Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.590
Filtrar
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 151, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420058

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne viruses threaten the Caribbean due to the region's tropical climate and seasonal reception of international tourists. Outbreaks of chikungunya and Zika have demonstrated the rapidity with which these viruses can spread. Concurrently, dengue fever cases have climbed over the past decade. Sustainable disease control measures are urgently needed to quell virus transmission and prevent future outbreaks. Here, to improve upon current control methods, we analyze temporal and spatial patterns of chikungunya, Zika, and dengue outbreaks reported in the Dominican Republic between 2012 and 2018. The viruses that cause these outbreaks are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are sensitive to seasonal climatological variability. We evaluate whether climate and the spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue outbreaks could explain patterns of emerging disease outbreaks. We find that emerging disease outbreaks were robust to the climatological and spatio-temporal constraints defining seasonal dengue outbreak dynamics, indicating that constant surveillance is required to prevent future health crises.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 511-516, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. METHODS: On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. RESULTS: Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Malária/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , África , Ásia Sudeste , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
5.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Altitude , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Chuva , População Rural , População Urbana
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075052

RESUMO

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Culicidae , Vacinas contra Dengue/uso terapêutico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Estações do Ano , Dengue Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMO

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Assuntos
Cólera/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Pandemias/história , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade
8.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 748-766, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990177

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 was first experienced in Wuhan City, China, during December 2019 before it rapidly spread over globally. This paper has proposed a mathematical model for studying its transmission dynamics in the presence of face mask wearing and hospitalization services of human population in Tanzania. Disease-free and endemic equilibria were determined and subsequently their local and global stabilities were carried out. The trace-determinant approach was used in the local stability of disease-free equilibrium point while Lyapunov function technique was used to determine the global stability of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. Basic reproduction number, R 0 , was determined in which its numerical results revealed that, in the presence of face masks wearing and medication services or hospitalization as preventive measure for its transmission, R 0 = 0.698 while in their absence R 0 = 3.8 . This supports its analytical solution that the disease-free equilibrium point E 0 is asymptotically stable whenever R 0 < 1 , while endemic equilibrium point E ∗ is globally asymptotically stable for R 0 > 1 . Therefore, this paper proves the necessity of face masks wearing and hospitalization services to COVID-19 patients to contain the disease spread to the population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845890

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a common infectious disease that is endemic in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the spatial autocorrelation of VL in the northwest of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the data of all patients were collected in 2009-2017 and analyzed by SPSS23 and Moran's and General G Index. The MaxEnt3.3.3 software was used to determine the ecological niche. A big hot spot area was identified in five counties in the northwest of Iran. More than 70% of the cases were reported from these regions, and the incidence rate increased in the northwest of Iran from 2013 to 2017. Seasonal rainfall and average daily temperature were the most important climate variables affecting the incidence of VL in this region (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that VL in the northwest of Iran is expanding to new areas along the border with the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the northeastern section of this region is a high-risk area.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Clima , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1233, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of onchocerciasis requires regular follow-up and evaluation of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) program implementation. This research was aimed to assess the epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in disease endemic communities of Asosa and Yeki districts of Ethiopia after 5 and 15 years of successive CDTi respectively, and to evaluate the decline in infection and morbidity burden. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2017 to January 2018 (i.e. within 2-7 months since the last treatment) using interview, physical and parasitological examinations. Pre-CDTi epidemiological data were obtained from studies conducted prior to the launch of CDTi. RESULTS: A total of 3002 individuals (1567 from Asosa and 1435 from Yeki) were included. No infection was detected from Yeki. In Asosa, the prevalence of infection was 1.6%. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 0.02 mf/mg of skin snip. The prevalence rates of dermatitis, depigmentation, nodule, and atrophy in Yeki were 33(2.3%), 57(4%), 37(2.6%) and 11(0.7%), respectively. The prevalence rates of papular dermatitis, depigmentation, palpable nodule, atrophy, and blindness in Asosa were 94(6%), 38(2.4%), 30(1.9%), 28(1.8%) and 2(0.1%), respectively. Five years of CDTi had significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection by 91.8% (p < 0.001) and 99.7% (p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, CDTi reduced prevalence of papular dermatitis by 95.9% (p < 0.001), palpable nodule by 90.5% (p < 0.001), and atrophy by 30% (p = 0.6) in Yeki. Similarly, CDTi reduced prevalence of papular dermatitis by 88.6% (p < 0.001), depigmentation by 90.3% (p < 0.001), atrophy by 89.5% (p < 0.001), and blindness by 90% (p < 0.001) in Asosa. CONCLUSIONS: Fifteen years of successive CDTi had brought the infection from high to zero in Yeki. However, thorough entomological and serological data need to be generated to ascertain whether complete interruption of parasite transmission has been attained, and for considerations of an evidence-based CDTi cessation. Five years of CDTi in Asosa has significantly reduced the infection and morbidity of onchocerciasis to very low level. We, hereby, recommend biannual CDTi to continue in Asosa and its surroundings until the infection transmission is fully interrupted.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232867, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Neglected Tropical Diseases Roadmap of the WHO set targets for potential elimination as a "public health problem" for the period 2012-2020 in multiple countries in Africa, with the aim of global elimination of schistosomiasis as a "public health problem" by 2025. AIM: The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost from a provider's perspective of the Department of Health's Schistosomiasis Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal in 2012, with a view to project the costs for the entire KwaZulu Natal Province. METHODS: A total of 491 public schools and 16 independent schools in Ugu District, a predominantly rural district in KwaZulu-Natal with a total of 218 242 learners, were included in the schistosomiasis control programme. They were randomly selected from schools situated below an altitude of 300 meters, where schistosomiasis is endemic. A retrospective costing study was conducted using the provider's perspective to cost. Cost data were collected by reviewing existing records including financial statements, invoices, receipts, transport log books, equipment inventories, and information from personnel payroll, existing budget, and the staff diaries. RESULTS: A total of 15571 children were treated in 2012, resulting in a total cost of the MDA programme of ZAR 2 137 143 and a unit cost of ZAR 137. The three main cost components were Medication Costs (37%), Human Resources Cost (36%) and Capital items (16%). The total cost for treating all eligible pupils in KwaZulu-Natal will be ZAR 149 031 888. However, should the capital cost be excluded, then the unit cost will be ZAR 112 per patient and this will translate to a total cost of ZAR 121 836 288. CONCLUSIONS: Low coverage exacerbates the cost of the programme and makes a decision to support such a programme difficult. However, a normative costing study based on the integration of the programme within the Department of Health should be conducted.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Praziquantel/economia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Adolescente , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gastos de Capital/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Folhetos , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Amostragem , Esquistossomose/economia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579586

