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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(10): 44-46, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978925

RESUMO

Background: Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of developing metabolic diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23, and TNF-α,IGF that are increased in psoriasis play an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus(DM), hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance and their complications. Aims: To study prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) using HOMA-IR index in psoriasis patients and its association with severity of psoriasis. To study prevalence of metabolic diseases, macro and microvascular complications of these diseases in psoriasis. Materials and methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted involving 102 psoriasis patients and 102 age and sex matched controls. All patients were analysed for the presence of metabolic diseases and their complications. Results: Mean age of cases was 38.41±16.37 years. Majority of cases(58.8%) as well as controls (55.9%) were males. Prevalence of hypertension, prediabetes, DM, raised TG, low HDL, MetS and IR was 46.1%, 28.4%, 27.5%, 42.2%, 31.4%, 31.4% and 48% respectively in cases as compared to 26.5%, 13.7%, 11.8%, 24.3%, 16.7%, 10.8% and 26.5% respectively in controls. However there was no significant difference in obesity (29.4% vs 21.6%, p=0.2024) and LDL among the cases and controls(14.7 %vs 10.8%,p= 0.4). Prevalence of all the metabolic disorders except LDL was significantly higher in cases as compared to that in controls. Prominent complications noted were retinopathy, neuropathy and CVD. With increased psoriasis severity insulin resistance increased. Conclusion: There is a positive correlation of psoriasis with IR and it is associated with increased risk of metabolic diseases and their complications.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Psoríase/complicações , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Metab ; 2(7): 572-585, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694793

RESUMO

For infectious-disease outbreaks, clinical solutions typically focus on efficient pathogen destruction. However, the COVID-19 pandemic provides a reminder that infectious diseases are complex, multisystem conditions, and a holistic understanding will be necessary to maximize survival. For COVID-19 and all other infectious diseases, metabolic processes are intimately connected to the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and the resulting pathology and pathophysiology, as well as the host defence response to the infection. Here, I examine the relationship between metabolism and COVID-19. I discuss why preexisting metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, may be important risk factors for severe and critical cases of infection, highlighting parallels between the pathophysiology of these metabolic abnormalities and the disease course of COVID-19. I also discuss how metabolism at the cellular, tissue and organ levels might be harnessed to promote defence against the infection, with a focus on disease-tolerance mechanisms, and speculate on the long-term metabolic consequences for survivors of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 825-827, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver involvement is common in COVID-19. Elevated aspartate and alanine amino transaminase (AST/ALT) and borderline increase in serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are the commonest findings. Patients with associated co morbid conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, hypertension and old age are prone to develop severe disease. Limited data is available in patients with COVID-19 and metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).The aim of this review is to analyse the effect of MAFLD on severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed database till May 20, 2020 and retrieved all the articles published on COVID-19 and fatty liver/MAFLD/NAFLD. RESULTS: Limited studies done had shown four to six fold high risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with MAFLD. Patients with MAFLD and associated obesity, severe fibrosis and age <60 yrs are more prone to develop severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: MAFLD is associated with 4-6 fold increase in severity of COVID-19 compared to non MAFLD patients. Physician and hepatologist should follow these patients cautiously and preventive measures to be taken strictly in these high risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Life Sci ; 256: 117853, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470452

