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1.
BMJ ; 366: l5125, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment reduce persistent cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. DESIGN: Propensity matched cohort study. SETTING: Population based cohort in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: 29 771 adults with metabolic syndrome (≥40 years) receiving statin treatment. 2156 participants receiving combined treatment (statin plus fenofibrate) were weighted based on propensity score in a 1:5 ratio with 8549 participants using statin only treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was composite cardiovascular events including incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: The incidence rate per 1000 person years of composite cardiovascular events was 17.7 (95% confidence interval 14.4 to 21.8) in the combined treatment group and 22.0 (20.1 to 24.1) in the statin group. The risk of composite cardiovascular events was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group compared with statin group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.93; P=0.01). The significance was maintained in the on-treatment analysis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.02). The risk of incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and cardiovascular death was lower in the combined treatment group than statin group but was not significant. Participant characteristics did not appear to be associated with the low risk of composite cardiovascular events with combined treatment. CONCLUSION: In this propensity weighted cohort study of adults with metabolic syndrome, the risk of major cardiovascular events was significantly lower with fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment than with statin treatment alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17095, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in stroke risk has been investigated, however, the available results are inconclusive and conflicting. The purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of folic acid in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: By searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate effect of folic acid supplementation in patients with CVD. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were summarized; hazard ratios (HR), the relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Fixed effects models were used to combine the data. A total of 12 randomized controlled trials, which involved 47,523 participants, met the inclusion criteria in this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis showed that cardiovascular patients who received folic acid therapy had significantly decreased risk of stroke (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94, Pheterogeneity = .347, I = 10.6%) compared with patients who received control treatment. However, no significant difference in all-cause mortality (HR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.86-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .315, I = 15.4%), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.66-1.15, Pheterogeneity = .567, I = 0) and risk of CHD (RR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.99-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .725, I = 0) were found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke in patients with CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448023

RESUMO

Introduction: Mortality in patients with chronic renal failure is high compared to the general population. The objective of our study is to evaluate the predictive factors related to mortality in hemodialysis. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving 126 hemodialysis patients in the Nephrology Department of Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca. Data were collected between January 2012 and January 2016. For each of our patients, we analyzed demographic, clinical, biological and anthropometric data. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to evaluate and compare survival curves. To evaluate the effect of predictors of mortality, we used the proportional Cox hazard model. Results: The analysis of the results showed that the surviving patients were younger than the deceased patients (43.07±13.52 years versus 53.09±13.56 years, p=0.001). Also, the latter has a significantly lower albumin and prealbumin levels (p=0.01 and p=0.04 respectively). Overall survival was 80.2%. Cox regression analysis at age (HR=1.26, p<0.0002), inflammation (HR=1.15, p<0.03), AIP> 0.24 (HR=2.1, p<0.002) and cardiovascular disease (RR=2.91, p<0.001) were associated with global and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Our study showed that the mortality rate is high in our cohort. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, under nutrition and inflammation are predictive factors for mortality. Treatment and early management of these factors are essential for reducing morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393346

RESUMO

Validated risk scoring systems in African American (AA) population are under studied. We utilized history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and initial troponin (HEART) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in non-high cardiovascular (CV) risk predominantly AA patient population.A retrospective emergency department (ED) charts review of 1266 chest pain patients where HEART and TIMI scores were calculated for each patient. Logistic regression model was computed to predict 6-week and 1-year MACE and 90-day cardiac readmission. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was constructed to differentiate between clinical strategies in non-high CV risk patients.Of the 817 patients included, 500 patients had low HEART score vs. 317 patients who had moderate HEART score. Six hundred sixty-three patients had low TIMI score vs. 154 patients had high TIMI score. The univariate logistic regression model shows odds ratio of predicting 6-week MACE using HEART score was 3.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-6.76, P = .004) with increase in risk category from low to moderate vs. 2.07 (95% CI 1.18-3.63, P = .011) using TIMI score with increase in risk category from low to high and c-statistic of 0.86 vs. 0.79, respectively. DCA showed net benefit of using HEART score is equally predictive of 6-week MACE when compared to TIMI.In non-high CV risk AA patients, HEART score is better predictive tool for 6-week MACE when compared to TIMI score. Furthermore, patients presenting to ED with chest pain, the optimal strategy for a 2% to 4% miss rate threshold probability should be to discharge these patients from the ED.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Dor no Peito/etnologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dor no Peito/mortalidade , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina/sangue
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16767, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393396

