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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397494

RESUMO

With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showing no signs of abating, resuming neglected tropical disease (NTD) activities, particularly mass drug administration (MDA), is vital. Failure to resume activities will not only enhance the risk of NTD transmission, but will fail to leverage behaviour change messaging on the importance of hand and face washing and improved sanitation-a common strategy for several NTDs that also reduces the risk of COVID-19 spread. This so-called "hybrid approach" will demonstrate best practices for mitigating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by incorporating physical distancing, use of masks, and frequent hand-washing in the delivery of medicines to endemic communities and support action against the transmission of the virus through water, sanitation and hygiene interventions promoted by NTD programmes. Unless MDA and morbidity management activities resume, achievement of NTD targets as projected in the WHO/NTD Roadmap (2021-2030) will be deferred, the aspirational goal of NTD programmes to enhance universal health coverage jeopardised and the call to 'leave no one behind' a hollow one. We outline what implementing this hybrid approach, which aims to strengthen health systems, and facilitate integration and cross-sector collaboration, can achieve based on work undertaken in several African countries.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Higiene , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Morbidade , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Saneamento , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The damage inflicted by the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon humanity is and will continue to be considerable. Unprecedented progress made in global health over the past 20 years has reverted and economic growth has already evaporated, giving rise to a global recession, the likes of which we may not have experienced since the Second World War. Our aim is to draw the attention of the neglected tropical disease (NTD) community towards some of the major emerging economic opportunities which are quickly appearing on the horizon as a result of COVID-19. MAIN TEXT: This scoping review relied on a literature search comprised of a sample of articles, statements, and press releases on initiatives aimed at mitigating the impact of COVID-19, while supporting economic recovery. Of note, the donor scenario and economic development agendas are highly dynamic and expected to change rapidly as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds, as are donor and lender priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The NTD community, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), will need to work quickly, diligently, and in close collaboration with decision-makers and key stakeholders, across sectors at national and international level to secure its position. Doing so might enhance the odds of grasping potential opportunities to access some of the massive resources that are now available in the form of contributions from corporate foundations, trust funds, loans, debt relieve schemes, and other financial mechanisms, as part of the ongoing and future economic development agendas and public health priorities driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper should serve as a starting point for the NTD community to seek much needed financial support in order to sustain and revitalize control and elimination efforts pertaining to NTDs in LMICs.


Assuntos
/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Status Econômico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Clima Tropical , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-12-17. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/20-174).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53148

RESUMO

Este documento apresenta a estrutura de tomada de decisão para implementação de intervenções de tratamento em massa, campanhas de busca ativa de casos e pesquisas de base populacional para doenças tropicais negligenciadas (DTNs) no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19. Traz ainda considerações que servem de orientação para as autoridades sanitárias relevantes, gestores de programas de DTN e seus parceiros.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Doenças Negligenciadas , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pandemias
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-12-11.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53124

RESUMO

The essential public health functions (EPHFs) have constituted the core of the agenda for strengthening the health sector in the Region of the Americas since the 1980s. Their conceptual development and measurement in the Region came in response to sectoral reforms that threatened to reduce the role of the State and public health, particularly the stewardship function of the health authorities. In that context, in 2000, the Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) proposed to promote a conceptual and methodological framework for public health and its essential functions, giving rise to the regional initiative called "public health in the Americas". As part of this initiative, the essential functions of public health authorities were identified, their relevance was discussed, and a broad regional consensus was reached, as explained below. More than 15 years have passed. In response to current needs, this document reviews and updates the EPHF conceptual framework for the Region of the Americas. This new version is based on the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation and regional measurement of the EPHFs, new and persistent challenges for the health of the population and its social determinants, and new institutional, economic, social, and political conditions which affect the Region of the Americas. The document is structured into five sections. The first presents the key experiences and challenges that justify a renewal of the EPHFs. The second section updates the groundwork for the exercise of public health and provides a framework to inform the exercise of the new essential functions. The third section proposes a new integrated approach for implementing the EPHFs. The fourth section presents a new list of 11 EPHFs related to each stage of this integrated approach. Finally, in the last section, considerations are put forth to guide EPHF implementation as a means of strengthening the health sector.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Saúde , Zoonoses , Doenças Negligenciadas , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Universalização da Saúde , Direção e Governança do Setor de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Financiamento dos Sistemas de Saúde , Política de Saúde
9.
Informe de Leishmanioses;9OPAS/CDE/VT/20-0041.
Monografia em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53091

