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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18540, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895791

RESUMO

Infection with influenza virus increases morbidity and mortality in patients with risk factors, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in Korean CVD patients.We included 19,599 adults from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Influenza vaccination rates were compared in subjects with and without CVD. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean adults with CVD before and after stratification for age (<65 and ≥65 years).Significantly higher vaccination rates were observed in individuals with CVD than in those without CVD (61.4% vs 31.0%, P < .001). However, young individuals (19-49 years) had decreased influenza vaccination rates, with no difference based on CVD status (20.3% vs 21.6%, P = .859). A lack of private insurance (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.98) and recent health screening (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.90-10.92) were independent factors for influenza vaccination in CVD patients aged <65 years, whereas female sex (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.24-11.07) and less education (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.27-16.61) were independent factors in CVD patients aged ≥65 years.Improving influenza vaccination coverage for Korean adults with CVD is important, especially in young patients. For young patients with CVD, influenza vaccination status is independently associated with the presence of private insurance and recent health screening. This finding could help establish public health policies to promote influenza vaccination in this population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Microb Pathog ; 134: 103578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175973

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial life-threatening disease which an epidemiologic study in Northeastern Iran showed its association with HTLV-1 infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of 39 newly diagnosed subjects with angiography test in three groups including 14 coronary artery disease+HTLV-1+ (CAD+HTLV-1+), 8 CAD-HTLV-1+, and 17 CAD+HTLV-1- patients and 11 healthy subjects (CAD-HTLV-1-) were conducted. In the present study, Tax and proviral load (PVL) as HTLV-1 virulence factors, along with host chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), and CCR2 were investigated. Real-time PCR TaqMan method was carried out for PVL measurement and HTLV-1-Tax, CCR1, and CCR2 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, the main risk factors, lipid profile, and complete blood count (CBC) were assessed. Expression of CCR1 in CAD+HTLV-1+ group was higher than CAD-HTLV-1+ (P = 0.01) and healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Expression of CCR1 in CAD+HTLV-1+ was higher in comparison with CAD+HTLV-1-group but did not meet 95% CI (P = 0.02), but meaningful at 91% CI. In addition, expression of CCR2 in CAD+HTLV-1+ subjects was higher than CAD-HTLV-1+ and CAD+HTLV-1- (P = 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). In CAD+HTLV-1- subjects, CCR2 was higher than CAD-HTLV-1+ (P = 0.03). The mean PVL in CAD+HTLV-1+ group is more than CAD-HTLV-1+ (P = 0.041). In HTLV-1+ patients Tax had a positive correlation with cholesterol (R = 0.59, P = 0.01), LDL (R = 0.79, P = 0.004) and a negative correlation with HDL (R = -0.47, P = 0.04). These correlations were stronger in CAD+HTLV-1+. Findings showed that HTLV-1 could alter the expression of CCR2 and, less effect, on CCR1. Moreover, the strong correlation between CCR2 and HTLV-1-Tax with cholesterol, LDL and HDL showed that Tax as the main HTLV-1 virulence factor in cytokine deregulation might be had indirect effects on cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/virologia , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Provírus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores CCR1/sangue , Receptores CCR1/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/sangue , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Fatores de Virulência
3.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 47(3): 105-110, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018721

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis C virus-infected patients are found to have increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality. However, the effect of treatment on cardiovascular risk remains unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) on cardiovascular outcome in chronic HCV-infected patients. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases from inception through November 2018 to identify studies that assessed the effect of SVR on CVDs. Effect estimates from the individual study were extracted and combined using random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: Seven cohort studies with a total of 53,841 HCV-infected patients with average follow-up time of 5 years were enrolled. When compared with HCV-infected patients who do not achieve SVR, patients with SVR have a reduced risk of overall CVDs with the pooled hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.94). Egger's regression asymmetry test was performed and showed no publication bias. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a significant association between SVR after HCV treatment and reduced risk of overall CVDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Circ Res ; 124(5): 747-756, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727837

