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1.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(6): 571-578, 2021 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Juvenile gangrenous vasculitis of the scrotum was described by the Girona dermatologist Joaquín Piñol Aguadéin 1973. The objectives of this article are to review the world publications and provide a clinical case of this disease between urological and/or dermatological. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of juvenile gangrenous vasculitis of the scrotum between 1973 and 2019 is carried out and a new clinical case is contributed. The identification of articles in Medline was carried outwith MeSH terms "juvenile gangrenous vasculitis scrotum" and in Google with "juvenile gangrenous vasculitisscrotum". Ten clinical-epidemiological variables were studied in the articles: year, source, authors, number of cases, age, previous pharyngo-tonsillitis, biopsy of the lesion, treatment, days to healing, city and country. The results of the variables were analyzed with descriptive statistics. A new clinical case is described. RESULTS: We found 26 world references, 18 of them Spanish, corresponding to 24 publications and 2 conference papers with a total of 29 patients. The meanage of the patients was 23.6 years. The treatments used were exeresis of the lesion (23%), cephalosporins and/or corticoids i.v. (15.3%), tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate (15.3%), local cure and oral corticoids (11.5%) and mupirocin or topical tetracyclines (7.6%). Healing took place in an average of 21 days. The cities with the most cases reported were Barcelona with 11 (37.9%) and Pontevedra with 2 (6.8%). By country, Spain contributed 22 cases (75.8%) and Chile, Argentina, Portugal, Italy, Tunisia, Turkey and Great Britainthe remaining 7 cases (24.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile gangrenous vasculitis of the scrotum is a benign entity with a self-limiting course. The process is preceded by pharyngo-tonsillitis in about half of the patients. The results of the study confirm the endemic nature of the disease in Mediterranean countries, including Spain.


Assuntos
Escroto , Vasculite , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Espanha , Turquia
3.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(8): 1003-1006, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157149

RESUMO

This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the detection of new cases of leprosy in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The periods January-September 2019 and January-September 2020 were compared. There was a 44.40% reduction in the diagnosis of leprosy when comparing the two periods (1,705 in 2019 and 948 in 2020). There was a reduction in the number of municipalities with reported cases: 251 municipalities in 2019 and 202 in 2020, expressing a reduction of 24.25%. Considering only the months following the arrival of the virus (April-September), the reduction was 51.10%. An inverse correlation was observed between the number of new cases of leprosy and the cumulative number of cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.840; P < 0.001) and the number of new monthly cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.817; P < 0.001). A slight increase was also observed in the proportion of multibacillary cases in the state (70.38% in 2019 and 72.69% in 2020) as well as in the proportion of individuals with the degree of physical disability not assessed at diagnosis, whose proportion rose from 16.39% in 2019 to 22.53% in 2020. The negative impact of COVID-19 in tackling leprosy should be seen as a warning sign for health and political authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(1): 119-129, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140736

