Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.431
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e17897, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860947

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease which affects population older than 65 years. Tremor represents one of the main symptomatic triads in PD, particularly in rest state.We enrolled 41 idiopathic PD patients, to validate the assessment of tremor symptoms.To be enrolled in the study, patients had to fulfill the movement disorder society clinical diagnostic criteria for PD.We used an innovative home-made, low-cost device, able to quantify the frequency and amplitude of rest tremor and stress conditionOur results confirmed the presence of tremor during muscular effort in a significant number of patients and the influence of emotional stress.We suppose that this new device should be validated in clinical practice as a support of differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of PD patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Tremor/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tremor/etiologia
2.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(12): 905-907, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775454

RESUMO

The clinical and imaging data in 6 patients with corticobasal syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. Six patients presented asymmetric clinical symptoms, including 5 with cognitive impairment, 6 with emotional disorders, 2 with cortical sensory deficit, 5 with lalopathy, and 4 with apraxia. All patients developed limb dystonia and limb or trunk stiffness, 4 with tumble, 4 with bradykinesia, and 2 with tremor. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that 4 patients had unilateral cerebral atrophy and 2 had mild atrophy of bilateral hippocampus. Localized low glucose metabolism in the unilateral cerebral lobe was seen in four patients by positron emission computed tomography (PET) examination, suggesting that PET is helpful for the diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Neuroimagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1206: 273-286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776991

RESUMO

With the development of nanotechnology and the emergence of new nanomaterials, the effect of nanomaterials on autophagy regulation has attracted increasing attention. Nanomaterial-mediated autophagy regulation has potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of autophagy-related diseases, such as cancer treatment, drug sensitization and neurodegenerative diseases. Different nanomaterials can regulate autophagy through different mechanisms because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. In this chapter, we will introduce the effects and mechanisms of autophagy mediated by nanomaterials and the applications of autophagy induced by different nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 491, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The analysis of health and medical data is crucial for improving the diagnosis precision, treatments and prevention. In this field, machine learning techniques play a key role. However, the amount of health data acquired from digital machines has high dimensionality and not all data acquired from digital machines are relevant for a particular disease. Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome including several specific diseases, and it is a good model to implement machine learning analyses. In this work, we applied five feature selection algorithms to identify the set of relevant features from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images of the main areas affected by PPA from patient records. On the other hand, we carried out classification and clustering algorithms before and after the feature selection process to contrast both results with those obtained in a previous work. We aimed to find the best classifier and the more relevant features from the WEKA tool to propose further a framework for automatic help on diagnosis. Dataset contains data from 150 FDG-PET imaging studies of 91 patients with a clinic prognosis of PPA, which were examined twice, and 28 controls. Our method comprises six different stages: (i) feature extraction, (ii) expertise knowledge supervision (iii) classification process, (iv) comparing classification results for feature selection, (v) clustering process after feature selection, and (vi) comparing clustering results with those obtained in a previous work. RESULTS: Experimental tests confirmed clustering results from a previous work. Although classification results for some algorithms are not decisive for reducing features precisely, Principal Components Analisys (PCA) results exhibited similar or even better performances when compared to those obtained with all features. CONCLUSIONS: Although reducing the dimensionality does not means a general improvement, the set of features is almost halved and results are better or quite similar. Finally, it is interesting how these results expose a finer grain classification of patients according to the neuroanatomy of their disease.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/classificação , Afasia Primária Progressiva/classificação , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 179-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456211

RESUMO

Iron has been proposed to be responsible for neuronal loss in several diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In many diseases, abnormal accumulation of brain iron in disease-affected area has been observed, without clear knowledge of the contribution of iron overload to pathogenesis. Recent evidences implicate that key proteins involved in the disease pathogenesis may also participate in cellular iron metabolism, suggesting that the imbalance of brain iron homeostasis is associated with the diseases. Considering the complicated regulation of iron homeostasis within the brain, a thorough understanding of the molecular events leading to this phenotype is still to be investigated. However, current understanding has already provided the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of iron-related CNS diseases, which will be reviewed here.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Homeostase , Humanos , Ferro
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362360