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Until now, no cohort studies have evaluated the relationship between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and new-onset cardiovascular diseases (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We investigated an association between high-risk HPV infection and the development of CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cohort study of 63 411 women aged 30 or older without CVD at baseline who underwent a high-risk HPV test and were followed annually or biennially from 2011 to 2016. CVD was ascertained through the linkage to the Health Insurance and Review Agency database. A Cox-proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of incident CVD. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 7.6%. During 261 598.9 person-years of follow-up, 1122 cases of new-onset CVD were identified (incidence rate of 4.3 per 103 person-years). High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with incident CVD. After adjustment for possible confounders, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, a significant association between high-risk HPV infection and incident CVD was still observed, with a corresponding HR (95% CI) of 1.25 (1.03-1.52). This association was stronger among individuals with obesity and those with metabolic syndrome. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for incident CVD comparing high-risk HPV-positive- to high-risk HPV-negative participants was 1.10 (0.87-1.39) in the nonobese, whereas corresponding HR (95% CI) was 1.73 (1.19-2.51) in those with obesity ( P for interaction by obesity=0.02). Similarly, multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for incident CVD comparing high-risk HPV-positive- to high-risk HPV-negative participants was 1.09 (0.87-1.36) in those without metabolic syndrome and 1.99 (1.28-3.08) in those with MetS ( P for interaction=0.05). CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, high-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CVD, especially in obese individuals and those with MetS, indicating that high-risk HPV might affect CVD risk with possible effect modification by obesity and MetS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Biofactors ; 45(3): 374-380, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693992

RESUMO

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), and HDL dysfunction is considered to be a risk factor for CVD. It is unclear whether there is an association between Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1) infection and CVD risk. We have assessed HDL lipid peroxidation (HDLox) as a marker of HDL dysfunction and CVD risk in a subgroup of the MASHAD cohort study. One hundred and sixty two individuals including 50 subjects positive for HTLV1 infection and 112 individuals negative for HTLV1 infection were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters including serum hs-CRP, fasted lipid profile (HDL-C, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol), and fasting blood glucose were determined. Serum HDLox was also measured in the study participants. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association between serum HDLox and HTLV1 infection. None of the traditional CVD risk factors were associated with HTLV1 infection, including serum HDL-C. However, serum HDLox was independently associated with the presence of HTLV1 infection. Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects who were positive for HTLV1 infection were also significantly more likely than uninfected individuals to have higher HDLox (odds ratio 9.35, 95%CI: 3.5-24.7; P < 0.001). HDLox was increased approximately 20% (P < 0.001) in infected subjects compared to the uninfected group. Serum HDLox is a marker of CVD risk factor and increased in individuals affected by HTLV1 infection compared to healthy subjects. © 2019 BioFactors, 45(3):374-380, 2019.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Software , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 126: 792-799, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557838

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which isa worldwide public health issue, is commonly associated with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A smart nanosensor was developed for the detection of HIV and its related diseases (CVDs and RA) using graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, amine-functionalized graphene (afG) was conjugated with antibodies [anti-p24 for HIV, anti-cardiac troponin 1 (anti-cTn1) for CVDs, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) for RA] to detect various biomarkers. The antibodies were covalently conjugated to afG via carbodiimide activation. The bioconjugate (graphene-antibody) was characterized by various biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical performance of the sensor was evaluated with respect to changes in the resistance of the electrode surface due to the interaction of the antigen with its specific antibody. The developed sensor was highly sensitive and showed a linear response to p24, cTn1, and, CCP from 1 fg/mL to 1 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 100 fg/mL for p24 and 10 fg/mL for cTn1 and CCP under standard optimized conditions. The graphene-based smart nanodevice demonstrated excellent performance; thus, it could be used for the on-site detection of HIV, CVD, and RA biomarkers in real samples.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , HIV/patogenicidade , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/imunologia , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Troponina C/imunologia , Troponina C/isolamento & purificação
8.
Viruses ; 10(8)2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127279

RESUMO

US28 is one of four G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) encoded by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The US28 protein (pUS28) is a potent signaling molecule that alters a variety of cellular pathways that ultimately alter the host cell environment. This viral GPCR is expressed not only in the context of lytic replication but also during viral latency, highlighting its multifunctional properties. pUS28 is a functional GPCR, and its manipulation of multiple signaling pathways likely impacts HCMV pathogenesis. Herein, we will discuss the impact of pUS28 on both lytic and latent infection, pUS28-mediated signaling and its downstream consequences, and the influence this viral GPCR may have on disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. We will also discuss the potential for and progress towards exploiting pUS28 as a novel therapeutic to combat HCMV.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Neoplasias/virologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/patologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Receptores de Quimiocinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/uso terapêutico , Latência Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
9.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 29(3): 155-161, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163). Baseline traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and bilateral common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also available for all participants. We assessed whether HIV status (despite virological suppression on ART) was associated with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction after controlling for traditional CVD risk factors in linear regression models. We additionally assessed the association between IL-6, sCD163 and cIMT with endothelial dysfunction in separate multivariate linear regression models, controlling for cIMT, among virally suppressed HIV-infected participants only. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was significantly associated with increased VCAM-1 (p < 0.01) and ICAM-1 (p = 0.03) but not E-selectin (p = 0.74) levels. Within the HIV-positive group, higher sCD163 levels were associated with decreased ICAM-1 and E-selectin (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively) but not VCAM-1 (p = 0.13) levels. IL-6 was not associated with any of the biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. CONCLUSION: HIV disease was associated with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed adults in Botswana on long-term ART after controlling for traditional CVD risk factors. Future work should explore the clinical impact of persistent endothelial dysfunction following long-term HIV viral suppression on the risk of CVD clinical endpoints among HIV-infected patients in this setting.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Botsuana , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Selectina E/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Carga Viral
12.
Transpl Int ; 31(6): 649-657, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493818

