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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 846-854, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate has antioxidant, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. We designed a crossover study aimed at determining if consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) improves lipid profile and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of hemodialysis patients. Forty-one hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: PJ-treated group receiving 100 mL of natural PJ immediately after their dialysis session three times a week and the control group receiving the usual care. After 8 weeks, a 4-week washout period was established and then the role of the groups was exchanged. Lipid profile, blood pressure and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were measured before and after each sequence. RESULTS: Based on the results of intention-to-treat analysis, triglycerides were decreased in PJ condition and increased in the controls. Conversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased in PJ and decreased in the control group. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not significantly change in either condition. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased in PJ condition. Total antioxidant capacity increased in PJ condition (P < 0.001) and decreased in the controls (P < 0.001). Conversely, malondialdehyde and interleukin-6 decreased in PJ (P < 0.001) and increased in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). The changes of these biomarkers were significantly different between the two conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Eight-week PJ consumption showed beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidative stress and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 783-791, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646332

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms widely exist in living organisms, and they are regulated by the biological clock. Growing evidence has shown that circadian rhythms are tightly related to the physiological function of the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure, heart rate, metabolism of cardiomyocytes, function of endothelial cells, and vasoconstriction and vasodilation. In addition, disruption of circadian rhythms has been considered as one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction. This review summarizes the recent research advances in the relationship between circadian clock and cardiovascular diseases, hoping to improve treatment strategies for patients with cardiovascular diseases according to the theory of biological clock.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Pressão Sanguínea , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 517-526, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040109

RESUMO

Patients with mental disorders are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders compared to the general population. Objective: To evaluate cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted at the Psychosocial Care Centers. Socioeconomic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected using a standard form. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the Framingham risk score. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined by the World Health- Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and associations were evaluated by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, as well as Odds Ratio. The significance level adopted for all statistical tests was 5%. Results: The chance of individuals diagnosed with MS be at intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk was greater (12.22, 8.01 and 6.23 times higher according to WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, respectively) than those without MS. Conclusion: A high percentage of patients with mental disorders were at intermediate / high cardiovascular risk, and this was significantly associated with MS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Transtornos Mentais , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Circunferência Abdominal , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , HDL-Colesterol
4.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(5): 233-240, sept.-oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184167

RESUMO

El sedentarismo y la inactividad física son altamente prevalentes globalmente y están asociados a un amplio rango de enfermedades crónicas y muerte prematura. El interés en la conducta sedentaria está justificado por la creciente evidencia que apunta hacia una relación entre esta conducta y el incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad, diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular. A través de la historia es bien conocido que ser inactivo no es saludable, pero hoy día casi un tercio de la población del mundo es inactiva, lo que representa un serio problema de salud pública


Sedentarism and physical inactivity is highly prevalent globally, and are associated with a wide range of chronic diseases and premature deaths. The interest in sedentary behaviour is justified by a growing body of evidence that points to a relationship between this lifestyle and the increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has been known throughout history that being inactive is unhealthy, but nowadays almost one-third of the world's population is inactive, thus representing a major public health problem


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Pública , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Impactos na Saúde
5.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 460-463, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is the basic mechanism leading to many pathological processes, including degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer. We found an interesting link connecting rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis that may explain the high cardiovascular event rate among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but also may lead to a new way of thinking and a better understanding of atherosclerosis. Rheumatoid arthritis could serve as a model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Understanding the basic mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis may solve some of the complexity of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(9): 903-911, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT-2) are a class of oral antidiabetic drugs with a novel specific mode of action in the kidneys. OBJECTIVE: The effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) and renal endpoints in outcome trials with type 2 diabetes patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Differential analysis and interpretation of the results of outcome trials with the SGLT-2 inhibitors empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac adverse events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (HHI), renal endpoints, CV and total mortality vs. placebo in >7000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease over 3.1 years. In the CANVAS program, canagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction of MACE, HHI and renal endpoints vs. placebo in >10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk over 2.4 years. In the CREDENCE trial, canagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction of a combined renal endpoint and CV endpoints vs. placebo in >4000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established kidney disease with albuminuria over 2.6 years. In the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial, dapagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction in a combined endpoint of CV death and HHI vs. placebo in >17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease or with multiple CV risk factors over 3.1 years. CONCLUSION: Outcome trials with SGLT-2 inhibitors have collectively demonstrated cardioprotective and nephroprotective effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk. The use of SGLT-2 inhibitors is recommended in current guidelines and consensus statements as primary combination partners for metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease, high CV risk, heart failure or kidney disease.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 872-879, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378102