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the diabetes-protective effect and weight-lowering potential of a novel long-acting triagonist at three metabolically related hormone receptors including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon receptors. MAIN METHODS: Triagonist were designed in an iterative manner from native GLP-1, GIP and Glucogan. Main peptide chain (termed TG peptides) and subsequently modified LTG peptides were synthesized via solid phase synthesis. In vitro receptor activity assay was performed to screen the TG peptide with most balanced potency on all three receptors. The in vitro biological activities of modified TG peptides were further investigated by albumin-binding measurement and proteolytic cleavage test. Subsequently, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pharmacokinetic test and chronic study were subjected to the acute and long-term efficacy evaluation of selected fusion peptide, LTG-6. KEY FINDINGS: TG-8 exhibited equally aligned constituent efficacy and supraphysiological potency on corresponding receptor without cross-reactivity. Modified TG-8, termed LTG-6, exerted the great binding affinity for human serum albumin and the enhanced rational controlled-release of TG-8 in vitro. Further OGTT in different gene knockout mice and diabetic mice demonstrated the promising hypoglycemic and insulinotropic abilities of LTG-6. After long-term treatment for 8 weeks, LTG-6 was proved superior to co-agonists to decrease the body weight and %HbA1c, improve reverse dyslipidemia and glycemic control in the DIO models. SIGNIFICANCE: LTG-6, as a newly designed long-acting triagonist, holds potential to correct the obesity related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores de Glucagon/agonistas , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Trombina/química
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 653, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the relation between nutrient patterns and changes in adult anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on 1637 adults participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2005-2008), who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and had completed dietary data. They were followed to the next survey (2008-2011). Dietary intakes were collected and nutrient patterns were obtained. Three year changes in anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors were measured. RESULTS: Five nutrient patterns were extracted. The first pattern was characterized by "plant protein, thiamine, niacin, and minerals including phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, and selenium". Animal protein, lactose, vitamin D, riboflavine, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc" were loaded in the second pattern. The third and fourth patterns were characterized by "vitamin K, fiber, calcium, iron, manganese, and potassium", and "high correlation with starch, thiamine and folate, and negative correlation with mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E", respectively. The fifth pattern was high in Fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium. There was no association between nutrient patterns and 3-year changes in blood pressure and fasting blood glucose; whereas, per each quartile increment of the fifth pattern adjusted for potential confounders, triglyceride change was decreased [ß = - 3.66, 95% CI (- 6.57, - 0.57); P for trend = 0.014]. CONCLUSION: Present study indicates that nutrient patterns may have an association with cardiometabolic factors, particularly a pattern rich in fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium which decreases triglyceride level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Antropometria , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitaminas/análise
6.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 63, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389123

RESUMO

Oxygen is essentially required by most eukaryotic organisms as a scavenger to remove harmful electron and hydrogen ions or as a critical substrate to ensure the proper execution of enzymatic reactions. All nucleated cells can sense oxygen concentration and respond to reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia). When oxygen delivery is disrupted or reduced, the organisms will develop numerous adaptive mechanisms to facilitate cells survived in the hypoxic condition. Normally, such hypoxic response will cease when oxygen level is restored. However, the situation becomes complicated if hypoxic stress persists (chronic hypoxia) or cyclic normoxia-hypoxia phenomenon occurs (intermittent hypoxia). A series of chain reaction-like gene expression cascade, termed hypoxia-mediated gene regulatory network, will be initiated under such prolonged or intermittent hypoxic conditions and subsequently leads to alteration of cellular function and/or behaviors. As a result, irreversible processes occur that may cause physiological disorder or even pathological consequences. A growing body of evidence implicates that hypoxia plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of major causes of mortality including cancer, myocardial ischemia, metabolic diseases, and chronic heart and kidney diseases, and in reproductive diseases such as preeclampsia and endometriosis. This review article will summarize current understandings regarding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia in these common and important diseases.


Assuntos
Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Endometriose/etiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Nefropatias/etiologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez
7.
Mol Cell ; 78(4): 584-596, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234490

RESUMO

Many genomic studies have revealed associations between the gut microbiota composition and host metabolism. These observations led to the idea that a causal relationship could exist between the microbiota and metabolic diseases, a concept supported by studies showing compositional changes in the microbial community in metabolic diseases and transmissibility of host phenotype via microbiota transfer. Accumulating data suggest that the microbiota may affect host metabolic phenotypes through the production of metabolites. These bioactive microbial metabolites, sensitive fingerprints of microbial function, can act as inter-kingdom signaling messengers via penetration into host blood circulation and tissues. These fingerprints may be used for diagnostic purposes, and increased understanding of strain specificity in producing microbial metabolites can identify bacterial strains or specific metabolites that can be used for therapeutic purposes. Here, we will review data supporting the causal role of the gut microbiota in metabolism and discuss mechanisms and potential clinical implications.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia
8.
Intern Med ; 59(3): 345-355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009088