RESUMO

There are limited long-term outcome data comparing BioLinx polymer (B)-zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) with phosphorylcholine polymer (P)-ZES. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of B-ZES with P-ZES in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during a 3-year follow-up period.One thousand two hundred fifty four patients who underwent PCI with P-ZES (Endeavor [ZES-E] or Endeavor sprint [ZES-S], n = 356) or B-ZES (Endeavor resolute [ZES-R] or Resolute Integrity [ZES-I], n = 889) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE); the composite of total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), non-target vessel revascularization (Non-TVR), and the secondary endpoint was stent thrombosis (ST).After PSM, 2 propensity-matched (PSM) groups (275 pairs, n = 550, C-statistic = 0.730) were generated. During the 3-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.525; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.920-2.526; P = .101) and ST (HR, 1.248; 95% CI, 0.335-4.4649; P = .741) were similar between P-ZES and B-ZES after PSM. However, TLR rate was significantly higher in ZES-S than ZES-I (11.3% vs 3.8%, log rank P = .029) and TVR rate was higher in ZES-S than ZES-R (14.1% vs 4.8%, log rank P = .025).In this single-center, all-comer registry, despite different polymers, P-ZES, and B-ZES showed comparable safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up period after PCI.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fosforilcolina/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Polímeros , Pontuação de Propensão , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16781, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393403

RESUMO

In this single-center, retrospective study, we aimed to compare early and late outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) between younger and elderly patients and to investigate the impact of patient age on the overall incidence of cardiovascular events after CEA.A total of 613 patients with 675 CEAs between January 2007 and December 2014 were stratified by patient age into 2 groups: younger (≤60 years, n = 103 CEAs, 15.3%) and elderly (>60 years, n = 572 CEAs, 84.7%) groups. The study outcomes were defined as the occurrence of major adverse events (MAEs), including fatal or nonfatal stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), or any-cause mortality, and overall cardiovascular events (meaning the composite incidence of stroke or MI) during the perioperative period and within 4 years after CEA.Although there were no significant differences in the incidence of 30-day MAEs and any of the individual MAE manifestations between the 2 groups, the differences in the MAE incidence (P = .006) and any-cause mortality (P = .023) within 4 years after CEA were significantly greater in patients in the elderly group. For overall incidence of cardiovascular events, no significant difference was noted between the 2 groups (P = .096). On multivariate analysis, older age (>60 years) did not affect the incidence of perioperative MAEs and individual MAE manifestations; however, older age was significantly associated with an increased risk of 4-year MAEs (hazard ratio [HR], 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-10.0; P = .011) and any-cause mortality (HR, 3.26, 95% CI, 1.02-10.5; P = .047). With regard to the 4-year overall incidence of cardiovascular events, older age was not an independent predictor of increased risk of these cardiovascular events.Our study indicates that the risks of perioperative MAEs and the 4-year overall incidence of cardiovascular events do not significantly differ between younger and elderly Korean patients undergoing CEA, although there was a higher risk of 4-year any-cause mortality in the elderly patients. Older age does not appear to be an independent risk factor for perioperative MAEs and overall cardiovascular events within 4 years after CEA.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 229-251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413582

RESUMO

Purpose: Left ventricular (LV) mechanics by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is prognostic in patients with cardiovascular diseases, but evidence related to community-dwelling individuals is uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of STE as a predictor of adverse outcomes in the general population. Methods: PRISMA guidelines were followed and MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify eligible studies. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were composite cardiac and cardiovascular end-point. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment Scale was used for quality assessment. Results: Eight papers matched the predefined criteria (total number of individuals studied=11,744). All publications assessed global longitudinal strain (GLS) by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), one assessed circumferential, radial and transverse strains, and one assessed GLS-derived post-systolic shortening. None assessed LV rotational measures in association with outcomes. Two studies reported associations between GLS and all-cause mortality and composite cardiovascular end-point. Six papers reported an association between GLS and composite cardiac end-point, three of which were from the same study. Four papers were suitable for meta-analysis. GLS predicted all-cause mortality (pooled minimally adjusted HR per unit strain (%)=1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.11], p=0.001), and composite cardiovascular (pooled maximally adjusted HR=1.18 [1.09-1.28], p<0.0001) and cardiac (HR=1.08 [1.02-1.14], p=0.006) end-points. GLS also predicted coronary heart disease (HR=1.15 [1.03-1.29], p=0.017) and heart failure (HR=1.07 [1.02-1.13], p=0.012). The quality of all studies was good. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that STE may have utility as a measure of cardiac function and risk in the general population. 2D-STE-based GLS predicts total mortality, major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular end-points in community-dwelling individuals in a limited number of studies. Despite this, this systematic review also highlights important knowledge gaps in the current literature and further evidence is needed regarding the prognostic value of LV mechanics in unselected older populations.Registration number: CRD42018090302.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Contração Miocárdica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16733, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441845