RESUMO

Nas Américas, as leishmanioses são um problema de saúde pública por sua magnitude e distribuição geográfica e por produzir formas clínicas que podem causar morte, invalidez e mutilação. Nos últimos anos, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) - de acordo com o mandato conferido na Iniciativa da OPAS para a eliminação de doenças: política para aplicar um enfoque integrado e sustentável às doenças transmissíveis na Região das América (Resolução CD57/7, aprovada pelo Conselho Diretivo da OPAS em 2019) e de acordo com o roteiro para doenças tropicais negligenciadas 2021-2030 (publicado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde em 2020) - tem apoiado a países endêmicos, com os quais tem desenvolvido iniciativas conjuntas em prol do fortalecimento das ações de vigilância e controle, com o objetivo de reduzir as formas graves da doença, por meio do acesso ao diagnóstico precoce, ao tratamento adequado de casos e redução do contato entre pessoas e vetores. A organização dos serviços, o fortalecimento do conhecimento e da capacidade técnica dos profissionais em diagnóstico e tratamento, bem como o fortalecimento das capacidades entomológicas e do sistema de vigilância para disponibilizar informação atualizada, são medidas que vem sendo implementadas e impulsionadas nas Américas. Este informe apresenta a situação epidemiológica da leishmaniose na Região, por meio de uma análise detalhada dos dados correspondentes a 2019, reportados ao Sistema de Informação Regional de Leishmaniose nas Américas (SisLeish), bem como infográficos dos países endêmicos.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Zoonoses , Doenças Negligenciadas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Vigilância , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , América
10.
Leishmaniases Report;9PAHO/CDE/VT/20-0041.
Monografia em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53090

RESUMO

In the Americas, leishmaniasis are a public health problem due to their magnitude and geographic distribution and because they produce clinical forms that can cause death, disability, and mutilation. In recent years, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)—in accordance with the mandate conferred in the PAHO initiative for disease elimination: policy for an Integrated Sustainable Approach to Communicable Diseases in the Americas (Resolution CD57/7, approved by the Directing Council of PAHO in 2019) and in line with the roadmap for neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030 (published by the World Health Organization in 2020)—has supported endemic countries, with which it has developed joint initiatives in favor of strengthening surveillance and control actions, with the goal of reducing severe forms of the disease, through access to early diagnosis, adequate treatment of cases and reduction of contact between people and vectors. The organization of services, the strengthening of knowledge and the technical capacity of professionals in diagnosis and treatment, as well as the strengthening of entomological capacities and the surveillance system to provide updated information, are measures that have been implemented and promoted in the Americas. This report presents the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the Region, through a detailed analysis of the data corresponding to 2019, reported to the Regional Information System of Leishmaniasis in the Americas (SisLeish), as well as infographics of the endemic countries.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Doenças Transmissíveis , Zoonoses , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doenças Negligenciadas , Vigilância , América
11.
Informe de Leishmaniasis;9OPS/CDE/VT/20-0041.
Monografia em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53089

RESUMO

En las Américas, las leishmaniasis son un problema de salud pública debido a su magnitud y distribución geográfica y a que producen formas clínicas que pueden causar muerte, incapacidad y mutilaciones. En los últimos años, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) —de conformidad con el mandato conferido en la Iniciativa de la OPS para la eliminación de enfermedades: política para aplicar un enfoque integrado y sostenible de las enfermedades transmisibles en la Región de las Américas (resolución CD57/7, aprobada por el Consejo Directivo de la OPS en el 2019) y en consonancia con la hoja de ruta para las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas 2021-2030 (publicada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud en el 2020)— ha prestado su apoyo a los países endémicos, con los que ha desplegado iniciativas conjuntas en favor del fortalecimiento de las acciones de vigilancia y control, con el objetivo de reducir las formas graves de la enfermedad, a través del acceso al diagnóstico temprano, el tratamiento adecuado de los casos y la reducción del contacto entre las personas y los vectores. La organización de los servicios, el fortalecimiento del conocimiento y la capacidad técnica de los profesionales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como el fortalecimiento de las capacidades entomológicas y del sistema de vigilancia para facilitar información actualizada, son medidas que se han puesto en marcha e impulsado en las Américas. Este informe presenta la situación epidemiológica de las leishmaniasis en la Región, mediante un análisis detallado de los datos correspondientes al 2019, notificados al Sistema de Información Regional de las Leishmaniasis en la Américas (SisLeish), así como infografías de los países endémicos.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Negligenciadas , Zoonoses , Vigilância , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , América
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349204

