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1.
Public Health ; 176: 133-141, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify priority social factors contributing to indigenous cardiometabolic diseases. STUDY DESIGN: A three-round Delphi process was used to consolidate and compare the opinions of 60 experts in indigenous cardiometabolic health from Australia, New Zealand and the United States. METHODS: Round one: three open-ended questions: (i) historical, (ii) economic and (iii) sociocultural factor contributors to cardiometabolic disease risk. Round two: a structured questionnaire based on the results from the first round; items were ranked according to perceived importance. Final round: the items were reranked after receiving the summary feedback. RESULTS: Several key findings were identified: (i) an important historical factor is marginalisation and disempowerment; (ii) in terms of economic and sociocultural factors, the panellists came to the consensus that the socio-economic status and educational inequalities are important; and (iii) while consensus was not reached, economic and educational factors were also perceived to be historically influential. CONCLUSION: These findings support the need for multilevel health promotion policy. For example, tackling financial barriers that limit the access to health-promoting resources, combined with improving literacy skills to permit understanding of health education.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Grupos Populacionais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Austrália , Consenso , Consultores , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 86, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in walkable neighborhoods may provide long-term cardio-metabolic health benefits to residents. Little empirical research has examined the behavioral mechanisms in this relationship. In this longitudinal study, we examined the potential mediating role of physical activity (baseline and 12-year change) in the relationships of neighborhood walkability with 12-year changes in cardio-metabolic risk markers. METHODS: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study collected data from adults, initially aged 25+ years, in 1999-2000, 2004-05, and 2011-12. We used 12-year follow-up data from 2023 participants who did not change their address during the study period. Outcomes were 12-year changes in waist circumference, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A walkability index was calculated, using dwelling density, intersection density, and destination density, within 1 km street-network buffers around participants' homes. Spatial data for calculating these measures were sourced around the second follow-up period. Physical activity was assessed by self-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (including walking). Multilevel models, adjusting for potential confounders, were used to examine the total and indirect relationships. The joint-significance test was used to assess mediation. RESULTS: There was evidence for relationships of higher walkability with smaller increases in weight (P = 0.020), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.002); and, for relationships of higher walkability with higher baseline physical activity (P = 0.020), which, in turn, related to smaller increases in waist circumference (P = 0.006), weight (P = 0.020), and a greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.005). There was no evidence for a relationship of a higher walkability with a change in physical activity during the study period (P = 0.590). CONCLUSIONS: Our mediation analysis has shown that the protective effects of walkable neighborhoods against obesity risk may be in part attributable to higher baseline physical activity levels. However, there was no evidence of mediation by increases in physical activity during the study period. Further research is needed to understand other behavioral pathways between walkability and cardio-metabolic health, and to investigate any effects of changes in walkability.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Características de Residência , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Autorrelato , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
Biochimie ; 167: 106-118, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545993

RESUMO

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that produce numerous bioactive molecules that can be used as food supplement to prevent chronic disease installation. Indeed, they produce phycobiliproteins, polysaccharides, lipids, carotenoids and sterolic compounds. The use of microalgae in human nutrition provide a mixture of these molecules with synergistic effect. The aim of this review is to present the specific roles played by the xanthophylls, and specifically astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, two high added value carotenoids, and by microalgal phytosterols such as ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol on several cell mechanisms involved in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases and cancers. This review explains how these microalgal molecules modulate cell signaling pathways involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, inflammation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. Xanthophylls and phytosterols are involved in the reduction of inflammatory markers in relation with the regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, and suppression of production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Xanthophylls act on glucose and lipid metabolisms via both the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and glucose transporters and its effects on the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism. Their anti-cancer effects are related to the induction of intrinsic apoptosis due to down-regulation of key regulatory kinases. The anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects are correlated with decreased production of endothelial growth factors and of matrix metalloproteinases. Phytosterols have a major role on cholesterol absorption via modification of the activities of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 and ATP-binding cassette transporters and on cholesterol esterification. Their action are also related with the modulation of PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 activities.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Microalgas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4007, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488836

