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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and (particularly) processed meats are high in cholesterol and saturated and solid fatty acids. Their consumption is considered one of the risk factors for metabolic disorders. Numerous studies demonstrated a possible association between red meat consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this protocol, we propose a systematic review of the literature to examine the associations of red meat consumption with CVD incidence and mortality, and explore the potential dose-response relationship. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane (CENTRAL), WHOLIS, PAHO, and Embase. We will include prospective epidemiological studies (longitudinal cohort). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Four independent researchers will conduct all evaluations. Disagreements will be referred to a fifth reviewer. We will summarize our findings using a narrative approach and tables to describe the characteristics of the included studies. The heterogeneity between trial results will be evaluated using a standard chi-squared test with P < .05. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). RESULTS: This review will evaluate the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality (primary outcome measures). The secondary outcome measure will include the dose-response effect. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the association between red meat consumption and incidence of CVD and mortality and the dose-response effect through a systematic review and meta-analysis. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019100914.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574853

RESUMO

As a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, presence of hypertension (HT) necessitates the awareness of asymptomatic organ damage (AOD). The aim of this study was to measure plasma micro RNA-21 (miR-21) and the parameters that reflect AOD such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), microalbuminuria (MAU) in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.This study was designed as a cross-sectional observational study. The study includes 2 groups: 32 patients with HT and 32 healthy controls. First, we compared these 2 groups. Then, to underline the relationship between plasma miR-21 and HT, hypertensive patients were divided into 2 groups: with AOD and without AOD.Sixteen patients with HT had AOD. MiR-21 levels significantly correlated with clinical systolic and diastolic blood pressure, MAU, C-reactive protein, and CIMT. CIMT, miR-21, and MAU levels were significantly higher in patients with AOD.Our study showed increased miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , MicroRNA Circulante/análise , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ ; 366: l4892, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in patients with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with increased all cause mortality and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a database of electronic patient records from UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with incident hypothyroidism from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2017. EXPOSURE: TSH concentration in patients with hypothyroidism. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, atrial fibrillation, any fractures, fragility fractures, and mortality. Longitudinal TSH measurements from diagnosis to outcomes, study end, or loss to follow-up were collected. An extended Cox proportional hazards model with TSH considered as a time varying covariate was fitted for each outcome. RESULTS: 162 369 patients with hypothyroidism and 863 072 TSH measurements were included in the analysis. Compared with the reference TSH category (2-2.5 mIU/L), risk of ischaemic heart disease and heart failure increased at high TSH concentrations (>10 mIU/L) (hazard ratio 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.38; P=0.03) and 1.42 (1.21 to 1.67; P<0.001), respectively). A protective effect for heart failure was seen at low TSH concentrations (hazard ratio 0.79 (0.64 to 0.99; P=0.04) for TSH <0.1 mIU/L and 0.76 (0.62 to 0.92; P=0.006) for 0.1-0.4 mIU/L). Increased mortality was observed in both the lowest and highest TSH categories (hazard ratio 1.18 (1.08 to 1.28; P<0.001), 1.29 (1.22 to 1.36; P<0.001), and 2.21 (2.07 to 2.36; P<0.001) for TSH <0.1 mIU/L, 4-10 mIU/L, and >10 mIU/L. An increase in the risk of fragility fractures was observed in patients in the highest TSH category (>10 mIU/L) (hazard ratio 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31; P=0.03)). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism, no evidence was found to suggest a clinically meaningful difference in the pattern of long term health outcomes (all cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, fractures) when TSH concentrations were within recommended normal limits. Evidence was found for adverse health outcomes when TSH concentration is outside this range, particularly above the upper reference value.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tireotropina/normas
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4627-4635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519560

