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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445256

RESUMO

Recent data demonstrate the anabolic effect of oxytocin on bone. Bone cells express oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin promotes osteoblasts differentiation and function, leading to an increased bone formation with no effect on bone resorption and an improvement of bone microarchitecture. Oxytocin is synthetized by osteoblasts, and this synthesis is stimulated by estrogen. Animal studies demonstrate a direct action of oxytocin on bone, as the systemic administration of oxytocin prevents and reverses the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Although oxytocin is involved in bone formation in both sexes during development, oxytocin treatment has no effect on male osteoporosis, underlining the importance of estrogen that amplifies its local autocrine and paracrine secretion. There are few human data showing a decrease in the oxytocin serum level in anorexia nervosa independently of estrogen and in amenorrheic women associated with impaired bone microarchitecture; in post-menopausal women a higher oxytocin serum level is associated with higher bone density, but not in osteoporotic men. Oxytocin displays many effects that may be beneficial in the management of osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive disorders, breast cancer, diabetes and body fat gain, all age-related diseases affecting elderly women, opening exciting therapeutic perspectives, although the issue is to find a single route, dosage and schedule able to reach all these targets.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Caracteres Sexuais , Amenorreia/metabolismo , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Estrogênios/deficiência , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445808

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) is a pivotal and very complex component of healthy aging in the cardiovascular-muscle-bone triad. Low Mg levels and low Mg intake are common in the general aging population and are associated with poorer outcomes than higher levels, including vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, or muscle dysfunction/sarcopenia. While Mg supplementation appears to reverse these processes and benefit the triad, more randomized clinical trials are needed. These will allow improvement of preventive and curative strategies and propose guidelines regarding the pharmaceutical forms and the dosages and durations of treatment in order to optimize and adapt Mg prescription for healthy aging and for older vulnerable persons with comorbidities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento Saudável/metabolismo , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360964

RESUMO

GPR39, a member of the ghrelin family of G protein-coupled receptors, is zinc-responsive and contributes to the regulation of diverse neurovascular and neurologic functions. Accumulating evidence suggests a role as a homeostatic regulator of neuronal excitability, vascular tone, and the immune response. We review GPR39 structure, function, and signaling, including constitutive activity and biased signaling, and summarize its expression pattern in the central nervous system. We further discuss its recognized role in neurovascular, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445477

RESUMO

Mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs) are small peptides hidden in the mitochondrial DNA, maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting cells under different stresses. Currently, three types of MDPs have been identified: Humanin, MOTS-c and SHLP1-6. MDPs have demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress-protecting properties both in vitro and in vivo. Recent research suggests that MDPs have a significant cardioprotective role, affecting CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) development and progression. CVDs are the leading cause of death globally; this term combines disorders of the blood vessels and heart. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in understanding the relationships between MDPs and the main cardiovascular risk factors (atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia and ageing). We also will discuss the therapeutic application of MDPs, modified and synthetic MDPs, and their potential as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445487

RESUMO

Mechanosensitive ion channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system. They translate mechanical forces including shear stress and stretch into biological signals. The most prominent biological signal through which the cardiovascular physiological activity is initiated or maintained are intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+). Growing evidence show that the Ca2+ entry mediated by mechanosensitive ion channels is also precisely regulated by a variety of key proteins which are distributed in the cell membrane or endoplasmic reticulum. Recent studies have revealed that mechanosensitive ion channels can even physically interact with Ca2+ regulatory proteins and these interactions have wide implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Therefore, this paper reviews the cross-talk between mechanosensitive ion channels and some key Ca2+ regulatory proteins in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos
6.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392930

RESUMO

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , NADP/análogos & derivados , NADP/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360530