RESUMO

Lower circulating vitamin D is common in older adults and may be a potential reversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults, however, presented controversial results.Database was searched update to February 2018. Key data were extracted from eligible studies. Dose-response meta-analysis were conducted for synthesizing data from eligible studies.A total of 13 eligible studies involving 21,079 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Person with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (25 (OH)D level <50 nmol/L) appeared to have higher mortality of CVD in older adults (RR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.24-1.91). Furthermore, a significantly higher mortality of CVD in older adults was observed for the deficient (<25 nmol/L; RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.15-1.81) and insufficient (25-50 nmol/L; RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.27) categories of 25 (OH)D, compared to the reference category of >75 nmol/L. Additionally, decrease of 10 nmol/L 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with a 7% incremental in the risk of CVD mortality in older adults.Considering these promising results, circulating vitamin D is associated with CVD mortality increment in older adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 391-395, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012351

RESUMO

Prior statements have recommended restriction from competitive sports participation for all athletes with ICDs. Recent data, however, suggests that many athletes can participate in sports without adverse events. In the ICD Sports Registry, 440 athletes, aged 8-60 years, 77 of which were high-level interscholastic athletes, who had continued to practice sports, were prospectively followed for 4 years, with no deaths or failures to defibrillate during practice, and no injuries related to arrhythmia or shock during sports. Shocks did occur, for ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. While more athletes received shocks during physical activity than at rest, there were no differences between competition or practice, versus other physical activity. Programming with higher rate cut-offs and longer durations was associated with fewer inappropriate shocks, with no increase in syncope. Based on this study, current recommendations now state that returning to competition may be considered for an athlete with an ICD. In considering this decision, the underlying disease and type of sport should be discussed, and shared decision-making between doctor, patient, and often family, is critical


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esportes , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Atletas , Qualidade de Vida , Esportes , Síncope , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exercício , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia/métodos
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 343-354, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012341