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinical kidney measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) do not fully reflect the multiple aspects of kidney tubules influencing cardiovascular health. Applied methods are needed to integrate numerous tubule biomarkers into useful prognostic scores. In SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) participants with chronic kidney disease at baseline (estimated glomerular filtration ratecr&cys <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2), we measured 8 biomarkers from urine (α1M [α1M microglobulin], ß2M [ß2M microglobulin], umod [uromodulin], KIM-1 [kidney injury molecule-1], MCP-1 [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], YKL-40 [chitinase-3-like protein-1], NGAL [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin], and IL-18 [interleukin 18]) and 2 biomarkers from serum (intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23 [intact fibroblast growth factor-23]). We used an unsupervised method, exploratory factor analysis, to create summary scores of tubule health dimensions. Adjusted Cox models evaluated each tubule score with CVD events, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. We examined CVD discrimination using Harrell C-statistic. Factor analysis of 10 biomarkers from 2376 SPRINT-chronic kidney disease participants identified 4 unique dimensions of tubular health: tubule injury/repair (NGAL, IL-18, YKL-40), tubule injury/fibrosis (KIM-1, MCP-1), tubule reabsorption (α1M, ß2M), and tubular reserve/mineral metabolism (umod, intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 2 of the 4 tubule scores were associated with CVD (hazard ratio per SD; reabsorption, 1.21 [1.06-1.38]; reserve, 1.24 (1.08-1.38]), 1 with heart failure (reserve, 1.41 [1.13-1.74]), and none with mortality. Compared with a base model (C-statistic=0.674), adding estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved the C-statistic (C=0.704; P=0.001); further adding tubule scores additionally improved the C-statistic (C=0.719; P=0.009). In the setting of chronic kidney disease, dimensions of tubule health quantified using factor analysis improved CVD discrimination beyond contemporary kidney measures. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 90, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to the increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and CV events associated with migraine, patients with migraine can also present with a number of CV risk factors (CVRFs). Existing treatment options can be limited due to contraindications, increased burden associated with monitoring, or patient avoidance of side effects. Safe and effective migraine treatment options are needed for patients with migraine and a history of CV or cerebrovascular disease or with increased risk for CV events. This analysis was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral lasmiditan, a selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F receptor agonist, in acute treatment of migraine attacks in patients with CVRFs. METHODS: SAMURAI and SPARTAN were similarly designed, Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults treating a single migraine attack with lasmiditan 50, 100, or 200 mg. Both studies included patients with CVRFs, and SPARTAN allowed patients with coronary artery disease, clinically significant arrhythmia, or uncontrolled hypertension. Efficacy and safety of lasmiditan in subgroups of patients with differing levels of CVRFs are reported. For efficacy analyses, logistic regression was used to assess treatment-by-subgroup interactions. For safety analyses, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test of general association evaluated treatment comparisons; Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio assessed significant treatment effects. RESULTS: In this pooled analysis, a total of 4439 patients received ≥1 dose of study drug. A total of 3500 patients (78.8%) had ≥1 CVRF, and 1833 patients (41.3%) had ≥2 CVRFs at baseline. Both trials met the primary endpoints of headache pain freedom and most bothersome symptom freedom at 2 h. The presence of CVRFs did not affect efficacy results. There was a low frequency of likely CV treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) overall (lasmiditan, 30 [0.9%]; placebo, 5 [0.4%]). There was no statistical difference in the frequency of likely CV TEAEs in either the absence or presence of any CVRFs. The only likely CV TEAE seen across patients with ≥1, ≥ 2, ≥ 3, or ≥ 4 CVRFs was palpitations. CONCLUSIONS: When analyzed by the presence of CVRFs, there was no statistical difference in lasmiditan efficacy or the frequency of likely CV TEAEs. Despite the analysis being limited by a single-migraine-attack design, the lack of differences in efficacy and safety with increasing numbers of CVRFs indicates that lasmiditan might be considered in the treatment algorithm for patients with CVRFs. Future studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02439320 (SAMURAI), registered 18 March 2015 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02605174 (SPARTAN), registered 11 November 2015.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Serotonina , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 229-251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413582