RESUMO

In this paper, the authors: (a) list methods used to diagnose zoonotic diseases in humans and animals; (b) identify between-species differences in diagnostic approaches, providing commentary on the benefits that might arise from simultaneous interpretation of data from human and animal health surveillance systems; and (c) reiterate the importance of using species-specific, validated diagnostic tests for surveillance and disease outbreak investigations. Emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases are likely to provide a continued threat to global health in the short- to medium-term future. A good deal of knowledge about the drivers of infectious disease emergence has been developed based on numerous examples from the recent past. Sharing of diagnostic resources across human and animal health sectors, sharing of human and animal health surveillance data, development of skills in the interpretation of that data and awareness of issues related to the validation and interpretation of diagnostic test data are necessary prerequisites for an effective endemic disease surveillance system. A good understanding of the epidemiological patterns of endemic disease will allow human and animal health professionals be able to more quickly detect the presence of emerging disease threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Saúde Global , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 195-199, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new schistosomiasis surveillance program and consolidating schistosomiasis elimination achievements. METHODS: A total of 54 to 55 national surveillance sites and 6 risk monitoring sites were assigned in historical endemic regions of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, where the Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock, snails and wild feces were monitored. All data pertaining to the surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: There were 34 530 person-time local residents receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.29% to 0.68%; however, no egg-positives were detected. During the period from 2015 to 2019, there were 62 086 person-time mobile populations receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.32% to 0.56%; additionally, there were 27 egg-positives identified, including 3 imported cases with schistosomiasis haematobia and one case with acute schistosomiasis japonica, indicating that the adjusted prevalence of Schistosoma infections were 0.01% to 0.07% among mobile populations. A total of 829 livestock were examined for S. japonicum infections, with no positives detected. There were 10.55 hm2 and 2.89 hm2 snail habitats found in national surveillance sites and risk monitoring sites of Zhejiang Province during the 5-year period, respectively; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Moreover, a total of 305 wild feces were tested for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The schistosomiasis elimination achievement have been consolidated in Zhejiang Province; however, the risk factors of re-emerging schistosomiasis have not been completely eliminated, such as residual snails and imported schistosomiasis cases. Further surveillance and control activities of snails and the source of S. japonicum infections should be reinforced.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Gado , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 200-204, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: From 2015 to 2019, 63 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Sichuan Province, in which Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in humans, livestock, wild feces and snails. The monitoring data were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 94 119 person-time local residents were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in 63 national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019, with sero-prevalence rates ranging from 1.28% to 3.11%, and the sero-positives were predominantly detected in local residents at ages of over 50 years and in farmers. A total of 94 119 person-time mobile populations were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in the national surveillance sites during the 5-year period, with sero-prevalence of 1.10% to 1.59%. There were no egg-positives identified in either local residents or mobile populations. Among the 6 126 herd-time livestock detected, no egg-positives were identified, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in the 205 wild feces. Snail survey was performed covering an area of 8 484.08 hm2, and 724.80 hm2 snail habitats were identified, including 2.43 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 63.00 hm2 re-emerging snail habitats. The mean occurrence of frames with snails was 6.87% to 19.63%, and the mean density of living snails was 0.18 to 0.62 snails/0.1 m2 in the national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019; however, no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis has reduced to the lowest level in Sichuan Province; however, there is a rise in snail habitats, and there is still a risk of schistosomiasis resurgence. Further improvements of the surveillance system for schistosomiasis are required to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Sichuan Province as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Gado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Caramujos
8.
Public Health ; 194: 33-35, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, it is known that a substantial percentage of the adult population does not become infected when exposed to this novel coronavirus. Several studies provide an initial indication of the possible role of pre-existing immunity, whether cross-immunity or not. The possible role of latent tuberculosis (TB) and malaria has been suggested to create innate cross heterogeneous immunity. In this study, we looked for the influence of these factors on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in malaria-endemic countries. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty malaria-endemic countries were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data subjected to testing included TB prevalence, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine coverage, malaria incidence, and COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: Hierarchical multiple regression type of analysis was used for data analyses. TB prevalence per 100,000 population standardized to BCG coverage rates was taken as a direct factor in the test. Malaria incidence per 1000 population was considered an intermediate factor. The outcome was COVID-19 mortality per million population. RESULTS: The results showed with robust statistical support that standardized TB prevalence was significantly associated with reduced COVID-19 mortality. Malaria had an additional effect in reducing COVID-19 mortality, with a highly significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria and standardized TB prevalence are statistically significant factors associated negatively with COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Endêmicas , Malária/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Public Health ; 194: 33-35, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, it is known that a substantial percentage of the adult population does not become infected when exposed to this novel coronavirus. Several studies provide an initial indication of the possible role of pre-existing immunity, whether cross-immunity or not. The possible role of latent tuberculosis (TB) and malaria has been suggested to create innate cross heterogeneous immunity. In this study, we looked for the influence of these factors on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in malaria-endemic countries. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty malaria-endemic countries were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data subjected to testing included TB prevalence, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine coverage, malaria incidence, and COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: Hierarchical multiple regression type of analysis was used for data analyses. TB prevalence per 100,000 population standardized to BCG coverage rates was taken as a direct factor in the test. Malaria incidence per 1000 population was considered an intermediate factor. The outcome was COVID-19 mortality per million population. RESULTS: The results showed with robust statistical support that standardized TB prevalence was significantly associated with reduced COVID-19 mortality. Malaria had an additional effect in reducing COVID-19 mortality, with a highly significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria and standardized TB prevalence are statistically significant factors associated negatively with COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Endêmicas , Malária/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(176): 20200966, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784882