RESUMO

Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles secreted by most cells that contain a variety of biological molecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. They have been recognized as important mediators for long-distance cell-to-cell communication and are involved in a variety of biological processes. Exosomes have unique advantages, positioning them as highly effective drug delivery tools and providing a distinct means of delivering various therapeutic agents to target cells. In addition, as a new clinical diagnostic biomarker, exosomes play an important role in many aspects of human health and disease, including endocrinology, inflammation, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize the development of exosome-based drug delivery tools and the validation of novel biomarkers, and illustrate the role of exosomes as therapeutic targets in the prevention and treatment of various diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360534

RESUMO

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is maintained in equilibrium in the range of 0.8-1.4 mM Pi. Pi is a source of organic constituents for DNA, RNA, and phospholipids and is essential for ATP formation mainly through energy metabolism or cellular signalling modulators. In mitochondria isolated from the brain, liver, and heart, Pi has been shown to induce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Therefore, the purpose of this review article was to gather relevant experimental records of the production of Pi-induced reactive species, mainly ROS, to examine their essential roles in physiological processes, such as the development of bone and cartilage and the development of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, muscle atrophy, and male reproductive system impairment. Interestingly, in the presence of different antioxidants or inhibitors of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Pi transporters, Pi-induced ROS production can be reversed and may be a possible pharmacological target.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360540

RESUMO

The heart is the first organ to acquire its physiological function during development, enabling it to supply the organism with oxygen and nutrients. Given this early commitment, cardiomyocytes were traditionally considered transcriptionally stable cells fully committed to contractile function. However, growing evidence suggests that the maintenance of cardiac function in health and disease depends on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Several studies have revealed that the complex transcriptional alterations underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) manifestations such as myocardial infarction and hypertrophy is mediated by cardiac retinoid X receptors (RXR) and their partners. RXRs are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and drive essential biological processes such as ion handling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and glucose and lipid metabolism. RXRs are thus attractive molecular targets for the development of effective pharmacological strategies for CVD treatment and prevention. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of RXR partnership biology in cardiac homeostasis and disease, providing an up-to-date view of the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways that sustain cardiomyocyte physiology.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443563

RESUMO

Paeonol is a naturally existing bioactive compound found in the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa and it is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. To date, a great deal of studies has been reported on the pharmacological effects of paeonol and its mechanisms of action in various diseases and conditions. In this review, the underlying mechanism of action of paeonol in cardiovascular disease has been elucidated. Recent studies have revealed that paeonol treatment improved endothelium injury, demoted inflammation, ameliorated oxidative stress, suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and repressed platelet activation. Paeonol has been reported to effectively protect the cardiovascular system either employed alone or in combination with other traditional medicines, thus, signifying it could be a hypothetically alternative or complementary atherosclerosis treatment. This review summarizes the biological and pharmacological activities of paeonol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and its associated underlying mechanisms for a better insight for future clinical practices.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371852

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies have investigated the association of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. However, the results were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to quantitatively evaluate the association between marine n-3 PUFA, fish and CVD mortality risk with prospective cohort studies. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and MEDLINE databases from the establishment of the database to May 2021. A total of 25 cohort studies were included with 2,027,512 participants and 103,734 CVD deaths. The results indicated that the fish consumption was inversely associated with the CVD mortality risk [relevant risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.85-0.98]. The higher marine n-3 PUFA intake was associated with the reduced risk of CVD mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.89). Dose-response analysis suggested that the risk of CVD mortality was decreased by 4% with an increase of 20 g of fish intake (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) or 80 milligrams of marine n-3 PUFA intake (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98) per day. The current work provides evidence that the intake of fish and marine n-3 PUFA are inversely associated with the risk of CVD mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Marinhos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Peixes , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372552