RESUMO

In the clinical setting, administration of high daily or bolus doses of vitamin D is often solely based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] testing. This review summarizes the evidence of the effect of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that CVD risk markers, such as lipid parameters, inflammation markers, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness, are largely unaffected by vitamin D supplementation. Similar results have been obtained regarding CVD events and mortality from (meta)-analyses of RCTs, even in subgroups with 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. Likewise, Mendelian randomization studies have indicated that the genetic reduction of the 25(OH)D concentration does not increase CVD risk. Some studies do not exclude the possibility of adverse vitamin D effects, such as elevated plasma calcium concentration and an increased CVD risk at a 25(OH)D concentration >125 nmol/l. Based on a conservative benefit-risk management approach, vitamin D doses beyond the nutritionally recommended amounts of 600 to 800 IE daily currently cannot be advised for the prevention of CVD events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558938

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) in the peri-urban adult population living in the island of Anjouan, Comoros and to investigate the factors associated with diabetes mellitus. Methods: The survey was a cross-sectional study, in which a sample of 902 individuals (540 women and 362 men) aged 25 to 64 was selected using empirical sampling "quotas" or "reasoned choice" survey method. Hypertension and obesity abdominal measurements of these subjects were collected during face-to-face interviews and following day fasting blood glucose was measured in capillary blood. Results: Participation rate was 83.5%. The mean age of subjects was 39.5 ± 11.63 years. The sex ratio was 0.67. Overall crude diabetes and IFG prevalence were 8.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The risk factors for diabetes type 2 onset were a family history of diabetes (P = 0.006), older age (P = 0.000), glycemic control (P = 0.010), excess waist circumference (P = 0.03) and hypertension (p = 0.000), were significantly positively associated with DM, contrary to sex (P = 0.142). Conclusion: These high figures confirm that diabetes and factors associated do not spare Anjouan population. Awareness, primary prevention, are to set up for a better control of non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comores/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
7.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1043-1053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498687

RESUMO

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. However, concerns are growing about the serious adverse events and mortality linked to their long-term use. Areas covered: The authors review the main approved clinical indications and adverse events associated with PPIs, including, among others, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, kidney diseases, and several nutrient deficiencies. Recent studies have reported that patients taking PPIs displayed increased mortality, linked to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal malignancies, and chronic kidney diseases. Expert opinion: PPIs represent an important advance in the medical treatment of acid-related diseases. PPIs have contributed to profound reductions in hospitalizations and mortality due to upper GI complications. However, concern is growing about the wide range of potentially serious adverse events and mortality linked to chronic PPI use. Nevertheless, the level of evidence on adverse events is low; it is based on observational studies, and most findings have not been confirmed in the limited number of clinical trials available. PPI overuse and off-label prescriptions must be eradicated, but long-term PPI use for clear indications must continue, until we have stronger evidence to support claims of serious adverse events and mortality.


Assuntos
Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3154, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the metabolic syndrome concept and to identify its essential features, antecedents, and outcomes within the context of nursing. METHOD: conceptual analysis, based on the methodological steps of a model. We carried out an integrative review by accessing four databases online: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, and Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud. RESULTS: the essential features most frequently involved the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity were highlighted as the most common antecedents of the syndrome, and the outcomes were occurrences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. As implication, we highlight relevant empirical data to the broad definition of the concept. CONCLUSION: we could analyze the concept under study regarding essential features, antecedents, and outcomes, operationally defining it as a potential nursing phenomenon, which demands health care focusing on reducing risks and morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/enfermagem , Enfermagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enfermagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434811

RESUMO

Recently, the main air pollutant has been fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is taken up by the whole body with severe adverse health effects. The main chemical components of PM2.5 are salts of sulfate (and nitrate) and carbons. However, it remains unknown which components are toxic. Here, the author reviewed the literatures to determine which components are toxic and the main mechanisms underlying their toxicity. Many epidemiological studies have shown that sulfate concentration is strongly related to mortality. However, there is no experimental evidence showing that sulfate at environmental concentrations of PM2.5 causes cardiovascular disease or other disease. On the other hand, carbon components such as elementary carbon (EC) produces high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via its phagocytosis by macrophages, and organic carbon (OC) also produces high concentrations of ROS during its metabolic processes, and the ROS cause acute and chronic inflammation. They cause many diseases including cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Furthermore, there are many lines of evidence showing that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation or microRNA expression induced by particulate matters also induce the development of many diseases such as those mentioned above. It has been reported that carbon components are incorporated into the brain and produce ROS, and that the ROS cause damage to brain cells and Alzheimer's disease and cognitive disorders in the elderly.From these lines of evidence, the author would like to emphasize that the main toxicity of PM2.5 is due to carbon components, and it is important to take countermeasures to decrease the concentration of carbon components in ambient air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carbono/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Sulfatos/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Animais , Asma/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Epigênese Genética , Cobaias , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 135-141, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465179