RESUMO

Computer simulations of individual-based models are frequently used to compare strategies for the control of epidemics spreading through spatially distributed populations. However, computer simulations can be slow to implement for newly emerging epidemics, delaying rapid exploration of different intervention scenarios, and do not immediately give general insights, for example, to identify the control strategy with a minimal socio-economic cost. Here, we resolve this problem by applying an analytical approximation to a general epidemiological, stochastic, spatially explicit SIR(S) model where the infection is dispersed according to a finite-ranged dispersal kernel. We derive analytical conditions for a pathogen to invade a spatially explicit host population and to become endemic. To derive general insights about the likely impact of optimal control strategies on invasion and persistence: first, we distinguish between 'spatial' and 'non-spatial' control measures, based on their impact on the dispersal kernel; second, we quantify the relative impact of control interventions on the epidemic; third, we consider the relative socio-economic cost of control interventions. Overall, our study shows a trade-off between the two types of control interventions and a vaccination strategy. We identify the optimal strategy to control invading and endemic diseases with minimal socio-economic cost across all possible parameter combinations. We also demonstrate the necessary characteristics of exit strategies from control interventions. The modelling framework presented here can be applied to a wide class of diseases in populations of humans, animals and plants.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Epidemias , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Vacinação
12.
Acta Trop ; 218: 105884, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between social inequalities and the leprosy burden in a low endemicity scenario in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study was carried out in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering leprosy cases notified from 2006 to 2016. Regarding social inequalities, dimensions related to high household density, literacy, home occupation conditions, health conditions, household income, ethnicity and age were considered. The generalised additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to verify the association between the social inequalities and leprosy burden. RESULTS: The increase in men and women with no education and people with an income of 1 to 2 minimum wages was associated with a relative increase in the number of leprosy cases (7.37%, 7.10% and 2.44%, respectively). Regarding the ethnicity variables, the increase in the proportion of men (black) and women (mixed race) with no schooling was associated with a relative increase in the number of cases of the disease (10.77% and 4.02%, respectively). Finally, for people of mixed race or ethnicity, the increase in the proportion of households with 1/2 to 1 minimum wage was related to a relative decrease in the total number of cases (-4.90%). CONCLUSION: The results show that the determinants associated with the increase in leprosy cases are similar to those in Brazilian hyperendemic regions, and that even in cities with low endemicity, social inequality is one of the main determinants of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/etnologia , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009212, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730025

RESUMO

As a consequence of the Ebola outbreak, human-animal contact has gained importance for zoonotic transmission surveillance. In Faranah (Upper Guinea), daily life is intertwined with rodents, such as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis; a reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). However, this contact is rarely perceived as a health risk by residents, although Lassa fever (LF) is known to be endemic to this region. Conversely, these observations remain a great concern for global health agendas. Drawing on ethnographic research involving interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations, and informal discussions over four months, we first identified factors that motivated children to hunt and consume rodents in Faranah villages, and thereafter, explored the knowledge of LF infection in children and their parents. Furthermore, we studied two dimensions of human-rodent encounters: 1) space-time of interaction and 2) factors that allowed the interaction to occur and their materiality. This approach allowed us to contextualize child-rodent contacts beyond domestic limits in the fallow fields, swamps, and at other times for this practice. A close look at these encounters provided information on rodent trapping, killing, and manipulation of cooking techniques and the risk these activities posed for the primary transmission of LASV. This research facilitated the understanding of children's exposure to M. natalensis during hunting sessions and the importance of rodent hunting, which is a part of their boyish identity in rural areas. Determination of when, where, why, and how children, rodents, and environments interacted allowed us to understand the exposures and risks important for human and animal surveillance programs in the Lassa-endemic region.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/transmissão , Roedores , Animais , Criança , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Febre Lassa/virologia , Vírus Lassa/imunologia , Controle de Roedores , Zoonoses
14.
Más Vita ; 3(1): 7-17, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253304

RESUMO

Uno de los principales problemas de los países tropicales son las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Entre ellas tenemos el dengue, zika y chikungunya, cuyo vector es un mosquito el Aedes aegyptiy Aedes albopictus. En el Ecuador, el dengue representa un problema prioritario en salud pública, desde el repunte del dengue en 1988 ha presentado varios ciclos epidémicos. Objetivo: Por lo anteriormente expuesto, se establece como objetivo de la investigación, caracterizar el brote de dengue que se presentó en el período Enero ­Febrero del año 2019, en barrios de la parroquia Esmeraldas, para evidenciar cuáles factores siguen recurrentes en la zona. Materiales y métodos: La investigación fue cuantitativa de corte transversal, descriptiva. La muestra fue no probabilística, los pacientes se presentaron de manera espontánea, se tomaron en cuenta variables como la edad, ocupación, síntomas, automedicación, tipo de medicamentos auto indicados, reinfección, viaje a zonas endémicas y condición de la vivienda. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante prueba rápida Wondfo Whole Blood/Serum/Plasma test para NSI, IgG y IgM; en las instalaciones de la Escuela de Laboratorio Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Ecuador (PUCESE). Los datos fueron procesados en Excel y analizados mediante el programa estadístico SPSS. Resultados: Los resultados que se obtuvieron permitieron caracterizar este brote relacionando las distintas variables, encontrando que en la mayoría de los casos es DSSA, dengue sin síntomas alarma y que no distingue edad, sexo, ni ocupación en el contagio. También, se encontró que las personas se automedican, en su mayoría, tratándose con paracetamol cuando los síntomas leves permanecen más de 5 días y no acuden al médico. Conclusión: Estos resultados nos permitieron concluir que este brote no presentó ninguna característica relevante que lo diferencie de los anteriores y que los factores y causas se mantienen, las personas desconocen las causas y prevención del contagio con el virus(AU)