RESUMO

Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is an important prognostic marker and its classification helps the cardiologist in the therapeutic decision-making process. The most commonly used cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification has not been validated for the Brazilian population. Objective: To elaborate a CRF classification using a Brazilian sample and to compare it with the American Heart Association (AHA), Cooper and UNIFESP classifications. Methods: A total of 6,568 healthy subjects were analyzed through cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). They were distributed by sex and the following age groups (years): 7-12, 13-19, 20-79 (per decades) and > 80 years. After measurement of the VO2peak, participants were distributed into quintiles of CRF in very poor, poor, moderate, high and very high (AEMA Table). The CRF classifications by AEMA, AHA, Cooper, and UNIFESP were compared using the Wilcoxon, Kappa and concordance percentages. Results: VO2peak presented an inverse and moderate correlation with age considering both sexes (R = -0.488, p < 0.001). All paired comparisons between CRF classification systems showed differences (p < 0.001) and disagreement percentage - AEMA versus AHA (k = 0.291, 56.7%), AEMA versus Cooper (k = 0.220, 62.4%) and AEMA versus UNIFESP (k = 0.201, 63.9 %). Conclusion: The AEMA table showed important discrepancies in the classification of CRF when compared to other tables widely used in our setting. Because it was obtained from a large sample of the Brazilian population, the AEMA table should be preferred over other classification systems in our population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Amostragem , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exercício , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Estatística , Fatores Etários , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Saúde da População
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 900, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity improves overall health, and has the capacity to reduce risk of chronic diseases and death. However, better understanding of the relationship between multiple lifestyle risk behaviours and disease outcomes is pertinent for prioritising public health messaging. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the association between physical inactivity in combination with additional lifestyle risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol, diet, or sedentary behaviour) for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Register from 1 January 2010 to 12 December 2017, for longitudinal observational studies of adults (18+ years) in the general population with a publication date of 2010 onwards and no language restriction. Main exposure variables had to include a physical activity measure plus at least one other lifestyle risk factor. In total, 25,639 studies were identified. Titles, abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened for eligibility. Data was extracted and quality assessment was completed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Across the 25 eligible studies, those participants who reported being physically active combined with achieving other health behaviour goals compared to those who were categorised as physically inactive and did not achieve other positive lifestyle goals, were at least half as likely to experience an incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) event, die from CVD, or die from any cause. These findings were consistent across participant age, sex, and study length of follow-up, and even after excluding lower quality studies. We also observed a similar trend among the few studies which were restricted to cancer outcomes. Most studies did not consider epidemiological challenges that may bias findings, such as residual confounding, reverse causality by pre-existing disease, and measurement error from self-report data. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of physical activity in combination with other positive lifestyle choices is associated with better health outcomes. Applying new approaches to studying the complex relationships between multiple behavioural risk factors, including physical activity, should be a priority.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 996-1004, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the relationship between temperature and cardiovascular mortality in middle and low-income countries, particularly in Latin America. In this study, we investigated the total effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in 27 Brazilian cities, and the effect modification by geographic, socioeconomic, demographic and infrastructure characteristics within cities. METHODS: In the city-specific analysis, we used time-series analyses to estimate the relationship between mean temperature and daily cardiovascular mortality using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models combined with distributed lag non-linear models. In the second stage, a meta-analysis was used to pool the effects of temperature on cardiovascular mortality for Brazil and its five regions (Central-West, North, Northeast, South, and Southeast). We used a meta-regression to examine the effect modification of city-specific geographic, socioeconomic, demographic and infrastructure-related variables. RESULTS: The risks associated with temperature varied across the locations. Higher cardiovascular mortality was associated with low and high temperatures in most of the cities, Brazil and the Central-West, North, South, and Southeast regions. The overall relative risk (RR) for Brazil was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.35) for the 1st percentile of temperature and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01-1.13) for the 99th percentile of temperature versus the 79th percentile (27.7 °C), where RR was lowest. The temperature range was the variable that best explained the variation in effects among the cities, with greater effects in locations having a broader range. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate effects of low and high temperatures on the risk of cardiovascular mortality in most of Brazil's capital cities, besides a pooled effect for Brazil and the Central-West, North, South, and Southeast regions. These findings can help inform public policies addressing the health impact of temperature extremes, especially in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos
16.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(4): 283-291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of aspirin as a means of primary prevention remains controversial. AIM: We have conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the role of aspirin in primary prevention. METHODS: Literature search was performed via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for all related RCTs. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular events, and bleeding events. We used a random effects model to report the risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Our analysis included 17 RCTs (164,862 patients; 83,309 received aspirin and 81,744 received placebo). Our study did not demonstrate any significant reduction in all-cause mortality for patients treated with aspirin when compared with placebo (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P = 0.13). Sensitivity analysis performed by excluding healthy elderly (≥ 65) showed significant reductions in all-cause mortality in the aspirin-treated patients (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.99; P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). However, aspirin-treated patients significantly reduced MACE and MI events (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93; P < 0.001 and RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.98; P = 0.02, respectively), respectively. However, aspirin was associated with a significantly higher incidence of bleeding, including major bleeding and intracranial bleeding (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use in primary prevention has resulted in a lower incidence of MACE and MI without significantly effecting cerebrovascular events. However, aspirin was associated with a higher bleeding risk. Use of aspirin as a means of primary prevention should be thoroughly discussed with patients and pursued based on the risk of cardiovascular disease while also considering bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(4): 263-272, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313082