RESUMO

Introduction: The relationship of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components with the reduced glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria is not yet widely elucidated. The aim of the study was to associate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria to MS and its individual components in adults with cardiometabolic risk factors, who attended a public health center in the municipality of San Diego, Carabobo State, Venezuela. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study (n=176 individuals). Weight, height, waist circumference, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured; serum glucose, creatinine, urea, ureic nitrogen, total cholesterol, low (LDLc) and high (HDLc) density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in whole blood were determined; the presence of proteinuria was determined in partial urine. The eGFR was estimated by equations and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results: The frequency of MS was significantly higher among patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/m2), mildly reduced eGFR (60-89 mL/min/m2), hyperfiltration or proteinuria. The risks of mildly reduced eGFR and protenuria were significantly associated with elevated fasting blood glucose, low HDLc and MS, with and without adjustment for sex, age and BMI. When adjusted for the diabetic condition, only the risk of proteinuria remained associated with MS and elevated blood pressure. The risk of hyperfiltration was not associated with MS. Conclusion: The reduction in estimated glomerular function and proteinuria were associated with MS and its individual components. Other studies that confirm the results are required.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Venezuela , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 159-163, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465183

RESUMO

Background: Excess weight (EW) and alterations in lipid metabolism constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults and children. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy with EW is analyzed in this study. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 891 schoolchildren 10-14 years old (367 girls; 524 boys) from the province of Jujuy (Northwestern Argentina). Prevalence of dyslipidemia for Overweight (OW) and Obesity (OB) were calculated, according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Prevalence of lipid alterations were analyzed and 7 dyslipidemic profiles were established. Comparisons and associations between variables were analyzed by Chi-square test. Crude and adjusted odds ratio were estimated from a logistic regressions. Results: Regardless of sex and nutritional status, 13.7%, 21.8%, and 16.5% of schoolchildren showed high values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, and 20.3% had low HDL cholesterol. Significantly higher values of HDL cholesterol were found in OW, and of triglycerides in OB. A significant association was recorded between OB and high triglycerides. Schoolchildren with OB have a 54% more chances of showing at least one lipid alteration. Conclusion: EW, and especially OB, constitutes an important risk factor in the development of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 174-179, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465186

RESUMO

Background: Mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in rheumatoid arthritis, not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), suggesting a role of inflammation. This process would occur early. The common sonographic markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA), are increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) or the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and they are closely related to CVD. Aims: To evaluate sonographic markers and cardiovascular risk factors in early Arthritis (EA). Methods: A case control study of patients with EA, defined by 3 joints swollen with <1 year of evolution, served consecutively from January 2011 to may 2013, matched with healthy controls, by sex, age and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease -IAM and ACV, dyslipidemia, family history of CVD) was conducted. We studied demographics data, cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound measuring increased cIMT or the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque in Common Carotid Artery (CCA) and Carotid Bulb (BC), laboratory test that included cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides in mg%, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR ), anti citrullinated peptide (ACCP), rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA). EA activity was measured by DAS 28, considering high disease activity (HDA) 5.1; moderate (MDA) from 5.1 to 3.2; and low (LDA) <3.2. Statistics: test Mann-Whitney and chi-square were used, p <0.05 was significant. Results: 25 women, 5 men, average age 43 years (DS 14.7) and 30 controls were included. The average DAS 28 was 4, 8 ± 1. 8; 47% had HDA, 33%MDA and 20%BDA. Both groups had similar values cIMT CCA (0, 57 ± 0.10 mm vs. 0.58 ± 0.15 mm, respectively, P = 0.82) and cIMT BC (0.18mm ± 0.67 vs 0.62 ± 0.15 mm respectively, P = 0.47). There were no carotid plaques. The median total cholesterol was 181,5 vs 183,5 (p = 0.35); triglycerides 99 vs 92,5 (p = 0.68); HDL 54,5 vs 52,5 (p = 0.921 and LDL 105 vs 110 (p = 0.27) in EA and controls respectively. The cIMT CCA and CB were not related to RF, ACCP, CRP, DAS 28 and smoking (NS). There was no difference in other cardiovascular risk factors Conclusions: Ultrasound evidence of atherosclerosis subclinical markers was not found in this study, suggesting that this process may occur after a year of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
14.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 673-679, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461819