One of the main problem in tropical countries is vector-borne diseases. Among them, we have Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya, whose vector is a mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Ecuador, dengue represents a priority problem in public health, since the dengue rebound in 1988 has presented several epidemic cycles. Objective: For the above reasons, the objective of the research is to characterize the outbreak of dengue that occurred in the period January-February 2019, in neighborhoods of the parish of Esmeraldas, to show which factors are still recurrent in the area. Materials and methods: The research was quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive. The sample was non-probabilistic, patients presented spontaneously, variables such as age, occupation, symptoms, self-medication, the type of self-prescribed medication, reinfection, travel to endemic areas and housing conditions were taken into account. Samples were analyzed by Wondfo Whole Blood/Serum/Plasma rapid test for NSI, IgG and IgM; at the facilities of the Clinical Laboratory School of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Ecuador (PUCESE). Data were processed in Excel and analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The results: The results obtained allowed us to characterize this outbreak by relating the different variables, finding that in most cases it is DSSA, dengue without alarm symptoms and that it does not distinguish between age, sex or occupation in the contagion. It was also found that most people self-medicate, treating themselves with paracetamol when mild symptoms last more than 5 days and do not go to the doctor. Conclusion: These results allowed us to conclude that this outbreak did not present any relevant characteristic that differentiates it from previous outbreaks and that the factors and causes remain the same, people are unaware of the causes and prevention of infection with the virus(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Medicina Tropical , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Endêmicas , Dengue/epidemiologia , Arbovírus , Saúde Pública , Aedes
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 620657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737927

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection disproportionately affects women in sub-Saharan Africa, where areas of high HIV-1 prevalence and Schistosoma haematobium endemicity largely overlap. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), an inflammatory disease caused by S. haematobium egg deposition in the genital tract, has been associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection. Elevated levels of the chemokines MIP-1α (CCL-3), MIP-1ß (CCL-4), IP-10 (CXCL-10), and IL-8 (CXCL-8) in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) have been associated with HIV-1 acquisition. We hypothesize that levels of cervicovaginal cytokines may be raised in FGS and could provide a causal mechanism for the association between FGS and HIV-1. In the cross-sectional BILHIV study, specimens were collected from 603 female participants who were aged 18-31 years, sexually active, not pregnant and participated in the HPTN 071 (PopART) HIV-1 prevention trial in Zambia. Participants self-collected urine, and vaginal and cervical swabs, while CVLs were clinically obtained. Microscopy and Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen (CAA) were performed on urine. Genital samples were examined for parasite-specific DNA by PCR. Women with FGS (n=28), defined as a positive Schistosoma PCR from any genital sample were frequency age-matched with 159 FGS negative (defined as negative Schistosoma PCR, urine CAA, urine microscopy, and colposcopy imaging) women. Participants with probable FGS (n=25) (defined as the presence of either urine CAA or microscopy in combination with one of four clinical findings suggestive of FGS on colposcope-obtained photographs) were also included, for a total sample size of 212. The concentrations of 17 soluble cytokines and chemokines were quantified by a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. There was no difference in the concentrations of cytokines or chemokines between participants with and without FGS. An exploratory analysis of those women with a higher FGS burden, defined by ≥2 genital specimens with detectable Schistosoma DNA (n=15) showed, after adjusting for potential confounders, a higher Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and pro-inflammatory (IL-15) expression pattern in comparison to FGS negative women, with differences unlikely to be due to chance (p=0.037 for IL-4 and p<0.001 for IL-5 after adjusting for multiple testing). FGS may alter the female genital tract immune environment, but larger studies in areas of varying endemicity are needed to evaluate the association with HIV-1 vulnerability.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Schistosoma haematobium/fisiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/imunologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/urina , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/urina , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Helminto/urina , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Vagina/patologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 224: 108100, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744229