RESUMO

Objective To prolong the health expectancy, it is important to prevent age-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and cerebrovascular disease, which are major causes of a bedridden state. Early predictable biomarkers for these diseases are urgently required in the clinical setting. Three members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family - FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 - are designated as endocrine FGFs and play crucial roles in various metabolic processes. We tried to clarify the clinical utility of endocrine FGFs as biomarkers for age-related diseases in elderly patients. Methods We examined the serum endocrine FGF levels and analyzed their association with various clinical parameters in 73 outpatients >60 years old as a single-center cross-sectional study. Results In a multivariable linear regression analysis, FGF19 was associated with ALT, a history of cardiovascular disease, and medication with active vitamin D3. FGF21 was associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), triglyceride level, and hypertension. FGF23 was associated with the eGFR and the serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and TRACP5b. In addition, a receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that the measurement of FGF21 and FGF23 was useful for detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic bone disorder. Conclusion The measurement of FGF21 and FGF23 may be useful for evaluating CKD and its complications. Using serum endocrine FGFs as biomarkers for age-related conditions may help prevent elderly patients from entering a bedridden state.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991842

RESUMO

The health of Indigenous Australians is dramatically poorer than that of the non-Indigenous population. Amelioration of these differences has proven difficult. In part, this is attributable to a conceptualisation which approaches health disparities from the perspective of individual-level health behaviours, less so the environmental conditions that shape collective health behaviours. This ecological study investigated associations between the built environment and cardiometabolic mortality and morbidity in 123 remote Indigenous communities representing 104 Indigenous locations (ILOC) as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The presence of infrastructure and/or community buildings was used to create a cumulative exposure score (CES). Records of cardiometabolic-related deaths and health service interactions for the period 2010-2015 were sourced from government department records. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the associations between built environment "healthfulness" (CES, dichotomised) and cardiometabolic-related outcomes. Low relative to high CES was associated with greater rates of cardiometabolic-related morbidity for two of three morbidity measures (relative risk (RR) 2.41-2.54). Cardiometabolic-related mortality was markedly greater (RR 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74-11.93) for low-CES ILOCs. A lesser extent of "healthful" building types and infrastructure is associated with greater cardiometabolic-related morbidity and mortality in remote Indigenous locations. Attention to environments stands to improve remote Indigenous health.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Morbidade , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 71-87, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are insulin resistance-related metabolic disorders, which lack a better prognosis before their full establishment. We studied the importance of the intracellular scaffold protein integrin linked kinaes (ILK) as a key modulator in the initial pathogenesis and the early progression of those insulin resistance- related disorders. METHODS: Adult mice with a global transgenic downregulation of ILK expression (cKD-ILK) and littermates without that depletion (CT) were fed with either standard (STD) or high fat (HFD) diets during 2 and 6 weeks. Weights, blood glucose and other systemic biochemical parameters were determined in animals under fasting conditions and after glucose or pyruvate intraperitoneal injections to test their tolerance. In RNA or proteins extracted from insulin-sensitive tissues, we determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot the expression of ILK, metabolites transporters and other metabolism and inflammatory markers. Glucose uptake capacity was studied in freshly isolated tissues. RESULTS: HFD feeding was able to early and progressively increase glycaemia, insulinemia, circulating glycerol, body weight gain, liver-mediated gluconeogenesis along this time lapse, but cKD-ILK have all these systemic misbalances exacerbated compared to CT in the same HFD time lapse. Interestingly, the tisular expression of ILK in HFD-fed CT was dramatically downregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle and liver at the same extent of the original ILK downregulation of cKD-ILK. We previously published that basal STD-fed cKD-ILK compared to basal STD-CT have different expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 in WAT and skeletal muscle. In the same STD-fed cKD-ILK, we observed here the increased expressions of hepatic GLUT2 and WAT pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1. The administration of HFD exacerbated the expression changes in cKD-ILK of these and other markers related to the imbalanced metabolism observed, such as WAT lipolysis (HSL), hepatic gluconeogenesis (PCK-1) and glycerol transport (AQP9). CONCLUSION: ILK expression may be taken as a predictive determinant of metabolic disorders establishment, because its downregulation seems to correlate with the early imbalance of glucose and glycerol transport and the subsequent loss of systemic homeostasis of these metabolites.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Baixo , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Feminino , Gluconeogênese , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Resistência à Insulina , Lipólise , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
11.
Metabolism ; 103: 154025, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications are highly prevalent in cancer survivors treated with irradiation but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: Chow or high fat-fed C57Bl/6J mice were irradiated (6Gy) before investigating the impact on whole-body or skeletal muscle metabolism and profiling their lipidomic signature. Using a transgenic mouse model (Tg:Pax7-nGFP), we isolated muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and characterised their metabolic functions. We recruited childhood cancer survivors, grouped them based on the use of total body irradiation during their treatment and established their lipidomic profile. RESULTS: In mice, irradiation delayed body weight gain and impaired fat pads and muscle weights. These changes were associated with impaired whole-body fat oxidation in chow-fed mice and altered ex vivo skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, potentially due to a reduction in oxidative fibres and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activity. Irradiation led to fasting hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscles. Cultured satellite cells from irradiated mice showed decreased fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose uptake, recapitulating the host metabolic phenotype. Irradiation resulted in a remodelling of lipid species in skeletal muscles, with the extensor digitorum longus muscle being particularly affected. A large number of lipid species were reduced, with several of these species showing a positive correlation with mitochondrial enzymes activity. In cancer survivors exposed to irradiation, we found a similar decrease in systemic levels of most lipid species, and lipid species that increased were positively correlated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). CONCLUSION: Irradiation leads to long-term alterations in body composition, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle, and affects muscle progenitor cells. Such changes result in persistent impairment of metabolic functions, providing a new mechanism for the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases reported in irradiated individuals. In this context, changes in the lipidomic signature in response to irradiation could be of diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/metabolismo , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Irradiação Corporal Total/veterinária , Terapia por Raios X , Raios X/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(1): 33-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021494