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous report showed that more intensive lipid-lowering therapy was associated with less mortality when baseline LDL-C levels were > 100 mg/dL. Non-HDL-C is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than simpler LDL-C. AIM: The objective of this meta-analysis was to define the impact of lipid-lowering therapy on the reduction of total and cardiovascular mortality by different baseline levels of non-HDL-C. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis including randomized, controlled clinical trials of lipid-lowering therapy, reporting mortality with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up, searching in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Clinical Trials databases. The random-effects model and meta-regression were performed. RESULTS: Twenty nine trials of lipid-lowering drugs, including 233,027 patients, were considered eligible for the analyses. According to the baseline non-HDL-C level, the results on cardiovascular mortality were: (1) ≥ 190 mg/dL: OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.53-0.76); (2) 160-189 mg/dL: OR 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89); (3) 130-159 mg/dL: OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.52-0.98); (4) < 130 mg/dL: OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). When evaluating mortality from any cause, the results were the following: (1) ≥ 190 mg/dL: OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.82); (2) 160-189 mg/dL: OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.98); (3) 130-159 mg/dL; OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-1.00); (4) < 130 mg/dL: OR 0.98 (95% CI 0.91-1.06). The meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between baseline non-HDL-C and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In these meta-analyses, lipid-lowering therapy was associated with reduction in the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when baseline non-HDL-C levels were above than 130 mg/dL.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(8): 771-780, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269825

RESUMO

Introduction: The current approach of using only antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention leaves a substantial risk of recurrent cardiovascular complications and mortality. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the role of coagulation in atherothrombosis is reviewed, as well as the impact of vascular doses of rivaroxaban on major cardiovascular outcomes and major adverse limb events. Expert opinion: In COMPASS, among patients with coronary heart disease and/or peripheral artery disease, compared to aspirin, the addition of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily to aspirin, significantly reduced the risk of major atherosclerotic outcomes, cardiovascular death and death for any cause, with a significant increase in the risk of major bleeding, but not fatal or intracranial bleedings. Preclinical data strongly suggest that rivaroxaban exerts vascular protection through different mechanisms, including improvement of endothelial functionality and fibrinolytic activity at endothelium, anti-inflammatory properties, and platelet-dependent thrombin generation. All these data indicate that among patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease, the addition of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg may provide further vascular protection.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
19.
BMJ ; 366: l4009, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of dietary fatty acids with cardiovascular disease mortality and total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 11 264 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). EXPOSURES: Dietary fat intake assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every two to four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2502 deaths including 646 deaths due to cardiovascular disease were documented. After multivariate adjustment, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with a lower cardiovascular disease mortality, compared with total carbohydrates: hazard ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quarter were 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.99; P for trend=0.03) for total PUFAs, 0.69 (0.52 to 0.90; P=0.007) for marine n-3 PUFAs, 1.13 (0.85 to 1.51) for α-linolenic acid, and 0.75 (0.56 to 1.01) for linoleic acid. Inverse associations with total mortality were also observed for intakes of total PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and linoleic acid, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of animal, but not plant, origin were associated with a higher total mortality. In models that examined the theoretical effects of substituting PUFAs for other fats, isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs or linoleic acid was associated with 13% (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.77 to 0.99) or 15% (0.85, 0.73 to 0.99) lower cardiovascular disease mortality, respectively. A 2% replacement of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs was associated with 12% (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.83 to 0.94) lower total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher intake of PUFAs, in comparison with carbohydrates or saturated fatty acids, is associated with lower total mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. These findings highlight the important role of quality of dietary fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and total mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Correlação de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16340, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277187

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by dialysis. Pulse pressure (PP) as an independent prognostic factor of cardiovascular risk might be clinically implicated in predicting the short-term deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in ESRD patients. This study aimed to investigate the dose-response association between PP and risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients initializing peritoneal dialysis (PD). All patients registered with the Henan Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (HPDR) between 2007 and 2014 were incorporated in the current cohort study. PP was assessed by the date of initialisation of PD and cardiovascular mortality in 2 years after the initialisation of PD was defined as the outcome. All accessible clinical measurements were screened as covariables. Further dose-response relationships between PP and risks were explored using spline models. There was a non-linear relationship between PP and the risk of 2-year death for a cardiovascular diseases (P <.001 for linearity test). The PP associated with the lowest risk of cardiovascular mortality was 61 (95% CI 56-64) mmHg. In ESRD patients initializing PD, PP is a good prognostic factor of risk of short-term cardiovascular mortality. The risk is lowest with a PP of 56 to 64 mmHg.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
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