RESUMO

Gut microbiota mediates the effects of diet, thereby modifying host metabolism and the incidence of metabolic disorders. Increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is abundant in Western diet contributes to obesity and related diseases. Although gut-microbiota-related metabolic pathways of dietary PUFAs were recently elucidated, the effects on host physiological function remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbiota confers host resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulating dietary PUFAs metabolism. Supplementation of 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), an initial linoleic acid-related gut-microbial metabolite, attenuates HFD-induced obesity in mice without eliciting arachidonic acid-mediated adipose inflammation and by improving metabolic condition via free fatty acid receptors. Moreover, Lactobacillus-colonized mice show similar effects with elevated HYA levels. Our findings illustrate the interplay between gut microbiota and host energy metabolism via the metabolites of dietary omega-6-FAs thereby shedding light on the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders by targeting gut microbial metabolites.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Ocidental , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 25(3): 101-108, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411091

RESUMO

Background: Selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD)-that is, preventive measures specifically targeting the high-risk population-may represent the most effective approach for mitigating rising CMD rates. Objectives: To develop a universal concept of selective CMD prevention that can guide implementation within European primary care. Methods: Initially, 32 statements covering different aspects of selective CMD prevention programmes were identified based on a synthesis of evidence from two systematic literature reviews and surveys conducted within the SPIMEU project. The Rand/UCLA appropriateness method (RAM) was used to find consensus on these statements among an international panel consisting of 14 experts. Before the consensus meeting, statements were rated by the experts in a first round. In the next step, during a face-to-face meeting, experts were provided with the results of the first rating and were then invited to discuss and rescore the statements in a second round. Results: In the outcome of the RAM procedure, 28 of 31 statements were considered appropriate and three were rated uncertain. The panel deleted one statement. Selective CMD prevention was considered an effective approach for preventing CMD and a proactive approach was regarded as more effective compared to case-finding alone. The most efficient method to implement selective CMD prevention systematically in primary care relies on a stepwise approach: initial risk assessment followed by interventions if indicated. Conclusion: The final set of statements represents the key characteristics of selective CMD prevention and can serve as a guide for implementing selective prevention actions in European primary care.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Consenso , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(17): 1212-1217, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454844

RESUMO

The prevalence of dementias is on the rise, increases exponentially with age and constitutes a major healthcare burden nationally and worldwide. Dementias are clinically heterogeneous and encompass numerous etiologies. Noteworthy, late onset dementias are closely related to vascular and metabolic risk factors in midlife. Cardiometabolic risk factors commonly precede the onset of cognitive decline for decades. This opens a huge window for prevention. Given the lack of established pharmacological options for treatment of most dementias, preventive strategies are of utmost importance. Several factors have been identified that have the potential to preserve a healthy metabolic phenotype and to attenuate the onset of late onset dementias. Evidence exists for low-risk lifestyle factors including a real food dietary pattern, an adequate supply with long chain omega-3 fatty acids, regular physical activity and restorative sleep, with multimodal concepts showing the greatest cumulative benefit.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Demência , Doenças Metabólicas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Demência/complicações , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387247

RESUMO

Plant-based diets rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols have been shown to positively modulate the risk of cardiometabolic (CM) diseases. The inter-individual variability in the response to these bioactives may affect the findings. This systematic review aimed to summarize findings from existing randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) on markers of CM health in humans. Literature searches were performed in PubMed and the Web of Science. RCTs on acute and chronic supplementation of HCA-rich foods/extracts on CM biomarkers were included. Forty-four RCTs (21 acute and 23 chronic) met inclusion criteria. Comparisons were made between RCTs, including assessments based on population health status. Of the 44 RCTs, only seven performed analyses on a factor exploring inter-individual response to HCA consumption. Results demonstrated that health status is a potentially important effect modifier as RCTs with higher baseline cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemia demonstrated greater overall effectiveness, which was also found in studies where specific subgroup analyses were performed. Thus, the effect of HCAs on CM risk factors may be greater in individuals at higher CM risk, although future studies in these populations are needed, including those on other potential determinants of inter-individual variability. PROSPERO, registration number CRD42016050790.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330799