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna and detect trypanosomatids in these insects from Casa Branca, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area of both visceral (VL) and tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Sand flies were collected bimonthly from May 2013 to July 2014, using automatic light traps exposed for three consecutive nights in peridomiciliary areas of nine houses with previous reports of VL and TL. ITS1-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for trypanosomatids identification. A total of 16,771 sand flies were collected belonging to 23 species. The most abundant species was Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (70.9%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (15.2%) and Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920) (9.1%). Leishmania amazonensis DNA was detected in Ny. whitmani (four pools) and Le. braziliensis DNA was detected in Psychodopygus lloydi (one pool). In seven pools of Ny. whitmani and in one pool of Lu. longipalpis positive for Leishmania DNA, the parasite species was not determined due to the low quality of the sequences. Moreover, DNA of Herpetomonas spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani (two pools) and Cortelezzii complex (one pool). DNA of Crithidia spp. was detected in Ny. whitmani and Ps. lloydi (both one pool). Our results suggest that Ny. whitmani may be involved in the transmission of Le. amazonensis in the study area. The molecular detection of Le. amazonensis suggests the presence of this species in a sylvatic cycle between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the region of Casa Branca. Our data also reveal the occurrence of other non-Leishmania trypanosomatids in sand flies in Casa Branca District.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia has officially adopted the parasite density levels of severe malaria established by the WHO (>50,000 parasites/µl). These values have been inferred from areas of high transmission in Africa and are not consistent with the dynamics of low and unstable transmission in Colombia. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the parasite density values observed in patients with severe malaria and their distribution in the different ecoepidemiological regions of Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study of confirmed cases of severe malaria was conducted in endemic areas of malaria in Colombia over the period 2014-2017. Data were collected from secondary sources of the Subnational Programs of Malaria Prevention and Control. Person, place, and time variables were selected. The official definition of severe malaria was adopted, and compliance with these criteria was determined. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted with absolute and relative frequency measures, and the relevant statistical tests were applied. RESULTS: The overall parasite density values in Colombia showed a geometric mean of 5,919 parasites/µl (95% CI: 5,608-6,248). By parasite species, the values were 6,151 (95% CI: 5,631-6,718) for Plasmodium falciparum and 5,815 (95% CI: 5,428-6,230) for Plasmodium vivax. The highest parasite density values were recorded in the Amazon ecoepidemiological region (8,177; 95% CI: 6,015-11,116), and the lowest values were recorded in the Andean region (5,026; 95% CI: 2,409-10,480). CONCLUSIONS: In endemic areas of low and unstable malaria transmission in the Colombian territory, the parasite density levels observed in populations with severe malaria are lower than the officially established values. The parasite density criterion is not really a relevant criterion for the definition of severe cases in Colombia and it certainly not be used to make a clinical decision about the severity of the disease.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium vivax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008226, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After approximately 5 years of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement) interventions for trachoma, hyperendemic (trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) ≥30%) districts remained in Amhara, Ethiopia. This study's aim was to characterize the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and load among pre-school aged children living under the SAFE strategy. METHODS: Conjunctival swabs from a population-based sample of children aged 1-5 years collected between 2011 and 2015 were assayed to provide Ct infection data from 4 endemic zones (comprised of 58 districts). Ct load was determined using a calibration curve. Children were graded for TF and trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI). RESULTS: 7,441 children were swabbed in 4 zones. TF and TI prevalence were 39.9% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 37.5%, 42.4%), and 9.2% (95% CI: 8.1%, 10.3%) respectively. Ct infection prevalence was 6.0% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.2%). Infection was highest among children aged 2 to 4 years (6.6%-7.0%). Approximately 10% of infection occurred among children aged 1 year. Ct load decreased with age (P = 0.002), with the highest loads observed in children aged 1 year (P = 0.01) vs. aged 5 years. Participants with TF (P = 0.20) and TI (P<0.01) had loads greater than individuals without active trachoma. CONCLUSIONS: In this hyperendemic setting, it appears that the youngest children may contribute in meaningful ways towards persistent active trachoma.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353863