RESUMO

Abstract: Laboratory-confirmed infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans is currently notifiable to health departments in several jurisdictions. Accurate surveillance is imperative to understanding current and emerging areas of endemicity and to facilitate research into a neglected tropical disease with poorly-understood transmission dynamics. The state of Victoria currently reports some of the highest numbers of M. ulcerans cases in the world each year, with 340 cases notified in 2018 (an incidence of 5.5 per 100,000 population). In May 2019, a group of clinical, laboratory and public health experts met to discuss a new case definition for the surveillance of M. ulcerans disease in Victoria, incorporating clinical and epidemiological elements. The new case definition supports important public health messaging and actions for residents and visitors to popular tourist areas in Victoria.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Negligenciadas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vitória/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 919, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The highly complex and largely neglected Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health problem due to population movements between Latin America and non-endemic countries, as well as non-vectorial transmission routes. Data on CD testing and treatment from routine patient care in Germany of almost two decades was collected and analysed. METHODS: German laboratories offering diagnostics for chronic Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in routine patient care were identified. All retrievable data on tests performed during the years of 2000-2018 were analysed. Additional clinical information regarding patients diagnosed with CD was collected through questionnaires. RESULTS: Five German laboratories with diagnostics for T. cruzi infection in routine patient care were identified. Centres in Hamburg and Munich offered two independent serological tests to confirm the CD diagnosis, as recommended by WHO during the entire time period 2000-2018. Overall, a total of n = 10,728 independent tests involving n = 5991 individuals were identified with a progressive increase in testing rates over time, only n = 130 (16.0%) of the tested individuals with known nationality came from CD endemic countries. Of all test units conducted at the included institutes, a total of n = 347/10,728 (3.2%) tests on CD were positive, of which n = 200/347 (57.6%) were ELISA, n = 133/347 (38.3%) IFT, n = 10/347 (2.9%) PCR, and n = 4/347 (1.2%) RDT. Of the n = 5991 individuals only n = 81 (1.4%) with chronic infection were identified, n = 52 females and n = 28 males. Additional clinical information could only be collected from n = 47. CONCLUSION: The results of this study give insight into the deployment of screening, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of T. cruzi over the last two decades in Germany and existing deficits therein; the creation of guidelines for Germany could be a step forward to improve the existing gaps.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/terapia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Semin Immunol ; 50: 101423, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250352

RESUMO

Efforts to produce vaccines against SARS and MERS were prematurely halted since their scope was perceived to be geographically restricted and they were subsequently categorized as neglected diseases. However, when a similar virus spread globally triggering the COVID-19 pandemic, we were harshly reminded that several other neglected diseases might also be waiting for the perfect opportunity to become mainstream. As climate change drives urbanization, natural selection of pathogens and their intermediate vectors and reservoirs, the risk of neglected diseases emerging within a larger susceptible pool becomes an even greater threat. Availability of a vaccine for COVID-19 is widely considered the only way to end this pandemic. Similarly, vaccines are also seen as the best tools available to control the spread of neglected (sometimes referred to as emerging or re-emerging) diseases, until the water, hygiene and sanitation infrastructure is improved in areas of their prevalence. Vaccine production is usually cost and labour intensive and thus minimal funding is directed towards controlling and eliminating neglected diseases (NDs). A customised but sustainable approach is needed to develop and deploy vaccines against NDs. While safety, efficacy and public trust are the three main success pillars for most vaccines, affordability is vital when formulating vaccines for neglected diseases.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinologia/métodos , /imunologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública , /imunologia
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-10-14. (OPAS/CDE/VT/20-0035).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52840

RESUMO

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, em parceria com os Centros de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças dos Estados Unidos, iniciou um trabalho colaborativo em 2016 com delegados do Brasil, México e Paraguai com vistas a transferir capacidades para realizar a vigilância sorológica integrada da imunidade populacional e transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas usando a tecnologia de ensaio de micro-esferas multiplex (MBA, do inglês multiplex bead assay). Este ensaio permite a análise do perfil de anticorpos para até 96 antígenos de vários agentes patogênicos na mesma amostra de sangue seco. A vigilância sorológica, ou sorovigilância, é uma ferramenta cada vez mais utilizada por sua capacidade de gerar informações que auxiliem na caracterização da transmissão de doenças, no monitoramento do impacto de intervenções como a vacinação e, por exemplo, para identificar populações suscetíveis. A iniciativa tem sido um processo de aprendizagem por meio do trabalho interprogramático para desenvolver a vigilância sorológica integrada de múltiplos agravos que costumam ser tratados de maneira programaticamente separada, mas que na realidade se sobrepõem nos mesmos grupos populacionais e áreas geográficas. Este documento apresenta os resultados do terceiro encontro regional, realizado na cidade de Cuernavaca (México) nos dias 3 e 4 de março de 2020, com delegados dos países participantes da iniciativa, parceiros e aliados interessados. Esta publicação destaca as lições aprendidas na primeira fase de transferência de capacidades, oportunidades e próximos passos para expandir a vigilância sorológica integrada na Região das Américas como uma ferramenta para fortalecer a vigilância de doenças transmissíveis.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Vigilância , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Negligenciadas
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-14. (PAHO/CDE/VT/20-0035).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52839