RESUMO

Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are neglected diseases caused by parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family and together they affect millions of people in the five continents. The treatment of Chagas disease is based on benznidazole, whereas for leishmaniasis few drugs are available, such as amphotericin B and miltefosine. In both cases, the current treatment is not entirely efficient due to toxicity or side effects. Encouraged by the need to discover valid targets and new treatment options, we evaluated 8 furan compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis, considering their effects against proliferation, infection, and ultrastructure. Many of them were able to impair T. cruzi and L. amazonensis proliferation, as well as cause ultrastructural alterations, such as Golgi apparatus disorganization, autophagosome formation, and mitochondrial swelling. Taken together, the results obtained so far make these compounds eligible for further steps of chemotherapy study.


Assuntos
Furanos/farmacologia , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Doenças Endêmicas , Furanos/química , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania mexicana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania mexicana/ultraestrutura , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultraestrutura
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-4, mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151626

RESUMO

The effect of climatological parameter on infectious disease is an interesting issue in clinical epidemiology. Of several parameters, rainfall is reported for its interrelationship with many tropical diseases such as malaria. In this short communication, the authors report the observation on correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of scrub typhus from a tropical endemic country.


El efecto del parámetro climatológico en las enfermedades infecciosas es un tema interesante en la epidemiología clínica. De varios parámetros, se reportan precipitaciones por su interrelación con muchas enfermedades tropicales como el paludismo. En esta breve comunicación, los autores informan de la observación sobre la correlación entre las precipitaciones y la prevalencia del tifus de matorral de un país endémico tropical.


Assuntos
Chuva , Tifo por Ácaros/etiologia , Prevalência , Tailândia , Clima Tropical , Doenças Endêmicas
19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571169

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) antibody therapies, including COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), monoclonal antibodies, and hyperimmune globulin, are among the leading treatments for individuals with early COVID-19 infection. The functionality of convalescent plasma varies greatly, but the association of antibody epitope specificities with plasma functionality remains uncharacterized. We assessed antibody functionality and reactivities to peptides across the CoV2 and the 4 endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) genomes in 126 CCP donations. We found strong correlation between plasma functionality and polyclonal antibody targeting of CoV2 spike protein peptides. Antibody reactivity to many HCoV spike peptides also displayed strong correlation with plasma functionality, including pan-coronavirus cross-reactive epitopes located in a conserved region of the fusion peptide. After accounting for antibody cross-reactivity, we identified an association between greater alphacoronavirus NL63 antibody responses and development of highly neutralizing antibodies against CoV2. We also found that plasma preferentially reactive to the CoV2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD), versus the betacoronavirus HKU1 RBD, had higher neutralizing titer. Finally, we developed a 2-peptide serosignature that identifies plasma donations with high anti-spike titer, but that suffer from low neutralizing activity. These results suggest that analysis of coronavirus antibody fine specificities may be useful for selecting desired therapeutics and understanding the complex immune responses elicited by CoV2 infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reações Cruzadas , Doenças Endêmicas , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Epitopos Imunodominantes/química , Epitopos Imunodominantes/genética , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166661

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) antibody therapies, including COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), monoclonal antibodies, and hyperimmune globulin, are among the leading treatments for individuals with early COVID-19 infection. The functionality of convalescent plasma varies greatly, but the association of antibody epitope specificities with plasma functionality remains uncharacterized. We assessed antibody functionality and reactivities to peptides across the CoV2 and the 4 endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) genomes in 126 CCP donations. We found strong correlation between plasma functionality and polyclonal antibody targeting of CoV2 spike protein peptides. Antibody reactivity to many HCoV spike peptides also displayed strong correlation with plasma functionality, including pan-coronavirus cross-reactive epitopes located in a conserved region of the fusion peptide. After accounting for antibody cross-reactivity, we identified an association between greater alphacoronavirus NL63 antibody responses and development of highly neutralizing antibodies against CoV2. We also found that plasma preferentially reactive to the CoV2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD), versus the betacoronavirus HKU1 RBD, had higher neutralizing titer. Finally, we developed a 2-peptide serosignature that identifies plasma donations with high anti-spike titer, but that suffer from low neutralizing activity. These results suggest that analysis of coronavirus antibody fine specificities may be useful for selecting desired therapeutics and understanding the complex immune responses elicited by CoV2 infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reações Cruzadas , Doenças Endêmicas , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Epitopos Imunodominantes/química , Epitopos Imunodominantes/genética , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
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