunferencia de cintura (CC), el índice de masa corporal (IMC), el índice cintura/ cadera (ICC), el índice cintura/talla (ICT) y el porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC) son herramientas útiles para el diagnóstico del estado nutricional (EN) en los adolescentes. Sin embargo, cada uno de estos IA presentan ventajas y desventajas. El propósito del presente estudio fue analizar la asociación de los IA (IMC, CC, ICC, ICT y PGC) para evaluar el EN y estimar el riesgo cardiometabólico (RCM) en adolescentes mexicanos. Material y método: el diseño del estudio fue descriptivo transversal. Se analizó el EN a través de diversos IA y el RCM bajo los criterios de ICT. Este estudio fue conducido en 917 adolescentes de entre 15 y 17 años, de los cuales 488 (52,9%) eran mujeres y 429 (47,1%) varones, todos estudiantes de nivel medio superior de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México. Resultados y conclusión: las mujeres presentaron mayor prevalencia de obesidad con la mayoría de los IA utilizados. El ICT fue el IA que detectó mayor prevalencia de obesidad (31%), correlacionándose con el IMC y el PGC. Además, se evidenció una asociación significativa entre el EN valorado por todos los IA y el RCM. El ICT podría ser considerado como una herramienta adecuada para el diagnóstico de obesidad asociada a RCM en adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Antropometria/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Peso-Estatura , Estudos Transversais , México/epidemiologia
9.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(4): 309-317, out.-dez. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023941

RESUMO

As neoplasias cardíacas são divididas em primárias e secundárias. As secundárias são 20 a 40 vezes mais comuns do que as primárias. Embora raras, as neoplasias cardíacas primárias podem ser benignas e malignas, sendo as benignas responsáveis por 75% dos casos. Os principais objetivos da imagem cardiovascular são definir a morfologia e etiologia do tumor, identificar potenciais complicações e auxiliar na definição de tratamento. Para o diagnóstico de neoplasias cardíacas, a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons acoplada à tomografia computadorizada (PET-TC) com a fluordesoxiglicose-F18 (18F-FDG) é uma técnica ainda pouco utilizada, principalmente nos tumores cardíacos primários. Entretanto, ela pode ajudar na diferenciação entre tumores malignos e benignos e, assim, evitar biópsias cardíacas e tratamentos invasivos desnecessários. Para esta revisão, realizamos pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, considerando as publicações sobre o tema nos últimos 10 anos. A PET-TC 18F-FDG é um exame útil para diferenciar massas cardíacas benignas das malignas, de acordo com o maior grau de metabolismo glicolítico encontrado nas neoplasias malignas. Além do mais, nos tumores malignos, a PET-TC 18F-FDG tem papel central no estadiamento da doença e pode ajudar na avaliação de resposta ao tratamento


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Sarcoma , Glicemia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Linfoma
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 456-461, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Stress at the work place reduces efficiency, as well as increasing accidents and absences, which may cause various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study is an analysis of the prevalence and causes of stress in intellectual work, and its correlation with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women at non-mobility working age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2016-2017 in a group of 300 women aged 45-60 in non-manual employment. A questionnaire for subjective job evaluation was used. Logistic regression models for the occurrence of CVDs versus frequency of occurrence of individual causes of work stress among the respondents were estimated. RESULTS: Women at non-mobility working age with non-manual employment are especially exposed to stress, half of them experience high level of stress at work, most often caused by social contacts and lack of rewards and support. Cardiovascular diseases were found in 26.5% of the women studied who were also significantly higher exposed to the occurrence of health hazards due to exposure to harmful factors, or due to an accident at work, changes in the workplace, the need to compete with others,and the need to perform the task despite the lack of appropriate material resources, compared with women without such diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed a high prevalence of occupational stress in non-manual employment, indicated its main causes that correlated with the alence of cardiovascular diseases. Actions are needed to reduce the level of stress in the work of women at non-mobility working age, to maintain their work ability and quality of life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico
11.
BMJ ; 366: l5125, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment reduce persistent cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. DESIGN: Propensity matched cohort study. SETTING: Population based cohort in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: 29 771 adults with metabolic syndrome (≥40 years) receiving statin treatment. 2156 participants receiving combined treatment (statin plus fenofibrate) were weighted based on propensity score in a 1:5 ratio with 8549 participants using statin only treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was composite cardiovascular events including incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: The incidence rate per 1000 person years of composite cardiovascular events was 17.7 (95% confidence interval 14.4 to 21.8) in the combined treatment group and 22.0 (20.1 to 24.1) in the statin group. The risk of composite cardiovascular events was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group compared with statin group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.93; P=0.01). The significance was maintained in the on-treatment analysis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.02). The risk of incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and cardiovascular death was lower in the combined treatment group than statin group but was not significant. Participant characteristics did not appear to be associated with the low risk of composite cardiovascular events with combined treatment. CONCLUSION: In this propensity weighted cohort study of adults with metabolic syndrome, the risk of major cardiovascular events was significantly lower with fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment than with statin treatment alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 390-396, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512426