RESUMO

Purpose: Left ventricular (LV) mechanics by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is prognostic in patients with cardiovascular diseases, but evidence related to community-dwelling individuals is uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of STE as a predictor of adverse outcomes in the general population. Methods: PRISMA guidelines were followed and MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify eligible studies. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were composite cardiac and cardiovascular end-point. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment Scale was used for quality assessment. Results: Eight papers matched the predefined criteria (total number of individuals studied=11,744). All publications assessed global longitudinal strain (GLS) by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), one assessed circumferential, radial and transverse strains, and one assessed GLS-derived post-systolic shortening. None assessed LV rotational measures in association with outcomes. Two studies reported associations between GLS and all-cause mortality and composite cardiovascular end-point. Six papers reported an association between GLS and composite cardiac end-point, three of which were from the same study. Four papers were suitable for meta-analysis. GLS predicted all-cause mortality (pooled minimally adjusted HR per unit strain (%)=1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.11], p=0.001), and composite cardiovascular (pooled maximally adjusted HR=1.18 [1.09-1.28], p<0.0001) and cardiac (HR=1.08 [1.02-1.14], p=0.006) end-points. GLS also predicted coronary heart disease (HR=1.15 [1.03-1.29], p=0.017) and heart failure (HR=1.07 [1.02-1.13], p=0.012). The quality of all studies was good. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that STE may have utility as a measure of cardiac function and risk in the general population. 2D-STE-based GLS predicts total mortality, major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular end-points in community-dwelling individuals in a limited number of studies. Despite this, this systematic review also highlights important knowledge gaps in the current literature and further evidence is needed regarding the prognostic value of LV mechanics in unselected older populations.Registration number: CRD42018090302.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Contração Miocárdica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 1819-1875, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434538

RESUMO

Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to enable the high-throughput characterization of metabolites from cells, organs, tissues, or biofluids. The rapid growth in metabolomics is leading to a renewed interest in metabolism and the role that small molecule metabolites play in many biological processes. As a result, traditional views of metabolites as being simply the "bricks and mortar" of cells or just the fuel for cellular energetics are being upended. Indeed, metabolites appear to have much more varied and far more important roles as signaling molecules, immune modulators, endogenous toxins, and environmental sensors. This review explores how metabolomics is yielding important new insights into a number of important biological and physiological processes. In particular, a major focus is on illustrating how metabolomics and discoveries made through metabolomics are improving our understanding of both normal physiology and the pathophysiology of many diseases. These discoveries are yielding new insights into how metabolites influence organ function, immune function, nutrient sensing, and gut physiology. Collectively, this work is leading to a much more unified and system-wide perspective of biology wherein metabolites, proteins, and genes are understood to interact synergistically to modify the actions and functions of organelles, organs, and organisms.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(8): e8088, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389489

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of information adjacent on the influence of sex and age in heart rate variability (HRV), adjusted according to accelerometer-based physical activity (PADL). We hypothesized that the effect of sex and age on the HRV should be reduced or absent in individuals with a suitable PADL level. We aim to evaluate the influence of sex and age on HRV, adjusted for the confounding effects of the PADL level. A total of 485 age-stratified subjects (18-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years) underwent HRV analyses at rest and 7-day assessments of accelerometer-based PADL. Multivariate analyses of covariance were done using log-transformed HRV indices as outcomes, age and sex as fixed factors, and PADL, cardiovascular risk, fat body mass, and heart rate (HR) at rest as covariates. Despite the adjustment for directly measured PADL, women had better indices of vagal tone, whereas men had higher sympathetic influence. Also, compared to middle-aged and older adults, younger individuals (ages 18-39 years) presented better HRV. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that age and sex were the main predictors of HRV indices, even after adjusting for PADL directly assessed by triaxial accelerometer and HR. We also observed that the correlation between some HRV indexes and the different indexes of physical activity directly evaluated was significant, but not very consistent. Thus, HRV indices are influenced by age and sex, regardless of accelerometer-based physical activity. Interventions with physical activity and exercise aimed at improving the autonomic modulation of asymptomatic adults should take such differences into account.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 415-422, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424301