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the association of maternal glycemia with childhood obesity and metabolic dysfunction.Study design: Secondary analysis of follow-up data 5-10 years after a mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treatment trial. The relationship between maternal oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) at 24-31-week gestation and body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, insulin, and anthropometric measurements (sum of skinfolds, subscapular/triceps ratio, and waist circumference) in the offspring of untreated mild GDM and non-GDM (abnormal 50-g screen/normal OGTT) women was assessed. Multivariable regression modeling controlling for maternal and neonatal characteristics was employed.Results: A cohort of 236 untreated mild GDM and 480 non-GDM offspring were analyzed. In the combined cohort, significant correlations existed between fasting, 1, 2, and 3 h maternal glucose and subscapular/triceps ratio (all p < .04) and in all OGTT values other than the 2-hour value for homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all p < .04) and sum of skinfold measurements (all p < .03). No correlation was found between OGTT values and childhood BMI Z-score. Multivariable regression modeling showed that OGTT values were associated with only sum of skinfolds and subscapular/triceps ratio and not with childhood BMI Z-score. Hispanic ethnicity and prepregnancy maternal BMI were most consistently related to childhood BMI Z-score and HOMA-IR, and Hispanic ethnicity with fasting glucose.Conclusions: Among women with untreated mild GDM and those without GDM, maternal glycemia is associated with childhood anthropometric measures of obesity but not childhood BMI, fasting glucose, or insulin resistance. Hispanic ethnicity, maternal BMI, and gestational weight gain were consistently related to childhood BMI.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Heart Fail Clin ; 16(1): 11-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735309

RESUMO

"Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a complex syndrome characterized by symptoms and signs supported by different forms of cardiac impairment. The link between multiple hormonal and metabolic derangements and the development of CHF and the beneficial effects seen with hormonal replacement therapy suggest that a reduction of anabolic pathways might contribute to the onset of CHF. Therefore, an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic forces could be responsible for the development of CHF. There are sufficient evidence to support the screening in patients with CHF of hormonal deficiencies and their correction with replacement therapy."


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo
14.
Life Sci ; 242: 117212, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884092