RESUMO

Objective: To examine associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with sex hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A total of 697 male subjects were obtained from the thyroid disorders, lodine status and diabetes: a national epidemiological survey-2014 (TIDE) research--Henan sub-center survey through multistage stratified cluster random sampling from December 2015 to March 2016. The associations between 25(OH)D and sex hormones or cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed by linear regression analyses. Results: The age of the subjects was (46.6±15.9) years (19-85 years). Proportions of vitamin D deficient, vitamin D intermediate and vitamin D optimal were 9.3%, 13.1% and 77.6%, respectively. More subjects with vitamin D deficient were in urban area than in rural area (13.3% vs. 5.7%, P=0.001). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status, education, body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hypertension, diabetes, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteincholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid, linear regression analyses showed that every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels increased lg FT(FT=free testosterone) by 0.013ng/L (ß=0.013, P=0.036), lg DHT (DHT=dihydrotestosterone) by 0.030 ng/L (ß=0.030, P=0.019), and lg AD (AD=androstenedione) by 0.019 µg/L (ß=0.019, P=0.008). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status and education, every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels lowered glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.051% (ß=-0.051, P=0.027). Conclusions: Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in men were associated with higher FT, DHT, AD and lower HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16676, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415360

RESUMO

There is no known study regarding the usefulness of each blood pressure (BP) component based on stratification by age and sex for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events among hypertensive populations without chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was performed to investigate the association of BP components and CV events in a Korean hypertensive population according to age and sex. A total of 22,853 Korean hypertensive participants without CKD and DM were stratified into six groups according to age [40-49, 50-59, and 60 years or older] and sex. In each group, multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to reveal the associations of BP components [systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)] with CV events. The increase in PP and decrease in DBP were significantly associated with increase of CV events in males, but neither BP component was significantly associated with risk of CV events in females. When subjects were stratified by age and sex, an increase of SBP or PP was significantly related to the increased risk of CV events in 40's male group, and only the elevation of PP was significantly associated with increase in incidence of CV events in 50's male group, while a decrease in DBP was significantly associated with increased risk of CV events in older male group. In addition, there were no the significant associations with the incidence of CV events in MAP, after stratification according to age and sex. In conclusion, this study suggests that, in hypertensive populations, BP management may need to be performed after full consideration of age and sex.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 118(3): 133-139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to verify whether artificial neural networks (ANNs) might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased prevalence of cardiovascular events (CV) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: 408 pSS patients (395 F: 13 M), with a mean age of 61 (±14) years and mean disease duration of 8.8 (±7.8) years were retrospectively included. CV risk factors and events were analysed and correlated with the other pSS clinical and serological manifestations by using both a traditional statistical approach (i.e. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC)) and Auto-CM, a data mining tool based on ANNs. RESULTS: Five percent of pSS patients experienced one or more CV events, including heart failure (8/408), transient ischaemic attack (6/408), stroke (4/408), angina (4/408), myocardial infarction (3/408) and peripheral obliterative arteriopathy (2/408). The AHC provided a dendrogram with at least three clusters that did not allow us to infer specific differential associations among variables (i.e. CV comorbidity and pSS manifestations). On the other hand, Auto-CM identified two different patterns of distributions in CV risk factors, pSS-related features, and CV events. The first pattern, centered on "non-ischaemic CV events/generic condition of HF", was characterised by the presence of traditional CV risk factors and by a closer link with pSS glandular features rather than to pSS extra-glandular manifestations. The second pattern included "ischaemic neurological, cardiac events and peripheral obliterative arteriopathy" and appeared to be strictly associated with extra-glandular disease activity and longer disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first application of ANNs to the analysis of factors contributing to CV events in pSS. When compared to AHC, ANNs had the advantage of better stratifying CV risk in pSS, opening new avenues for planning specific interventions to prevent long-term CV complications in pSS patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome de Sjogren , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ ; 366: l4009, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of dietary fatty acids with cardiovascular disease mortality and total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 11 264 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). EXPOSURES: Dietary fat intake assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every two to four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2502 deaths including 646 deaths due to cardiovascular disease were documented. After multivariate adjustment, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with a lower cardiovascular disease mortality, compared with total carbohydrates: hazard ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quarter were 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.99; P for trend=0.03) for total PUFAs, 0.69 (0.52 to 0.90; P=0.007) for marine n-3 PUFAs, 1.13 (0.85 to 1.51) for α-linolenic acid, and 0.75 (0.56 to 1.01) for linoleic acid. Inverse associations with total mortality were also observed for intakes of total PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and linoleic acid, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of animal, but not plant, origin were associated with a higher total mortality. In models that examined the theoretical effects of substituting PUFAs for other fats, isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs or linoleic acid was associated with 13% (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.77 to 0.99) or 15% (0.85, 0.73 to 0.99) lower cardiovascular disease mortality, respectively. A 2% replacement of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs was associated with 12% (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.83 to 0.94) lower total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher intake of PUFAs, in comparison with carbohydrates or saturated fatty acids, is associated with lower total mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. These findings highlight the important role of quality of dietary fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and total mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Correlação de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308859