RESUMO

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/patogenicidade , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Bluetongue/transmissão , Bluetongue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Geografia , Inseticidas , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469923

RESUMO

African Swine Fever (ASF) is one of the most complex and significant diseases from a sanitary-economic perspective currently affecting the world's swine-farming industry. ASF has been endemic in Sardinia (Italy) since 1978, and several control and eradication programmes have met with limited success. In this traditional ASF endemic area, there are three susceptible host populations for this virus sharing the same habitat: wild boar, farmed domestic pigs and non-registered free-ranging pigs (known as "brado" animals). The main goal of this study was to determine and predict fine-scale spatial interactions of this multi-host system in relation to the epidemiology of ASF in the main endemic area of Sardinia, Montes-Orgosolo. To this end, simultaneous monitoring of GPS-GSM collared wild boar and free-ranging pigs sightings were performed to predict interaction indexes through latent selection difference functions with environmental, human and farming factors. Regarding epidemiological assessment, the spatial inter-specific interaction indexes obtained here were used to correlate ASF notifications in wild boar and domestic pig farms. Daily movement patterns, home ranges (between 120.7 and 2,622.8 ha) and resource selection of wild boar were obtained for the first time on the island. Overall, our prediction model showed the highest spatial interactions between wild boar and free-ranging pigs in areas close to pig farms. A spatially explicit model was obtained to map inter-specific interaction over the complete ASF-endemic area of the island. Our approach to monitoring interaction indexes may help explain the occurrence of ASF notifications in wild boar and domestic pigs on a fine-spatial scale. These results support the recent and effective eradication measures taken in Sardinia. In addition, this methodology could be extrapolated to apply in the current epidemiological scenarios of ASF in Eurasia, where exist multi-host systems involving free-ranging pigs and wild boar.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/patogenicidade , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Migração Animal , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Telemetria/veterinária
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bangladesh has a history of endemic malaria transmission, with 17.5 million people at risk. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of universal childhood malaria vaccination in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh with newly developed RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccines. METHODS: A decision model was been developed using Microsoft® Excel to examine the potential impact of future vaccination in Bangladesh. We estimated the economic and health burden due to malaria and the cost-effectiveness of malaria vaccination from the health system and societal perspective. The primary outcomes include the incremental cost per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted, incremental cost per case averted, and the incremental cost per death averted. RESULTS: Introducing childhood malaria vaccination in CHT in Bangladesh for a single birth cohort could prevent approximately 500 malaria cases and at least 30 deaths from malaria during the first year of vaccination. The cost per DALY averted of introducing the malaria vaccine compared to status quo is US$ 2,629 and US$ 2,583 from the health system and societal perspective, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of malaria vaccination in CHT region is estimated to be a cost-effective preventive intervention and would offer substantial future benefits particularly for young children vaccinated today. Policies should, thus, consider the operational advantages of targeting these populations, particularly in the CHT area, with the vaccine along with other malaria control initiatives.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antimaláricas/economia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Vacinação/economia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Árvores de Decisões , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 317-319, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province in 2019, so as to provide insights into the achievement of transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in the province in 2020. METHODS: The data pertaining to Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were captured from Hunan Province in 2019 and analyzed. RESULTS: Schistosomiasis was endemic in 281 townships (towns) from 41 counties (districts) of 6 cities in Hunan Province by the end of 2019. A total of 991 900 persons received blood testing in Hunan Province in 2019, and 22 773 were positive for the blood testing, with sero-prevalence of 2.30%. All stool examinations were negative in 22 933 individuals detected. The high sero-prevalence was seen in Nanxian County, Anxiang County and Ziyang District. Currently, there were 5 034 cases with advanced schistosomiasis detected in Hunan Province, and they were predominantly identified in Yuanjiang City, Heshan District and Yueyang County. There were 44 963 bovines fenced in schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Hunan Province in 2019, which were predominantly distributed in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Ziyang District, and no positives were detected in 1 996 bovines receiving blood testing or 20 684 bovines receiving stool examinations. In 2019, there were snail habitats of 1.73 billion m2 found in Hunan Province, which were mainly found in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Yueyang County. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis further decreases in Hunan Province in 2019; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission in local areas of the province.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA