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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(2): 342-352, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903895

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with a similar molecular structure to insulin. IGF-1 plays a key role in tissue growth and development, as well as cell metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Liver is the main source of IGF-1, with the production of IGF-1 up to 75% of the total in the whole body, while the remaining 25% are secreted by skeletal muscles, heart, kidney, spleen and other organs. Target organs of IGF-1 include heart, blood vessels, liver, bone and skeletal muscles. It has been well documented that IGF-1 plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. Different types of exercise have different effects on IGF-1 expression with organ differences. In this article, we reviewed the preventive and therapeutic effects of IGF-1 on metabolic diseases and IGF-1-mediated exercise-induced benefits.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Doenças Metabólicas , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Fígado , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Músculo Esquelético
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669580

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of probiotics in inducing body weight loss in patients with overweight or obesity with related metabolic diseases. The research was carried out on PubMed and Scopus, focusing on studies reporting the effect on anthropometric measures (weight, body mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) after administration of various probiotic strains compared to placebo. Twenty randomized controlled trials, that included 1411 patients, were considered. The meta-analyzed mean differences (MD) for random effects showed no significant decrease in body weight after probiotic supplementation (-0.26 kg [-075, 0.23], p = 0.30), while a significant BMI decrease was found (-0.73 kg/m2 [-1.31, -0.16], p = 0.01). For WC and HC, the meta-analyzed MD for random effects showed a significant decrease (WC: -0.71 cm [-1.24; -0.19], p = 0.008 and HC: -0.73 cm [-1.16; -0.30], p = 0.0008). The risk of bias was also evaluated considering a high risk and a low risk according to PRISMA criteria. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis highlight a positive trend of probiotics supplementation on the amelioration of anthropometric measures of overweight and obese patients with related metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed before recommending the use of probiotics as a therapeutic strategy for these patients. The focus of the future research should be to evaluate the efficacy of different probiotic strains, the quantities to be administered, and the duration of the intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(5): R193-R205, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630750

RESUMO

During the last decades, it has become clear that the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. More than 40 hormones originate from the gastrointestinal tract and several of these impact glucose metabolism and appetite regulation. An astonishing example of the gut's integrative role in glucose metabolism originates from investigations into bile acid biology. From primary animal studies, it has become clear that bile acids should no longer be labelled as simple detergents necessary for lipid digestion and absorption but should also be recognised as metabolic regulators implicated in lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. The nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a part of an exquisite bile acid-sensing system that among other things ensures the optimal size of the bile acid pool. In addition, intestinal and hepatic FXR also impact the regulation of several metabolic processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism. Accordingly, natural and synthetic FXR agonists and certain FXR-regulated factors (i.e. fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19)) are increasingly being evaluated as treatments for metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (and its inflammatory version, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Interestingly, decreased FXR activation also benefits glucose metabolism. This can be obtained by reducing bile acid absorption using bile acid sequestering agents (approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes) or inhibitors of intestinal bile acid transporters,that is the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). This article discusses recent clinical trials that provide insights about the role of FXR-FGF19-targetted therapy for the treatment of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(2): 237-268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622213

RESUMO

Intestinal flora is essential for maintaining host health and plays a unique role in transforming Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM, as a bodyguard, has saved countless lives and maintained human health in the long history, especially in this COVID-19 pandemic. Pains of diseases have been removed from the effective TCM therapy, such as TCM preparation, moxibustion, and acupuncture. With the development of life science and technology, the wisdom and foresight of TCM has been more displayed. Furthermore, TCM has been also inherited and developed in innovation to better realize the modernization and globalization. Nowadays, intestinal flora transforming TCM and TCM targeted intestinal flora treating diseases have been important findings in life science. More and more TCM researches showed the significance of intestinal flora. Intestinal flora is also a way to study TCM to elucidate the profound theory of TCM. Processing, compatibility, and properties of TCM are well demonstrated by intestinal flora. Thus, it is no doubt that intestinal flora is a core in TCM study. The interaction between intestinal flora and TCM is so crucial for host health. Therefore, it is necessary to sum up the latest results in time. This paper systematically depicted the profile of TCM and the importance of intestinal flora in host. What is more, we comprehensively summarized and discussed the latest progress of the interplay between TCM and intestinal flora to better reveal the core connotation of TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Eletroacupuntura , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
6.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(3): 237-244, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470860

RESUMO

Introduction: Therapeutic oligonucleotides have emerged as a promising new class of drug that could silence undruggable targets; they can potentially treat metabolic liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hereditary hemochromatosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency.Areas covered: This article illuminates the mechanism of action of, and drug delivery approaches for therapeutic oligonucleotides such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and MicroRNAs (miRs). We reveal why the liver is the ideal organ for therapeutic oligonucleotides, discuss its unique architecture, and shed light on those susceptible molecular targets that can be modulated. We also examine preclinical and clinical data on the utility of oligonucleotides in silencing the expression of genes responsible for metabolic liver diseases.Expert opinion: The liver has numerous susceptible molecular therapeutic targets; hence, metabolic liver diseases can be treated effectively by modulating these targets via novel therapeutic oligonucleotides. Undoubtedly, these exciting developments integrate well with precision medicine progress. Specific therapeutic oligonucleotides can be designed based on the exact underlying molecular mechanism of the disease. So, there is a justification for furthering the development of therapeutic oligonucleotides for metabolic liver diseases. Safety concerns such as immunogenicity and off-target effects will however require careful monitoring.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/terapia , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Inativação Gênica , Hemocromatose/genética , Hemocromatose/terapia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/genética , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/terapia
7.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(1): 81-102, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228944

RESUMO

Advances in technology, methodology, and deep phenotyping are increasingly driving the understanding of the pathologic basis of disease. Improvements in patient identification and treatment are impacting survival. This is true in endocrinology and inborn errors of metabolism, where disease-modifying therapies are developing. Inherent to this evolution is the increasing awareness of the respiratory manifestations of these rare diseases. This review updates clinicians, stratifying diseases spirometerically; pulmonary hypertension and diseases with a predisposition to recurrent pulmonary infection are discussed. This division is artificial; many diseases have multiple pathologic effects on respiration. This review does not cover the impact of obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Criança , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/terapia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Fenótipo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21140, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treating blood stasis is effective in treating obesity and metabolic diseases in traditional Korean medicine. The aim of this prospective observational study is to determine the effectiveness of the diagnosis index for metabolic diseases with blood stasis by analyzing clinical data and blood samples. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a prospective observational study. Participants who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited from the Dongguk university Ilsan Oriental hospital. The outcomes are resistin, serum amyloid P component, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and blood stasis scores. In addition, the blood pressure, ankle-brachial pressure index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, body mass index, waist circumference, and levels of blood lipid will be assessed. DISCUSSION: Through this study, we could collect specific data for diagnosing metabolic diseases with blood stasis. Therefore, the findings of this study will provide a summary of the current state of evidence regarding the effectiveness of the diagnosis index in managing metabolic disease with blood stasis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Dongguk University Ilsan Oriental Hospital (DUIOH-2018-09-001-007). The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0003548.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Língua/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Língua/patologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3778, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728076

RESUMO

Targeted genome editing has a great therapeutic potential to treat disorders that require protein replacement therapy. To develop a platform independent of specific patient mutations, therapeutic transgenes can be inserted in a safe and highly transcribed locus to maximize protein expression. Here, we describe an ex vivo editing approach to achieve efficient gene targeting in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and robust expression of clinically relevant proteins by the erythroid lineage. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we integrate different transgenes under the transcriptional control of the endogenous α-globin promoter, recapitulating its high and erythroid-specific expression. Erythroblasts derived from targeted HSPCs secrete different therapeutic proteins, which retain enzymatic activity and cross-correct patients' cells. Moreover, modified HSPCs maintain long-term repopulation and multilineage differentiation potential in transplanted mice. Overall, we establish a safe and versatile CRISPR-Cas9-based HSPC platform for different therapeutic applications, including hemophilia and inherited metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Edição de Genes , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemofilia A/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Transplante Heterólogo , alfa-Globinas/genética , alfa-Globinas/metabolismo
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(687): 578-581, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216180

RESUMO

It is well demonstrated that physical activity can improve the control of diseases such as diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Introduction of regular and frequent physical activity is also part of the useful measures in the management of excess weight. It is therefore surprising that the prescription of physical activity for the treatment of these diseases is still not part of the curriculum of medical studies, and that reimbursement remains very scarce. This article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field and outlines their clinical application.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Dislipidemias/terapia , Humanos , Ganho de Peso
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 56, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131831

RESUMO

The gut microbiota that inhabit our gastrointestinal tract are well known to play an important role in maintaining human health in many aspects, including facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients, protecting against pathogens and regulating immune system. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with a lot of diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. With the increasing knowledge of the microbiome, utilization of probiotic bacteria in modulating gut microbiota to prevent and treat a large number of disorders and diseases has gained much interest. In recent years, aided by the continuous development of tools and techniques, engineering probiotic microbes with desired characteristics and functionalities to benefit human health has made significant progress. In this paper, we summarize the recent advances in design and construction of probiotics as living diagnostics and therapeutics for probing and treating a series of diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation and pathogenic bacteria infections. We also discuss the current challenges and future perspectives in expanding the application of probiotics for disease treatment and detection. We intend to provide insights and ideas for engineering of probiotics to better serve disease therapy and human health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Engenharia Metabólica , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Disbiose/terapia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/terapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Biologia Sintética
14.
Int J Hematol ; 111(6): 869-876, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052319

RESUMO

The impact of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on clinical outcomes was retrospectively analyzed in 960 patients with non-malignant diseases (NMD) who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Grade III-IV acute GVHD (but not grade I-II) was significantly associated with a lower rate of overall survival (OS), and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) than that seen in patients without acute GVHD. Extensive (but not limited) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS rate and higher NRM than that seen in patients without chronic GVHD. Any grade of acute (but not chronic) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower incidence of relapse and a lower proportion of patients requiring a second HSCT or donor lymphocyte infusion for graft failure or mixed chimerism, but its impact on OS was almost negligible. Acute GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in all disease groups, whereas chronic GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in the primary immunodeficiency and histiocytosis groups. In conclusion, acute and chronic GVHD, even if mild, was associated with reduced OS in patients receiving HSCT for NMD and effective strategies should, therefore, be implemented to minimize GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Histiocitose/mortalidade , Histiocitose/terapia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/mortalidade , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040532

RESUMO

Although the beneficial effects of probiotics in the prevention or treatment of metabolic disorders have been extensively researched, the precise mechanisms by which probiotics improve metabolic homeostasis are still not clear. Given that probiotics usually exert a comprehensive effect on multiple metabolic disorders, defining a concurrent mechanism underlying the multiple effects is critical to understand the function of probiotics. In this study, we identified the SIRT1-dependent or independent PGC-1α pathways in multiple organs that mediate the protective effects of a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum against high-fat diet-induced adiposity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. L. plantarum treatment significantly enhanced the expression of SIRT1, PPARα, and PGC-1α in the liver and adipose tissues under HFD-fed condition. L. plantarum treated mice also exhibited significantly increased expressions of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and reverse cholesterol transport in the liver, browning and thermogenesis of adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation in the liver and adipose tissue. Additionally, L. plantarum treatment significantly upregulated the expressions of adiponectin in adipose tissue, irisin in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and FGF21 in SAT. These beneficial changes were associated with a significantly improved HFD-induced alteration of gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that the PGC-1α-mediated pathway could be regarded as a potential target in the development of probiotics-based therapies for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/terapia , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
16.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(3): E318-E329, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961704