RESUMO

The literature review systematizes the results of research devoted to age-and sex-related aspects of cardiovascular pathology and published in Russian and foreign publications is presented in the well-known scientometric databases - Scopus, Web of Science, Pub Med, RISC, etc. The article also presents the results of their own research and the author's vision of the issues. The result of the analysis was a reasonable conclusion that the representatives of different sex and age to a large extent differently formed and development pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. This, in turn, requires modern gender-oriented, personalized approaches to diagnosis, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Federação Russa , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 41-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540656

RESUMO

Diagnostic testing performed in the noninvasive vascular laboratory is a cornerstone of care for patients with suspected or known vascular disease. The Society for Vascular Surgery has mandated that vascular surgery resident training include mentored experience in performing vascular laboratory testing and interpreting its results. The trainee should be experienced with vascular laboratory instrumentation and testing protocols, be knowledgeable in ultrasound imaging of vascular anatomy, and be competent to classify disease severity relevant to the study indication. The scope of test interpretation should include peripheral arterial, peripheral venous, cerebrovascular, and visceral abdominal testing using duplex ultrasound supplemented by indirect physiologic testing for peripheral arterial and venous disease. The emergence of endovascular therapy has expanded duplex ultrasound applications in the areas of screening, procedural imaging, and surveillance following intervention. Pre-procedure testing to assess disease location and severity, and vein mapping for dialysis access or extremity bypass grafting provide important patient-specific information that can reduce the need for more invasive vascular imaging. It is recommended that trainees acquire the hand-on skills to perform duplex testing in vascular clinic and inpatient sites, such as the emergency department and operating room. Training programs should have a structured vascular laboratory curriculum that documents annual educational milestones that encompass both test interpretation aptitude and hands-on duplex scanning skills. Before completion of training, the resident should acquire documented experience in test interpretation sufficient to take the Physician Vascular Interpretation examination, which is required for American Board of Surgery certification as a vascular surgeon.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Internato e Residência , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Currículo , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 649-656, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441267

RESUMO

Based on the noninvasive detection indeices and fuzzy mathematics method, this paper studied the noninvasive, convenient and economical cardiovascular health assessment system. The health evaluation index of cardiovascular function was built based on the internationally recognized risk factors of cardiovascular disease and the noninvasive detection index. The weight of 12 indexes was completed by the analytic hierarchy process, and the consistency test was passed. The membership function, evaluation matrix and evaluation model were built by fuzzy mathematics. The introducted methods enhanced the scientificity of the evaluation system. Through the Kappa consistency test, McNemer statistical results ( P = 0.995 > 0.05) and Kappa values (Kappa = 0.616, P < 0.001) suggest that the comprehensive evaluation results of model in this paper are relatively consistent with the clinical, which is of certain scientific significance for the early detection of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Sistema Cardiovascular , Lógica Fuzzy , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Pesquisa
16.
Am J Dent ; 32(4): 191-200, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the literature on the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on surrogate markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and to clarify the impact of periodontal disease on systemic inflammation. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been adopted. An electronic search in PubMed up to December 2018 was performed using the following search terms and keywords alone or in combination: non surgical periodontal therapy, atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), operative surgical procedures, CVD, IL-6, CRP, cholesterol, LDL, oxidized low density lipoprotein, HDL, endothelial dysfunction, dependent dilatation, carotid intima media thickness, periodontitis, tunica intima. RESULTS: The electronic search resulted in the inclusion of 28 articles that were grouped and discussed based on the investigated surrogate markers. Meta-analysis was not carried out due to the heterogeneity of the results. The included studies demonstrated that periodontal treatments contribute to the resolution of oral inflammation and in turn might positively modulate the levels of systemic inflammatory markers. The initial phase of periodontal therapy has a positive impact on the short-term reduction of a series of systemic markers that are considered as surrogate markers of AVD. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The non-surgical therapy of periodontal disease would positively reduce the levels of systemic inflammation markers, decreasing the vascular risk and the possibility of developing CVD or the subclinical progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/terapia
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1366-1369, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411823

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death in young athletes has become a highly visible public health issue and it has been studied for the last twenty years. In this article, we analyse the most recent literature about epidemiology and aetiology of sudden cardiac death in Switzerland in comparison to international data. We cover last recommendations for pre-participation screening in athletes and we briefly describe the strategies of secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Eletrocardiografia , Exercício , Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevenção Secundária , Suíça
18.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(8): 625-632, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403364

RESUMO

Introduction: Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is still a recent technology with numerous unknowns but also great promises. The risk of complications reported in observational studies have limited its adoption by interventional cardiology and surgical communities. Areas covered: Some of the major setbacks of TMVR are complications related to the devices and those related to the pathway. Device-related complications include left ventricle outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, transcatheter heart valve (THV) dislocation or embolization, thrombosis, and stroke. The transapical approach currently remains the main pathway for TMVR but is associated with high risk of major bleeding and residual apical myocardial scarring. Complication prediction and prevention seem possible. Device-related complication prediction is based on pre-operative imaging including multi-slice computed tomography with 3-dimensional reconstructions and echocardiography which allow LVOT obstruction prediction and appropriate sizing aiming at avoiding dislocation. Industry should aim at the development of transfemoral delivery systems. Nevertheless, several recent feasibility observational studies suggested acceptable safety and efficacy of transcatheter mitral valve replacement. Expert opinion: TMVR complications and transapical delivery are some of the main setbacks which need to be addressed for TMVR to be adopted for broad clinical use.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prognóstico
19.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 159-174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417268