RESUMO

Scientific advancements in recent years have shed new light on the relationship between diet and human health. Nutrients play an important role in the prevention of many civilization diseases, such as osteoporosis, type II diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The biological activity of natural plant components allows their use in the treatment of various diseases, especially civilization diseases, to be speculated. Special attention is paid to phenolic compounds that have numerous health-promoting properties. Isoflavones, phenolic compounds, are commonly found in legumes, especially in soybeans. Their structural similarity to 17-ß-estradiol (E2), the main female sex hormone, allows them to induce estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects by binding to estrogen receptors, and their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of hormone-related cancers. In addition, numerous epidemiological studies and related meta-analyses suggest that soy consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of certain diseases. However, there are some doubts about the potential effects on health, such as the effectiveness of cardiovascular risk reduction or breast cancer-promoting properties. The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge on the potential effects of soy isoflavone consumption with regard to civilization diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Soja/química , Humanos
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1667-1673, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336539

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the top global issues, which induces several serious health consequences both physically and mentally, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, eating disorders, depression and stress. However, the effective therapy to prevent and treat obesity and overweight, up to now, cannot be found nowadays. Several methods/medicines namely diet control, energy balance, environmental changes, genetic and stem cell therapies, new drugs/chemicals have been extensively studied to enhance the ability to control bodyweight and prevent obesity. Of all the aforementioned methods, green tea, used as a daily beverage, has shown beneficial impacts for the health, especially its anti-obesity effects. Available evidence shows that green tea can interrupt lipid emulsification, reduce adipocyte differentiation, increase thermogenesis, and reduce food intake, thus green tea improves the systemic metabolism and decreases fat mass. Here, we highlight and sum up the update investigations of anti-obesity effect of green tea as well as discuss the potential application of them for preventing obesity and its related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Chá/química , Humanos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340583

RESUMO

(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Açúcares da Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181761

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Postprandial lipemia, which is mainly related to the increase in chylomicron production, is frequently elevated in individuals at high cardiovascular risk such as obese or overweight patients, type 2 diabetic patients and subjects with a metabolic syndrome who share an insulin resistant state. It is now well known that chylomicron production and thus postprandial lipemia is highly regulated by many factors such as endogenous factors: circulating factors such as hormones or free fatty acids, genetic variants, circadian rhythms, or exogenous factors: food components, dietary supplements and prescription drugs. In this review, we focused on the effect of nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals but also on food structure on chylomicron production and postprandial lipemia.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/biossíntese , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208033

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. against obesity and diabetes, by comparing the transcriptional changes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) with those of the bioactive compound in C. morifolium, luteolin (LU). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with 1.5% w/w chrysanthemum leaf ethanol extract (CLE) for 16 weeks. Supplementation with CLE and LU significantly decreased the body weight gain and eWAT weight by stimulating mRNA expressions for thermogenesis and energy expenditure in eWAT via lipid mobilization, which may be linked to the attenuation of dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CLE and LU increased uncoupling protein-1 protein expression in brown adipose tissue, leading to energy expenditure. Of note, CLE and LU supplements enhanced the balance between lipid storage and mobilization in white adipose tissue (WAT), in turn, inhibiting adipocyte inflammation and lipotoxicity of peripheral tissues. Moreover, CLE and LU attenuated hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis, thereby ameliorating insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Our data suggest that CLE helps inhibit obesity and its comorbidities via the complex interplay between liver and WAT in diet-induced obese mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Chrysanthemum/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etanol/farmacologia , Mobilização Lipídica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(6): 861-866, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155526