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 disease has emerged expeditiously in the world and has been declared pandemic since March 2020, by World Health Organization (WHO). The destructive effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are increased among the patients with pre-existing chronic conditions and, in particular, this review focuses on patients with underlying cardiovascular complications. The expression pattern and potential functions of SARS-CoV-2 binding receptors and the attributes of SARS-CoV-2 virus tropism in a physio-pathological state of heart and blood vessel are precisely described. Of note, the atheroprotective role of ACE2 receptors is reviewed. A detailed description of the possible detrimental role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in terms of vascular leakage, including endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction and bradykinin 1 receptor stimulation is concisely stated. Furthermore, the potential molecular mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 induced clot formation in association with host defense components, including activation of FXIIa, complements and platelets, endothelial dysfunction, immune cell responses with cytokine-mediated action are well elaborated. Moreover, a brief clinical update on patient with COVID-19 disease with underlying cardiovascular complications and those who had new onset of cardiovascular complications post-COVID-19 disease was also discussed. Taken together, this review provides an overview of the mechanistic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 induced devastating effects, in vital organs such as the heart and vessels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Coração/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359938

RESUMO

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein transporting hormones in the plasma and brain, which has many other activities that have not been fully acknowledged. TTR is a positive indicator of nutrition status and is negatively correlated with inflammation. TTR is a neuroprotective and oxidative-stress-suppressing factor. The TTR structure is destabilized by mutations, oxidative modifications, aging, proteolysis, and metal cations, including Ca2+. Destabilized TTR molecules form amyloid deposits, resulting in senile and familial amyloidopathies. This review links structural stability of TTR with the environmental factors, particularly oxidative stress and Ca2+, and the processes involved in the pathogenesis of TTR-related diseases. The roles of TTR in biomineralization, calcification, and osteoarticular and cardiovascular diseases are broadly discussed. The association of TTR-related diseases and vascular and ligament tissue calcification with TTR levels and TTR structure is presented. It is indicated that unaggregated TTR and TTR amyloid are bound by vicious cycles, and that TTR may have an as yet undetermined role(s) at the crossroads of calcification, blood coagulation, and immune response.


Assuntos
Artrite/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Amiloide/química , Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pré-Albumina/química , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111888, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237598

RESUMO

Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa L., is a fat-soluble natural compound that can be obtained from ginger plant tuber roots, which accumulative evidences have demonstrated that it can resist viral and microbial infection and has anti-tumor, reduction of blood lipid and blood glucose, antioxidant and removal of free radicals, and is active against numerous disorders various chronic diseases including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In this article is highlighted the recent evidence of curcuminoids applied in sevral aspects of medical problem particular in COVID-19 pandemics. We have searched several literature databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website via using curcumin and medicinal properties as a keyword. All studies published from the time when the database was established to May 2021 was retrieved. This review article summarizes the growing confirmation for the mechanisms related to curcumin's physiological and pharmacological effects with related target proteins interaction via molecular docking. The purpose is to provide deeper insight and understandings of curcumin's medicinal value in the discovery and development of new drugs. Curcumin could be used in the prevention or therapy of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, infection, and inflammation based on cellular biochemical, physiological regulation, infection suppression and immunomodulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2357-2369, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196216

RESUMO

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a dynamic process in which endothelial cells suppress constituent endothelial properties and take on mesenchymal cell behaviors. To begin the process, endothelial cells loosen their cell-cell junctions, degrade the basement membrane, and migrate out into the perivascular surroundings. These initial endothelial behaviors reflect a transient modulation of cellular phenotype, that is, a phenotypic modulation, that is sometimes referred to as partial endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Loosening of endothelial junctions and migration are also seen in inflammatory and angiogenic settings such that endothelial cells initiating endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition have overlapping behaviors and gene expression with endothelial cells responding to inflammatory signals or sprouting to form new blood vessels. Reduced endothelial junctions increase permeability, which facilitates leukocyte trafficking, whereas endothelial migration precedes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization; both endothelial barriers and quiescence are restored as inflammatory and angiogenic stimuli subside. Complete endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition proceeds beyond phenotypic modulation such that mesenchymal characteristics become prominent and endothelial functions diminish. In proadaptive, regenerative settings the new mesenchymal cells produce extracellular matrix and contribute to tissue integrity whereas in maladaptive, pathologic settings the new mesenchymal cells become fibrotic, overproducing matrix to cause tissue stiffness, which eventually impacts function. Here we will review what is known about how TGF (transforming growth factor) ß influences this continuum from junctional loosening to cellular migration and its relevance to cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Movimento Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Life Sci ; 283: 119851, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324916