RESUMO

While tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking has continued to drop to all-time lows, the use of electronic cigarettes (ECs), introduced in the US in 2007, has been rising dramatically, especially among youth. In EC emissions, nicotine is the major biologically active element, while levels of carcinogens and harmful combustion products that typify TC smoke are very low or even undetectable. TCs cause cardiovascular harm by activation of inflammatory pathways and oxidative damage, leading to atherogenesis and thrombosis, as well as through sympathetic activation triggering ischemia and arrhythmia. While ECs are generally believed to be safer than TCs, there remain many uncertainties regarding the overall cardiovascular health effects of EC usage. In this review, we discuss the various components of EC smoke and review the potential mechanisms of cardiovascular injury caused by EC use. We also discuss the controversy regarding the increasing epidemic of youth EC use weighed against the use of ECs as a smoking-cessation aid.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Vaping , Administração por Inalação , Fatores Etários , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaping/efeitos adversos
20.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 152-159, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182709

RESUMO

Introducción: La participación monocitaria en la progresión aterosclerótica y sus efectos pro- o antiinflamatorios dependen de las subpoblaciones circulantes. El objetivo de este estudio es la caracterización de dichas subpoblaciones y su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluye 102 pacientes seleccionados; edad media: 65 años (rango 41-86 años), 69% varones. Se utilizó un panel de anticuerpos específicos frente a monocitos clásicos (Mon1, CD14+CD16− CD300e+HLADR+), intermedios (Mon2, CD14+CD16+CD300e+HLADR+) y no clásicos (Mon3, CD14-k-CD16+CD300e+HLADR+). Se establecieron tres grupos de estudio; grupo 1: sujetos asintomáticos con más de un factor de riesgo cardiovascular (n = 17); grupo 2: sujetos asintomáticos, pero con patología vascular por ecografía o microalbuminuria (n = 56); y grupo 3: pacientes con algún evento vascular aterotrombótico previo (n = 19). Asimismo, se calculó el riesgo cardiovascular mediante las escalas Framingham y REGICOR. Resultados: Se observó una asociación entre las subpoblaciones Mon1 y Mon2 y los grupos del estudio (ANOVA, p < 0,05), independiente de la edad y el sexo para los Mon2. Asimismo, las subpoblaciones Mon1 y Mon 2 se asociaron con eventos vasculares adversos (ß = 0,86, p = 0,02 y ß = 0,1 p = 0,002, respectivamente), siendo la asociación de Mon2 independiente de la edad y el sexo. Además, el porcentaje de Mon3 se asoció con la presencia de más de 2 factores de riesgo cardiovascular (ß=0,21, p=0,04) en el análisis univariante. Finalmente, se halló una correlación entre los niveles de Mon1 y Mon2 con el número de leucocitos (r = 0,7, p < 0,001 y r = 0,26 p < 0,01, respectivamente). Conclusiones: El análisis de subpoblaciones monocitarias es de gran interés clínico, ya que permite establecer un diferente perfil inflamatorio según los grupos de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos


Introduction: Monocytes play an important role in atherosclerotic progression having both pro and anti-inflammatory effects depending on different circulating monocyte subpopulations. The objective of this study is to characterize these subpopulations and their association with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Transversal study including 102 selected patients, mean age: 65 years-old (range 41-86), 69% males. A set of specific antibodies against classical monocytes (Mon1, CD14+CD16- CD300e+HLADR+), intermediate (Mon2, CD14+CD16+CD300e+HLADR+) and non-classical (Mon3, CD14-CD16+CD300e+HLADR+) was assayed. Three groups of patients were included: 17 asymptomatic with more than one cardiovascular risk factor (group 1), 56 subjects asymptomatic but with vascular pathology assessed by ultrasound or microalbuminuria (group 2) and 19 patients with a previous atherothrombotic event (group 3). The cardiovascular risk was determined by Framingham and REGICOR scores. Results: An association between study groups and the percentage of Mon1 and Mon2 was observed (ANOVA, p < .05), being independent of age and sex for Mon2. Likewise Mon1 and Mon2 subpopulations were associated with cardiovascular adverse events (ß = 0.86, p =.02 y ß = 0.1 p =.002, respectively), independently of age and sex in the case of Mon2. Moreover the percentage of Mon3 was associated with the presence of several cardiovascular risk factors (ß = 0.21, p = .04) in the univariate analysis. In addition, there was a correlation between the levels of Mon1 and Mon2 and leukocytes (r = 0.7, p < .001 and r = 0.26, p = .01, respectively). Conclusions: The analysis of monocyte subpopulations may be clinically useful to stratify the inflammatory profile related to the different cardiovascular risk groups


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monócitos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Variância , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Grupos de Risco
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