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), as a natural antioxidant, reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study investigated the effects of RSV treatment on high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and muscle, adipose, and hepatic cells of insulin resistance. HFD-fed mice were treated with RSV for 10 weeks. Blood glucose, plasma triglyceride (TG), body weight and glucose-lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle, fat and liver were examined. We further assessed the metabolic regulation of RSV in C2C12 myotubes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 cells of insulin resistance. KEY FINDINGS: We found that RSV reduced blood glucose, plasma TG and body weight, ameliorated insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. RSV reduced lipid accumulation and increased glycogen storage in muscle and hepatic cells, promoted lipolysis in adipocytes. We further found RSV reduced ROS levels in muscle, adipose, and hepatic cells of insulin resistance, contributing to improvement of metabolic abnormalities in HFD-fed mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The study reveals that RSV ameliorates metabolic disorders and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice, which provides further demonstration in RSV-treated type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Metabolism ; 102: 154012, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia (E) on subsequent metabolic and biochemical outcomes. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched five engines until November 2018 for studies evaluating the effects of PE/E on metabolic and biochemical outcomes after delivery. PE was defined as presence of hypertension and proteinuria at >20 weeks of pregnancy; controls did not have PE/E. Primary outcomes were blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MetS), blood lipids and glucose levels. Random effects models were used for meta-analyses, and effects reported as risk difference (RD) or mean difference (MD) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses by time of follow up, publication year, and confounder adjustment were performed. RESULTS: We evaluated 41 cohorts including 3300 PE/E and 13,967 normotensive controls. Women were followed up from 3 months after delivery up to 32 years postpartum. In comparison to controls, PE/E significantly increased systolic BP (MD = 8.3 mmHg, 95%CI 6.8 to 9.7), diastolic BP (MD = 6.8 mmHg, 95%CI 5.6 to 8.0), BMI (MD = 2.0 kg/m2; 95%CI 1.6 to 2.4), waist (MD = 4.3 cm, 95%CI 3.1 to 5.5), waist-to-hip ratio (MD = 0.02, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.03), weight (MD = 5.1 kg, 95%CI 2.2 to 7.9), total cholesterol (MD = 4.6 mg/dL, CI 1.5 to 7.7), LDL (MD = 4.6 mg/dL; 95%CI 0.2 to 8.9), triglycerides (MD = 7.7 mg/dL, 95%CI 3.6 to 11.7), glucose (MD = 2.6 mg/dL, 95%CI 1.2 to 4.0), insulin (MD = 19.1 pmol/L, 95%CI 11.9 to 26.2), HOMA-IR index (MD = 0.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 1.2), C reactive protein (MD = 0.05 mg/dL, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.09), and the risks of hypertension (RD = 0.24, 95%CI 0.15 to 0.33) and MetS (RD = 0.11, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.15). Also, PE/E reduced HDL levels (MD = -2.15 mg/dL, 95%CI -3.46 to -0.85). Heterogeneity of effects was high for most outcomes. Risk of bias was moderate across studies. Subgroup analyses showed similar effects as main analyses. CONCLUSION: Women who had PE/E have worse metabolic and biochemical profile than those without PE/E in an intermediate to long term follow up period.


Assuntos
Eclampsia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Resultado da Gravidez , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Eclampsia/sangue , Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Síndrome HELLP/epidemiologia , Síndrome HELLP/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842389

RESUMO

Sphingolipids are key signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell physiology. These species are found in tissues and in circulation. Although they only constitute a small fraction in lipid composition of circulating lipoproteins, their concentration in plasma and distribution among plasma lipoproteins appears distorted under adverse cardiometabolic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), one of their main representatives, is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte homeostasis in different models of experimental cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and represents a main risk factor for heart failure. Notably, plasma concentration of S1P, particularly high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound S1P, may be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus, and hence, inversely related to cardiac alterations. Despite this, little attention has been given to the circulating levels of either total S1P or HDL-bound S1P as potential biomarkers of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, this review will focus on the potential role of HDL-bound S1P as a circulating biomarker in the diagnosis of main cardiometabolic complications frequently associated with systemic metabolic syndromes with impaired insulin signaling. Given the bioactive nature of these molecules, we also evaluated its potential of HDL-bound S1P-raising strategies for the treatment of cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/genética , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingosina/sangue , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular , Remodelação Ventricular
17.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 7(1): e000824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875134