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue is a critical regulator of metabolic health, and contributes to thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation through the action of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Recent studies have shown that cold exposure and the stimulation of ß3-adrenergic receptors induce the development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissue. Brown and/or beige adipocyte-mediated thermogenesis suppresses high-fat diet-associated obesity. Therefore, the development of brown/beige adipocytes may prevent obesity and metabolic diseases. In the present study, we elucidated whether naturally occurring compounds contribute to regulating the cellular differentiation of brown/beige adipocytes. We screened for the up-regulated expression of Ucp1 during beige adipogenesis using extracts of crude herbal drugs frequently used in Kampo prescriptions (therapeutic drugs in Japanese traditional medicine). This screening revealed that the extract prepared from Citri Unshiu Pericarpium [the peel of Citrus unshiu (Swingle) Marcov.] increased the expression of Ucp1 in beige adipocytes. We also focused on the function of clock genes in regulating brown/beige adipogenesis. Therefore, another aim of the present study was to evaluate naturally occurring compounds that regulate brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) gene expression. In this review, we focus on naturally occurring compounds that affect regulatory processes in brown/beige adipogenesis, and discuss better preventive strategies for the management of obesity and other metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Adipócitos Bege/fisiologia , Adipócitos Marrons/fisiologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1 , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/fisiologia , Animais , Relógios Biológicos/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Medicina Kampo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
14.
Curr Obes Rep ; 8(3): 317-332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this review, we summarize current evidence on the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in relation to obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Special emphasis is given on mechanisms interconnecting gut microbiome and microbial metabolites with metabolic disorders as well as on potential preventive and therapeutic perspectives with a "bench to bedside" approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have highlighted the role of gut dysbiosis in the etiology and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Overall, most studies have demonstrated a reduction in gut microbiome diversity and richness in obese subjects, but there is still much debate on the exact microbial signature of a healthy or an obese gut microbiome. Despite the controversial role of an altered gut microbiome as a cause or consequence of obesity in human studies, numerous animal studies and certain human studies suggest beneficial metabolic effects of certain microbial intestinal metabolites, such as butyrate, that could be used in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. More randomized controlled trials and larger prospective studies including well-defined cohorts as well as a multi-omics approach are warranted to better identify the associations between the gut microbiome, microbial metabolites, and obesity and its metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Butiratos/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/complicações , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Simbióticos
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 845-855, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216840

RESUMO

Synthetic biology builds programmed biological systems for a wide range of purposes such as improving human health, remedying the environment, and boosting the production of valuable chemical substances. In recent years, the rapid development of synthetic biology has enabled synthetic bacterium-based diagnoses and therapeutics superior to traditional methodologies by engaging bacterial sensing of and response to environmental signals inherent in these complex biological systems. Biosynthetic systems have opened a new avenue of disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we introduce designed synthetic bacterial systems acting as living therapeutics in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. We also discuss the safety and robustness of genetically modified synthetic bacteria inside the human body.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Terapia Biológica , Biologia Sintética , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 338-348, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075404

RESUMO

N-Carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), can promote the synthesis of endogenous Arginine (Arg) in mammals, but not well studied in fish. This study was conducted to investigate the capacity of Arg endogenous synthesis by NCG, and the effects of various dietary NCG doses on growth performance, hepatic health and underlying nutrient regulation metabolism on ERK1/2-mTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Four experimental diets were prepared with NCG supplement levels of 0 (N0), 360 (N360), 720 (N720) and 3600 (N3600) mg/kg, in which N360 was at the maximum recommended level authorized by MOA, China in fish feed, and the N720 and N3600 levels were 2 and 10-fold of N360, respectively. Each diet was fed to 6 replicates with 30 Japanese seabass (initial body weight, IBW = 11.67 ±â€¯0.02 g) in each tank. The results showed that the dietary NCG supplementation had no significant effects on the SGR and morphometric parameters of Japanese seabass, but 360-720 mg/kg NCG inclusion promoted PPV, while the 10-fold (3600 mg/kg) overdose of NCG had remarkably negative effects with significantly reduced feed efficiency, PPV and LPV. We found that Japanese seabass can utilize 360-720 mg/kg NCG to synthesis Arg to improve the amino acid metabolism by increasing plasma Arg and up-regulating intestinal ASL gene expression. Increased plasma GST and decreased MDA indicated the improved antioxidant response. Dietary NCG inclusion decreased plasma IgM and down-regulated the mRNA levels of inflammation (TNF-α and IL8), apoptosis (caspase family) and fibrosis (TGF-ß1) related genes in the liver. The immunofluorescence examination revealed significantly decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis signals in the NCG groups. The ameliorated liver function and histological structure were closely related to the improved lipid metabolism parameters with decreased plasma VLDL and hepatic TG and NEFA accumulation, down-regulated fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and simultaneously increased lipolysis gene mRNA levels, which regulated by inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK1/2-mTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway. Consuming 3600 mg/kg of dietary NCG is not safe for Japanese seabass culturing with the significantly increased FCR and decreased protein and lipid retention, and reduced plasma ALB. Accordingly, the observed efficacy and safety level of dietary NCG in the diet of Japanese seabass is 720 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Bass , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginina/biossíntese , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075850