RESUMO

In 2016, the Pan American Health Organization, in partnership with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, began a collaborative effort with delegates from Brazil, Mexico, and Paraguay aimed at transferring technical capacity for integrated serological surveillance of population immunity and transmission of multiple infectious diseases, using the multiplex bead assay (MBA) platform. MBA makes it possible to analyze the antibodies of up to 96 antigens of various pathogens in a single dried-spot blood sample. Serological surveillance is being increasingly used for its ability to generate information that helps characterize disease transmission and monitor the impact of interventions such as vaccination, and to identify susceptible populations. This initiative has served as a learning process based on interprogrammatic work to develop integrated serological surveillance of various diseases and events that are often addressed separately from a programmatic standpoint, but which in reality overlap in the same population groups and geographical areas. This document presents the results of the third regional meeting, held in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico, on 4-5 March 2020, and attended by delegates from the participating countries, partners, and stakeholders. This publication highlights the lessons learned during the first stage of capacity transfer, and discusses opportunities and next steps to expand integrated serological surveillance in the Region of the Americas as a tool for strengthening surveillance of communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , América , Testes Sorológicos , Vigilância , Doenças Negligenciadas , Epidemiologia , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Betacoronavirus
18.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-05. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0035).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52798

RESUMO

La Organización Panamericana de la Salud, en alianza con los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos de América, inició un trabajo colaborativo en el 2016 con delegados de Brasil, México y Paraguay, con vistas a transferir capacidades para realizar la vigilancia serológica integrada de la inmunidad poblacional y de la transmisión de múltiples enfermedades infecciosas usando el ensayo de perlas múltiples denominado multiplex bead assay (MBA). Este ensayo permite analizar el perfil de anticuerpos para hasta 96 antígenos de diversos patógenos en una misma muestra de sangre seca. La vigilancia serológica o serovigilancia es una herramienta cada vez más utilizada por su capacidad de generar información que ayuda a caracterizar la transmisión de las enfermedades y a monitorear el impacto de intervenciones como la vacunación y en la que se puede, por ejemplo, identificar población susceptible. La iniciativa ha sido un proceso de aprendizaje a través del trabajo interprogramático para desarrollar la vigilancia serológica integrada de diversas enfermedades y eventos que suelen estar programáticamente separados, pero que en la realidad se superponen en los mismos grupos de población y zonas geográficas. En este documento se presentan los resultados de la tercera reunión regional, celebrada en la ciudad de Cuernavaca (México) el 3 y 4 de marzo del 2020, con delegados de los países participantes en la iniciativa, socios y aliados interesados. En esta publicación se destacan las lecciones aprendidas en la primera fase de transferencia de capacidades, las oportunidades y los próximos pasos para expandir la vigilancia serológica integrada en la Región de las Américas como una herramienta para fortalecer la vigilancia de las enfermedades transmisibles.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Negligenciadas , Epidemiologia , Vigilância , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Betacoronavirus
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008630, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a prevalent neglected tropical disease that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide. Its treatment is through a single class chemotherapy, praziquantel. Concerns surrounding the emergence of praziquantel insensitivity have led to a need for developing novel anthelmintics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Through evaluating and screening fourteen compounds (initially developed for anti-cancer and anti-viral projects) against Schistosoma mansoni, one of three species responsible for most cases of human schistosomiasis, a racemic N-acyl homoserine (1) demonstrated good efficacy against all intra mammalian lifecycle stages including schistosomula (EC50 = 4.7 µM), juvenile worms (EC50 = 4.3 µM) and adult worms (EC50 = 8.3 µM). To begin exploring structural activity relationships, a further 8 analogues of this compound were generated, including individual (R)- and (S)- enantiomers. Upon anti-schistosomal screening of these analogues, the (R)- enantiomer retained activity, whereas the (S)- lost activity. Furthermore, modification of the lactone ring to a thiolactone ring (3) improved potency against schistosomula (EC50 = 2.1 µM), juvenile worms (EC50 = 0.5 µM) and adult worms (EC50 = 4.8 µM). As the effective racemic parent compound is structurally similar to quorum sensing signaling peptides used by bacteria, further evaluation of its effect (along with its stereoisomers and the thiolactone analogues) against Gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- (Escherichia coli) species was conducted. While some activity was observed against both Gram+ and Gram- bacteria species for the racemic compound 1 (MIC 125 mg/L), the (R) stereoisomer had better activity (125 mg/L) than the (S) (>125mg/L). However, the greatest antimicrobial activity (MIC 31.25 mg/L against S. aureus) was observed for the thiolactone containing analogue (3). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that N-Acyl homoserines exhibit anthelmintic activities. Furthermore, their additional action on Gram+ bacteria opens a new avenue for exploring these molecules more broadly as part of future anti-infective initiatives.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Acil-Butirolactonas/síntese química , Acil-Butirolactonas/química , Acil-Butirolactonas/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/síntese química , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças Negligenciadas , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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