RESUMO

Introduction: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited abnormality of haemoglobin associated with reduced life expectancy. Patients' complications include dyslipideamia. This study was aimed at determining the artherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in sickle cell anaemia patients and compares the value to HbAA controls value. A high AIP is strongly predictive of elevated cardiovascular risk. Methods: A comparative study was conducted among SCA patients attending the haematology clinic, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and HbAA Phenotype controls. A total of 304 participants were recruited consisting of equal numbers of SCA and HbAA controls. Single lipid profiles were done; logarithms of triglycerides/high density lipoprotein were calculated to obtain AIP and lipid profile ratios established for all participants. Results: There were lower mean values of Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) amongst SCD participants than controls and higher mean values of triglycerides (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) in SCD p < 0.05. The AIP in SCD ranges from -0.62 to 1.32 while that of controls ranges from -0.56 to 0.61.The mean AIP were 0.14 ± 0.29 and -0.009 ± 0.26 in SCD and controls respectively. P value = 0.002. Conclusion: AIP value is higher in sickle cell anaemia than controls, the former have lower mean values of TC, HDL and LDL and higher mean values of TG and VLDL.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 804-810, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347337

RESUMO

Mortalities from cardiovascular disease in Korea have decreased markedly over the past three decades. The major cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, however, remain prevalent, and their burden on health is large. The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC) planned a cohort study in order to identify novel risk factors and to develop evidence-based prevention strategies of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The CMERC deliberately designed two prospective cohorts, a community-based general population cohort (the CMERC cohort) and its sister cohort (a hospital-based high-risk patient cohort), covering a broad spectrum of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This paper describes the CMERC cohort study of community-dwelling adults aged 30 to 64 years. A total of 8097 adults completed baseline measurement between 2013 and 2018. Baseline measurements assessed socio-demographic factors, medical history, health-related behaviors, psychological health, social network and support, anthropometry, body composition, and resting blood pressure and comprised electrocardiography, carotid artery ultrasonography, fasting blood analysis, and urinalysis. Both active follow-up through an annual telephone survey and a 5-year on-site health examination survey and passive follow-up through secondary data linkage with national databases, such as national death records, have been applied. Researchers interested in collaborative research may contact the corresponding author.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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