RESUMO

Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been recognized as an important strategy for the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1 (ECH1) is a widely known enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. However, whether and how ECH1 is implicated in browning of WAT remain obscure. Adeno-associated, virus-mediated genetic engineering of ECH1 in adipose tissue was used in investigations in mouse models of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) or browning induced by cold exposure. Metabolic parameters showed that ECH1 overexpression decreased weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profile after 8 wk of an HFD. Further work revealed that these changes were associated with enhanced energy expenditure and increased appearance of brown-like adipocytes in inguinal WAT, as verified by a remarkable increase in uncoupling protein 1 and thermogenic gene expression. In vitro, ECH1 induced brown fat-related gene expression in adipocytes differentiated from primary stromal vascular fractions, whereas knockdown of ECH1 reversed this effect. Mechanistically, ECH1 regulated the thermogenic program by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, which may partially explain the potential mechanism for ECH1 regulating adipose browning. In summary, ECH1 may participate in the pathology of obesity by regulating browning of WAT, which probably provides us with a new therapeutic strategy for combating obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/enzimologia , Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/genética , Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo Branco/enzimologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético , Engenharia Genética , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Termogênese , Ganho de Peso
17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(2): 216-230, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The liver has a critical role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to a spectrum of liver disease including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a rising incidence owing to an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a liver manifestation of MetS and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. AIM: To summarise the interplay among hepatitis viruses, MetS and its components. METHODS: We searched the literature about HBV, HCV infection, MetS, fatty liver and its components from PubMed. RESULTS: With respect to the viral replication cycle, lipids are important mediators between viral entry and hepatocyte in HCV infection, but not in HBV infection. Thus, HCV infection is inversely associated with hyperlipidaemia and lipid rebound occurs following sustained viral response induced by interferon-based therapy or direct antiviral agents. In addition, HCV infection is positively associated with insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, MetS and the risk of T2DM and atherosclerosis. In contrast, HBV infection may protect infected subjects from the development of MetS and hepatic steatosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that HBV infection is inversely associated with lipid metabolism, and exhibits no conclusive association with insulin resistance or the risk of T2DM and arteriosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with viral hepatitis and concurrent metabolic diseases, a multidisciplinary approach should be given rather than simply antiviral treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/virologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/virologia
18.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 295-305, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667949

RESUMO

Changes in the global economy resulted in sedentary lifestyle and excessive calorie intake, increasing the incidence of metabolic diseases, which subsequently became a universal public concern. The difficulties of managing chronic diseases did not dampen researchers' enthusiasm for studying new therapeutics or adjuvant treatments. Cordyceps spp. is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine; however, our understanding of this medicine remains at an initial stage. Recently, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the potential of Cordyceps as a therapeutic agent for the effective treatment of metabolic-related disorders by exerting a variety of activities, including but not limited to anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, hypoglycemic, renoprotective and cardiovascular-protective effects. This article reviews the potential efficacy and underlying mechanisms of Cordyceps and its major bioactive ingredients in metabolic syndrome and its associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Animais , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Peptídeos/farmacologia
19.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 126(2): 139-156, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445857

RESUMO

Anchorage of a subset of cell surface proteins in eukaryotic cells is mediated by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety covalently attached to the carboxy-terminus of the protein moiety. Experimental evidence for the potential of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) of being released from cells into the extracellular environment has been accumulating, which involves either the loss or retention of the GPI anchor. Release of GPI-AP from donor cells may occur spontaneously or in response to endogenous or environmental signals. The experimental evidence for direct insertion of exogenous GPI-AP equipped with the complete anchor structure into the outer plasma membrane bilayer leaflets of acceptor cells is reviewed as well as the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, promiscuous transfer of certain GPI-AP between plasma membranes of different cells in vivo under certain (patho)physiological conditions has been reported. Engineering of target cell surfaces using chimeric GPI-AP with complete GPI anchor may be useful for therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas a Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Doenças Priônicas/terapia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/citologia , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/química , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Proteínas Ligadas a Lipídeos/química , Proteínas Ligadas a Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
20.
Microbes Infect ; 22(1): 8-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233819

RESUMO

The article is mainly devoted to such representatives of gut microbiota as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, with minor accent on less frequently used or new probiotic microorganisms. Positive effects in treatment and prevention of diseases by different microbial groups, their metabolites and mechanisms of action, management and market of probiotic products are considered.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Antibiose , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Probióticos/economia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Segurança
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