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia manifesting as alterations in cognitive abilities, behavior, and deterioration in memory which is progressive, leading to gradual worsening of symptoms. Major pathological features of AD are accumulations of neuronal amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, with early lesions appearing primarily in the hippocampus, the area of the brain involved in memory and learning. Cardiovascular-related risk factors are believed to play a crucial role in disease development and the acceleration of cognitive deterioration by worsening cerebral perfusion, promoting disturbances in amyloid clearance. Current evidence supports hypertension, hypotension, heart failure, stroke and coronary artery diseases as potential factors playing a role in cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Although dementia due to cardiovascular deficits is more strongly linked to the development of vascular dementia, a stepwise decline in cognition, recent researches have also discovered its deleterious influence on AD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
14.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(4): 321-329, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325087

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbility and mortality worldwide. The identification of common cardiovascular risk factors has led to the development of effective treatments that enabled a significant reduction of the global cardiovascular disease burden. However, a significant proportion of cardiovascular risk remains unexplained by these risk factors leaving many individuals at risk of cardiovascular events despite good control of the risk factors. Recent randomized clinical trials and Mendelian randomization studies have suggested that inflammation explains a significant proportion of the residual cardiovascular risk in subjects with good control of risk factors. An accelerated process of vascular ageing is increasingly recognized as a potential mechanism by which inflammation might increase the risk of CVD. In turn, cellular ageing represents an important source of inflammation within the vascular wall, potentially creating a vicious cycle that might promote progression of atherosclerosis, independently from the individual cardiovascular risk factor burden. In this review, we summarise current evidence suggesting a role for biological ageing in CVD and how inflammation might act as a key mediator of this association.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Senescência Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Telômero/genética , Telômero/patologia , Homeostase do Telômero , Encurtamento do Telômero , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 854-861, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257335

RESUMO

The aim of this single-arm pilot study was to determine the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on endothelial function in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases, as well as its safety. A total of 20 elderly patients with stable cardiovascular diseases underwent WBVT, which consisted of five static resistance training exercises (squats, wide stance squats, toe-stands, squats + band, and front lunges). The parameters of WBVT included vertical vibrations, 30 Hz frequency, and a 3-mm peak-to-peak amplitude. Each vibration session lasted 30 seconds, with 120 seconds of rest between sessions. Before and after WBVT, the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry index (RH-PAT index) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2) were recorded as a measure of endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation of pulse oximetry (SpO2) were measured at each rest interval as well as before and after WBVT. All patients completed our WBVT protocol without adverse events. The RH-PAT index significantly increased following WBVT (1.42 to 2.06, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in heart rate (P = 0.777), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.183), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.925), or SpO2 (P = 0.248) during WBVT. In conclusion, we demonstrated the acute effects of WBVT on endothelial function, with no reports of adverse events. These findings support the need for further randomized controlled studies to investigate the long-term effects of WBVT.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Pletismografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vibração
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(6): 408-411, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction, which may predict cardiovascular events in men presenting with this syndrome. It has been shown to be associated with a higher rate of acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality, vascular inflammation, and impaired endothelial function. In this review we present the literature findings and describe the mechanistic pathways that are known to be involved in this syndrome and its related clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16172, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A progressive decline in lean body mass and increase in fat mass occur with aging, and result in progressive weakness and impaired mobility; these features are altogether landmarks of the ageing frailty syndrome. High-fat mass and low muscle mass are both associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and are supposed to be risk factors for arterial stiffness. Little data analyzing the relationship between body composition and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) are currently available. The main objective of this study was to verify whether low muscle mass and/or high fat mass could be associated with arterial stiffness measured by CAVI. METHODS: Data are from the cross-sectional assessment of the "Al passo con la tua salute", a clinical study aimed to promote physical function among free-living elderly subjects.After a screening interview and a clinical visit aimed to exclude ineligible persons, 52 volunteers were enrolled in the study. All underwent: clinical examination, physical performance assessment, an interview on lifestyle and dietary habits, and lastly, a blood sample collection after at least 8 hours of fasting. RESULTS: CAVI was statistically significantly higher in those participants in the highest tertile of distribution for fat mass compared to all other subjects (P = .03). In those participants in the lowest tertile of distribution of muscle mass, compared to all other, CAVI was also statistically significant higher (P = .01) independently of age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Low muscle mass and high fat mass were landmarks in the frailty model of aging; therefore, it is not inconsistent that both clinical conditions might share with the "aging vessel" a common pathway, probably mediated through signaling network deregulation and/or through alteration of the balance between energy availability and energy demand.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético , Rigidez Vascular , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/patologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(8): 675-682, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306049