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Research design and methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 8460 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from Chinese urban areas who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and had metabolic risk factors measured. Results: In multivariate analysis adjusted for region, family income, age, puberty development, physical activity, and smoking, VAT and SAT were significantly associated with all metabolic risk factors for both sexes (all p<0.01). After additional adjustment for fat mass index, most of these associations remain significantly positive. In boys, SAT had greater ORs for all risk factors compared with VAT; in girls, however, SAT had greater odds for high triglycerides, smaller odds for high low-density lipid cholesterol, and similar odds for other risk factors compared with VAT. In addition, boys had greater magnitude of associations of SAT with high total cholesterol, high low-density lipid cholesterol, and low high-density lipid cholesterol compared with girls; no sex differences for VAT were observed. Conclusions: Both abdominal VAT and SAT have adverse impacts on most of the cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. However, their relative contributions differ between sexes.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Maturidade Sexual
18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 219, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternate-day fasting (ADF) is a novel diet therapy that may achieve reduction in body weight and improvement of dyslipidaemia, but the impact of this diet on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ADF on the body weight and lipid profile of individuals with NAFLD. METHODS: NAFLD patients (n = 271) were randomised to the ADF group, time-restricted feeding (TRF) group, or the control group and subjected to the respective diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, fat mass/fat-free mass) were performed, and plasma lipids were analysed enzymatically. RESULTS: Within 4 weeks, the body weight decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the ADF group by 4.56 ± 0.41 kg (6.1 ± 0.5%) and the TRF group by 3.62 ± 0.65 kg (4.83 ± 0.9%) compared to the control group, and it decreased even more after 12 weeks in both groups (ADF: - 4.04 ± 0.54 kg, 5.4 ± 0.7%; TRF: - 3.25 ± 0.67 kg, 4.3 ± 0.9%). Fat mass was significantly reduced by ADF (- 3.49 ± 0.37 kg; 11 ± 1.2%) and TRF (- 2.91 ± 0.41 kg; 9.6 ± 1.3%), with ADF leading to a further reduction in fat mass after 12 weeks (- 3.48 ± 0.38 kg; 11 ± 1.2%). Total cholesterol was significantly decreased at both time points in the ADF group (- 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/L; 18.5 ± 1.5%) compared to the control and TRF groups. Both ADF (- 0.64 ± 0.06 mmol/L; 25 ± 1.9%) and TRF (0.58 ± 0.07 mmol/L; 20 ± 1.7%) achieved a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (P < 0.001) after 12 weeks. Changes in fat free mass, HDL, LDL, fasting insulin, glucose, liver stiffness, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: ADF appears to be an effective diet therapy for individuals with NAFLD that can achieve weight loss and improvement of dyslipidaemia within a relatively short period of time (4 to 12 weeks). Potential preventive effects of ADF on cardiovascular disease need to be confirmed by future investigations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900024411, this trial was retrospectively registered on July 10, 2019.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847472

RESUMO

Metabolic disturbances are among the most common disorders diagnosed in pediatric patients after anti-cancer therapy (ACT). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disturbances among patients after ACT. The study group comprised 44 patients (31 boys) treated for solid tumors and 31 patients in the control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) values, lipid parameters are expressed in Standard Deviation Score (SDS), based on centile charts. Indicators of risk to atherosclerosis were calculated. Obesity/overweight was observed in one third of the patients. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in half of them, elevated tryglicerides (TG) SDS in 11, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) SDS in nine of the patients. Increased levels of both cholesterol SDS and LDL SDS were found in nine patients and four of them also showed elevated levels of TG SDS. There were significant differences in lipid parameters between the sexes. Risk indicators of lipid disorders defined by statistical distances (τ) were determined for the study group and the control group. The sum of the risk ratios of lipid disorders in the study group was 150 times higher than in the control group. Patients after ACT require special monitoring of lipids profiles and thyroid function as they are at higher risk for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis than healthy people.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877943

RESUMO

Obesity is a multifaceted chronic condition with several contributing causes, including biological risk factors, socioeconomic status, health literacy, and numerous environmental influences. Of particular concern are the increasing rates of obesity in children and adolescents, as rates of obesity in youth in the United States have tripled within the last three decades. Youth from historically disadvantaged backgrounds tend to have higher rates of obesity compared to other groups. Adolescents often do not meet intake recommendations for certain food groups and nutrients, which may contribute to a heightened risk of obesity. With obesity disproportionately affecting adolescents (ages 12-19 years), negative effects of excess adiposity may be particularly salient during this critical period of development. The presentation of chronic cardiometabolic disease symptoms typically observed in adults, such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, are becoming increasingly common in adolescents with obesity. Additionally, there is dynamic interplay between obesity and psychosocial health, as adolescents with obesity may have increased levels of stress, depressive symptoms, and reduced resilience. To reduce and prevent adolescent obesity, the implementation of theory-driven multicomponent school- and community-based interventions have been suggested. These interventions promote knowledge and self-efficacy for healthful practices that have the potential to progress to sustained behavior change.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Psicologia , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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