RESUMO

The association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and cardiovascular risk has been reported in solid organ transplant populations; however, it has yet to be assessed in liver transplantation (LT). We aim to evaluate whether CMV reactivation is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) in HCV-LT patients. LT patients (2010 and 2014) due to HCV cirrhosis were included. Clinically significant CMV (CS-CMV) was defined as viral load (VL) >5000 copies/ml, need of therapy or CMV disease. Baseline variables and endpoint measures (CVE, survival, severe recurrent hepatitis C, de novo tumors, and diabetes) were collected. One hundred and forty patients were included. At LT, a history of AHT was present in 23%, diabetes 22%, tobacco use 45%, obesity 20%, and renal impairment (eGFR < 60 ml/min) in 26.5%. CS-CMV reactivation occurred in 25% of patients. Twenty-six patients (18.5%) developed a CVE. Cox regression analysis revealed two factors significantly associated with CVE: Pre-LT DM [HR = 4.6 95% CI (1.6, 13), P = 0.004] and CS-CMV [HR = 4.7 95% CI (1.8, 12.5), P = 0.002]. CS-CMV was not independently associated with the remaining endpoints except for survival (P = 0.03). In our series, CS-CMV reactivation was associated with a greater risk of developing CVE, thus confirming data from other solid organ transplant populations and emphasizing the need for adequate CMV control.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Citomegalovirus , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos , Carga Viral
13.
Physiol Rep ; 6(6): e13647, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595877

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine, in vitro, the effects of X4 and R5 HIV-1 gp120 and Tat on: (1) endothelial cell senescence and (2) endothelial cell microRNA (miR) expression. Endothelial cells were treated with media without and with: R5 gp120 (100 ng/mL), X4 gp120 (100 ng/mL), or Tat (500 ng/mL) for 24 h and stained for senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal). Cell expression of miR-34a, miR-217, and miR-146a was determined by RT-PCR. X4 and R5 gp120 and Tat significantly increased (~100%) cellular senescence versus control. X4 gp120 significantly increased cell expression of miR-34a (1.60 ± 0.04 fold) and miR-217 (1.52 ± 0.18), but not miR-146a (1.25 ± 0.32). R5 gp120 significantly increased miR-34a (1.23 ± 0.07) and decreased miR-146a (0.56 ± 0.07). Tat significantly increased miR-34a (1.49 ± 0.16) and decreased miR-146a (0.55 ± 0.23). R5 and Tat had no effect on miR-217 (1.05 ± 0.13 and 1.06 ± 0.24; respectively). HIV-1 gp120 (X4 and R5) and Tat promote endothelial cell senescence and dysregulation of senescence-associated miRs.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(4): 579-586, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471519

RESUMO

Background: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are characterized by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors compared to uninfected individuals. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in a large cohort of predominantly well-treated PLWH and matched controls. Methods: 1099 PLWH from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV Infection Study and 12 161 age- and sex-matched uninfected controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included and underwent blood pressure, waist, hip, weight, and height measurements and nonfasting blood samples. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension using logistic regression models adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.92 [1.60-2.30]) for a given body mass index, elevated LDL-C (aOR, 1.32 [1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR, 1.76 [1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR, 0.63 [0.54-0.74]). The excess odds of abdominal obesity in PLWH was stronger with older age (p interaction, 0.001). Abdominal obesity was associated with elevated LDL-C (aOR, 1.44 [1.23-1.69]), hypertension (aOR, 1.32 [1.16-1.49]), and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR, 2.12 [1.86-2.41]). Conclusions: Abdominal obesity was associated with proaterogenic metabolic factors including elevated LDL-C, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia and remains a distinct HIV-related phenotype, particularly among older PLWH. Effective interventions to reduce the apparent detrimental impact on cardiovascular risk from this phenotype are needed.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipertensão/virologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/virologia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/virologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 10, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major problem in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) with circulating levels of two adipokines (Lipocalin-2 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4, FABP-4), known to be associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in the general population. METHODS: We enrolled 40 non-obese HIV-infected patients and 10 healthy controls of similar age and Body Mass Index (BMI). Body composition, metabolic syndrome, lipid profile, 10-years CVD risk score, and adipokines levels were compared between groups. ART-regimen status (naïve, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors - NNRTIs - and protease inhibitors - PIs) association with adipokines levels was tested with linear regression models. RESULTS: HIV patients showed a worse metabolic profile than controls. Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in HIV-infected subjects (+53%; p = 0.007), with a significant trend (p = 0.003) for higher levels among subjects taking NNRTIs. Association of lipocalin-2 with fat-mass and BMI was modulated by ART regimens, being positive among subjects treated with NNRTIs and negative among those treated with PIs ("ART-regimens-by-BMI" interaction p = 0.0009). FABP-4 levels were correlated with age, fat mass, BMI, lipid profile and CVD risk (all R ≥ 0.32, p < 0.05), but not influenced by HIV-status (+20%; p = 0.12) or ART-regimen (p = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that HIV-infection is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, as measured by Lipocalin-2 levels, and ART does not attenuate this association. While FABP-4 is a marker of worse metabolic and CVD profile independently of HIV status or ART regimen, lipocalin-2 could represent a useful marker for HIV- and ART-related adipose tissue dysfunction.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Paniculite/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paniculite/virologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 33(1): 74-82, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212894

RESUMO

The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of "immunometabolism" within the context of HIV-related immune dysregulation and cardiovascular disease onset. Here, persistent immune activation contributes to pathophysiological perturbations during early infection, resulting in immune cell metabolic reprogramming and the activation of coagulation pathways in HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Inflamação/virologia
18.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 83(12): 1437-1447, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878019

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis underlies the development of many cardiovascular diseases that continue to hold a leading place among the causes of death in developed countries. The role of activated immune cells in atherosclerosis progression has been convincingly demonstrated, but the mechanism of their action remains poorly investigated. Since atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammatory response, involvement of viral and bacterial infections in atherogenesis has been examined. A special place among the infectious agents is held by human herpesviruses as the most common persistent viruses in human population coupled to chronic inflammation during atherosclerosis. We found that activation of cytomegalovirus (CMV, human herpesvirus 5) infection is associated with the emergence of acute coronary syndrome, which is in a good agreement with the data on productive CMV infection published elsewhere. In this review, we discuss the data obtained by us and other researchers regarding the role of cytomegalovirus infection and related potential mechanisms resulting in the expansion of atherosclerotic plaques during ischemic heart disease and stroke, including virus transfer to immune and endothelial cells via extracellular vesicles. In particular, the data presented in the review demonstrate that virus spreading in the vascular wall triggers immune system activation in atherosclerotic plaques and causes endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, productive CMV infection in patients with acute myocardial infarction correlates with the extent of endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms described by us and other researchers may explain the role of CMV infection in atherosclerosis and development of ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Humanos
19.
Indian J Med Res ; 148(4): 373-384, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666000

RESUMO

Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) causes myriads of clinical diseases; however, owing to lack of awareness and undetermined clinical impact, it has failed to become a virus pathogen of global concern. Cryptically, B19V causes significant morbidity and mortality. Half of the world population and 60 per cent of Indians are known to be serologically naive and are at risk of acquiring B19V infections. Cumulatively, our data showed 21.3 per cent B19V-infected patients with juvenile chronic arthropathy, recurrent abortions, multi-transfused thalassaemia and leukaemia. In addition, B19V-infected cases that ended fatally included patients with pure red cell aplasia, fulminant hepatitis and haemophagocytic syndrome. Novel clinical associations of B19V observed were amegakaryocytic thrombocytopaenia, myositis and non-occlusive ischaemic gangrene of bowel. B19V possesses multiple receptors which are distributed widely in human tissues. Vascular endothelial cell infection by B19V causes endothelialitis and vasculitic injuries besides antibody-dependent enhancement which empowered B19V to cause multiorgan diseases. Owing to lack of suitable animal model for B19V, true causal role remains to be determined, but numerous reports on B19V infections substantiate a causal role in multiorgan diseases. Hence, B19V infections need to be recognized, investigated and treated besides making efforts on vaccine developments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Parvoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirus B19 Humano/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/virologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Parvovirus B19 Humano/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(5): 598-606, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: The main metabolic disorders in the population were low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 62.6% of the study population, whereas metabolic syndrome (MS) was prevalent in 11.5% of patients assessed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 10.8% assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Regarding cardiovascular risk, 89.7% of the population presented a low coronary risk according to the Framingham Risk Score. A greater proportion of patients diagnosed with MS presented low cardiovascular risk (80% assessed by IDF criteria and 77.8% assessed by NCEP-ATPIII criteria). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders in this population may be due to HIV infection or lifestyle (smoking, sedentary lifestyle and inadequate diet). The introduction of ART can enhance dyslipidemia, increasing cardiovascular risk, especially among those who have classic risks of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/virologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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