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance which is characterized by decreased vagal tone. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that increasing vagal activity via vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could protect the heart. Based on these studies, VNS has emerged as a potential non-pharmaceutical treatment strategy. Although it's still difficult to find the optimal stimulus parameters, however, in arrhythmia model, it is reported that low-level VNS (LL-VNS) exacts paradoxical effects from the high-level VNS. Thus, the concept of LL-VNS is introduced. Areas covered: Animal and human studies have discussed the safety and efficacy of VNS and LL-VNS, and this review will discuss the research data in cardiovascular diseases, including atrial arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, and hypertension. Expert opinion: In this regard, various clinical studies have been performed to verify the safety and efficacy of VNS. It is shown that VNS is well-tolerated and safe, but the results of its efficacy are conflicting, which may well block the translational process of VNS. The appearance of LL-VNS brings new idea and inspiration, suggesting an important role of subthreshold stimulation. A better understanding of the LL-VNS will contribute to translational research of VNS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 969-975, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239651

RESUMO

Purpose: Left ventricle (LV)-only pacing is non-inferior to biventricular pacing but permanent fusion pacing is needed to ensure cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) responsiveness. The role of systematic exercise testing (ET) in these patients has not been established. This study was designed to assess clinical and therapeutic implications (device programming/drugs) of systematic ET in patients requiring fusion-pacing CRT without an right ventricle (RV) lead. Methods: Consecutive patients with a right atrium/LV-only dual-chamber (DDD) pacing system were included. Prospective data were obtained: device interrogation, ET, and echocardiography at every 6-month follow-up visit. CRT assessment during ET included maximal heart rate, beat-to-beat echocardiography analysis of LV fusion pacing, LV loss of capture, and improvement in exercise capacity. If LV loss of capture or unsatisfactory LV fusion pacing occurred, reprogramming was individualized for each patient and ET redone. Results: A total of 55 patients (29 male) aged 62±11 years were included. During follow-up (39±18 months), a total of 235 ETs were performed, with mean exercise load 6.4±1.3 metabolic equivalents of task (118±35 W, maximal heart rate 119±17 beats/min). Twenty patients (36%) had inadequate pacing or loss of LV capture during ET, due to exceeding the maximum tracking rate (11%), chronotropic incompetence (7%), and LV pacing outside the fusion-pacing band (18%), caused by physiological shortening of the PR interval or exagerated LV preexcitation during maximum exercise. Post-ET CRT-device optimization included reprogramming of rate-adaptive atrioventricular interval (total decrease 23±8 ms), individualized programming of maximum tracking rate, or rate-response function. Drug optimization was performed in 32% of patients, and ET redone in 36%. Conclusion: In one of three ETs, an intervention in device and medication optimization was done to ensure a better outcome. Routine ET should be a standard approach to maximize fusion-pacing CRT response during follow-up.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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