RESUMO

Sleep disorders frequently comorbid with several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), attracting increasing scientific attention and interest. Sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, etc. It is well known that inflammation, sympathetic activation, and endothelial dysfunction play critical roles in sleep disorders, all of which are predisposing factors for CVDs. The comorbidity of sleep disorders and CVDs may have a bidirectional relationship. Patients with CVDs may have a high incidence of sleep disorders and vice versa. This review focused on the comorbidity of sleep disorders and CVDs and discussed the potential pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. In addition to the existing mechanisms, this review summarized novel potential mechanisms underlying comorbidities, such as gut microbiota, orexin, and extracellular vesicles, which may provide a theoretical basis for further basic research and clinical investigations on improving therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Orexinas/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/microbiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
17.
Cell Signal ; 86: 110092, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303814

RESUMO

Cell surface receptors including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play quintessential roles in physiology, and in diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. While downstream signaling from these individual receptor families has been well studied, the cross-talk between EGF and GPCR receptor families is still incompletely understood. Including members of both receptor families, the number of receptor and ligand combinations for unique interactions is vast, offering a frontier of pharmacologic targets to explore for preventing and treating disease. This molecular cross-talk, called receptor transactivation, is reviewed here with a focus on the cardiovascular system featuring the well-studied GPCR receptors, but also discussing less-studied receptors from both families for a broad understanding of context of expansile interactions, repertoire of cellular signaling, and disease consequences. Attention is given to cell type, level of chronicity, and disease context given that transactivation and comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, coronavirus infection, impact cardiovascular disease and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Isoproterenol/química , Isoproterenol/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 14 da Matriz/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Transdução de Sinais , Ativação Transcricional
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207498

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a global health burden that greatly impact patient quality of life and account for a huge number of deaths worldwide. Despite current therapies, several side effects have been reported that compromise patient adherence; thus, affecting therapeutic benefits. In this context, plant metabolites, namely volatile extracts and compounds, have emerged as promising therapeutic agents. Indeed, these compounds, in addition to having beneficial bioactivities, are generally more amenable and present less side effects, allowing better patient tolerance. The present review is an updated compilation of the studies carried out in the last 20 years on the beneficial potential of essential oils, and their compounds, against major risk factors of CVDs. Overall, these metabolites show beneficial potential through a direct effect on these risk factors, namely hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes, or by acting on related targets, or exerting general cellular protection. In general, monoterpenic compounds are the most studied regarding hypotensive and anti-dyslipidemic/antidiabetic properties, whereas phenylpropanoids are very effective at avoiding platelet aggregation. Despite the number of studies performed, clinical trials are sparse and several aspects related to essential oil's features, namely volatility and chemical variability, need to be considered in order to guarantee their efficacy in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/patologia , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299108

RESUMO

Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown that low levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) [...].


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Adv Clin Chem ; 103: 215-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229851

RESUMO

The measurement of cardiac troponin (cTn) is recommended by all guidelines as the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes. The aim of this review is to discuss in details some key issues regarding both analytical and clinical characteristics of the high-sensitivity methods for cTn (hs-cTn), which are still considered controversial or unresolved. In particular, the major clinical concern regarding hs-cTn methods is the difficulty to differentiate the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for biomarker release from cardiomyocytes after reversible or irreversible injury, respectively. Indeed, recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that different circulating forms of cTnI and cTnT can be respectively measured in plasma samples of patients with reversible or irreversible myocardial injury. Accordingly, a new generation of hs-Tn methods should be set up, based on immunometric immunoassays or chromatographic techniques, specific for circulating peptide forms more characteristics for reversible or irreversible myocardial injury. It is conceivable that this new generation of hs-cTn methods will complete the mission regarding the laboratory tests for specific cardiac biomarkers, started more than 20 years ago, which has already revolutionized the diagnosis, prognosis and management of patients with cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Imunoensaio/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Troponina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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