RESUMO

4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (HMCA), a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, is abundant in fruits and vegetables, including oranges, carrots, rice bran, and coffee beans. Several beneficial effects of HMCA have been reported, including improvement of metabolic abnormalities in animal models and human studies. However, its mitigating effects on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, and the mechanism underlying these effects, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that dietary HMCA was efficacious against HFD-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis, and that it improved insulin sensitivity. These metabolic benefits of HMCA were ascribable to 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HMPA) produced by gut microbiota. Moreover, conversion of HMCA into HMPA was attributable to a wide variety of microbes belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. We further showed that HMPA modulated gut microbes associated with host metabolic homeostasis by increasing the abundance of organisms belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and reducing the abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Collectively, these results suggest that HMPA derived from HMCA is metabolically beneficial, and regulates hepatic lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the gut microbial community. Our results provide insights for the development of functional foods and preventive medicines, based on the microbiota of the intestinal environment, for the prevention of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/química , Coffea/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/etiologia , Oryza/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075905

RESUMO

The improvement of the social and economic conditions of society has eliminated the threat of death from the majority of infectious diseases. However, the rapid progress of civilization has created new possibilities for the appearance of factors with adverse effects for the health of society. This has led to increased morbidity from certain diseases, the presence of which had not been observed several centuries ago. Chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular disorders, diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases) result from an inappropriate relationship between people and their environment. The common characteristic for all chronic diseases is a "new" form of inflammation, very often called metaflammation, which is considered as a subclinical, permanent inflammation. As a result, metabolic cascade, including cellular oxidative stress, atherosclerotic process, and insulin resistance, occurs, which slowly generates significant deterioration in the organism. Polyphenols are the major group of non-nutrients, considering their diversity, food occurrence, and biological properties. The current review aims to present a wide spectrum of literature data, including the molecular mechanism of their activity and experimental model used, and summarize the recent findings on the multitude of physiological effects of dietary polyphenols towards the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, despite several studies, the estimation of their dietary intake is troublesome and inconclusive, which will be also discussed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle
19.
Mol Cells ; 42(4): 292-300, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091555

RESUMO

Immunometabolism, defined as the interaction of metabolic pathways with the immune system, influences the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Metformin and carbon monoxide (CO) are two pharmacological agents known to ameliorate metabolic disorders. There are notable similarities and differences in the reported effects of metformin and CO on immunometabolism. Metformin, an anti-diabetes drug, has positive effects on metabolism and can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent mechanisms. CO, an endogenous product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), can exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects at low concentration. CO can confer cytoprotection in metabolic disorders and cancer via selective activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) pathway. Both metformin and CO can induce mitochondrial stress to produce a mild elevation of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) by distinct mechanisms. Metformin inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), while CO inhibits ETC complex IV. Both metformin and CO can differentially induce several protein factors, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and sestrin2 (SESN2), which maintain metabolic homeostasis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response; and REDD1, which exhibits an anticancer effect. However, metformin and CO regulate these effects via different pathways. Metformin stimulates p53- and AMPK-dependent pathways whereas CO can selectively trigger the PERK-dependent signaling pathway. Although further studies are needed to identify the mechanistic differences between metformin and CO, pharmacological application of these agents may represent useful strategies to ameliorate metabolic diseases associated with altered immunometabolism.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Animais , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
20.
Top Antivir Med ; 27(1): 34-40, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137001

RESUMO

The 2019 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a considerable amount of new information on the progress in implementation of strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from complications and coinfections that occur in people with HIV infection, and on the clinical management of these important problems. This review will address new insights into the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections, malignancies, and a range of metabolic complications and noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
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