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genetic parasites, in-between genetics and environment. Few HERVs retain some coding capability. Sometimes, the host has the advantage of some HERV genes; conversely, HERVs may contribute to pathogenesis. The expression of HERVs depends on several factors, and is regulated epigenetically by stimuli such as inflammation, viral and microbial infections, etc. Increased expression of HERVs occurs in physiological and pathological conditions, in one or more body sites. Several diseases have been attributed to one or more HERVs, particularly neurological diseases. The key problem is to differentiate the expression of a HERV as cause or effect of a disease. To be used as a biomarker, a correlation between the expression of a certain HERV and the disease onset and/or behavior must be found. The greater challenge is to establish a pathogenic role. The criteria defining causal connections between HERVs and diseases include the development of animal models, and disease modulation in humans, by anti-HERV therapeutic antibody. So far, statistically significant correlations between HERVs and diseases have been achieved for HERV-W and multiple sclerosis; disease reproduction in transgenic animals was achieved for HERV-W and multiple sclerosis, and for HERV-K and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clinical trials for both diseases are in progress.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Prognóstico
8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 362, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fahr's syndrome presenting multiple and symmetric calcification of basal ganglia and cerebral cortex is rare, and idiopathic hypoparatyroidism is known as one of the causes. The relationship between ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and idiopathic hypoparatyroidism is also reported in a few cases. Here, we report a patient presenting concomitant Fahr's syndrome and thoracic OPLL developed by idiopathic hypoparatyroidism. CASE PRESENTATION: 53-year-old female patient presented myelopathic sign including gait disturbance and both leg weakness (Grade 3) for 4 months after slip down, and has the history of anti-epileptic medication for several years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cord compression by the mixed-type OPLL from T5 to T9, and decompressive surgery was planned. Sudden onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure attack developed before the surgery. Hypocalcemia (3.7 mg/dL) with QT prolongation on electrocardiogram, hypomagnesemia (1.4 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (7.7 mg/dL), hypoparathyroidism, and normal range of vitamin D was noted. Brain study showed Fahr's syndrome with multiple and symmetric calcification of basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. Decompressive laminectomy was performed after transient correction of hypocalcemia. The myelopathic symptoms improved to normal walking by the 14-month follow-up. The cause of hypoparathyroidism was concluded to be idiopathic. CONCLUSION: Concomitant expression of Fahr's syndrome and OPLL related with idiopathic hypoparatyroidism is very rare. However, we recommend considering the possibility of hypoparathyroidism and Fahr's syndrome when we evaluate the patients with OPLL to avoid the risks of sudden onset seizure and cardiac arrhythmia due to cerebral lesions and hypocalcemia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/etiologia , Calcinose/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Ossificação do Ligamento Longitudinal Posterior/etiologia , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Ligamentos Longitudinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Ossificação do Ligamento Longitudinal Posterior/diagnóstico , Ossificação do Ligamento Longitudinal Posterior/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 703-729, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347080

RESUMO

Considering the devastating effects of neurodegenerative disorders and the increasing number of people affected by them, an early diagnosis even presymptomatic, prior to serious mental deterioration is necessary. Therefore, screening for biomarkers, especially glycolipids, in the biological matrices, either tissues or body fluids has proven to be of a great help in establishing an early diagnosis of the disease.The present chapter, divided into three parts, highlights the implementation and modern applications of the most avant-garde mass spectrometry (MS) techniques characterized by speed, sensitivity and data accuracy for de novo identification and monitoring of glycolipids with potential biomarker role. The first section reviews the etiology, epidemiology, clinical picture, as well as the current diagnostic methods for four of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia and fronto-temporal dementia. The second section is dedicated to the role of glycolipids as biomarkers of these severe conditions. In the last part of the chapter, the state of the art in terms of mass spectrometry techniques for the detection of extremely valuable glycolipid biomarkers is described in detail. The proficiency of the MS, to be considered as and further developed into a routine method for early detection of neurodegenerative disorders, is also emphasized in the chapter.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Glicolipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330872

RESUMO

Sphingolipids (SL) modulate several cellular processes including cell death, proliferation and autophagy. The conversion of sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide and the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), also known as the SL rheostat, have been associated with oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Research in the last decade has focused on the possibility of targeting the SL metabolism as a therapeutic option; and SL levels in biofluids, including serum, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), have been measured in several neurodegenerative diseases with the aim of finding a diagnostic or prognostic marker. Previous reviews focused on results from diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), evaluated total SL or species levels in human biofluids, post-mortem tissues and/or animal models. However, a comprehensive review of SL alterations comparing results from several neurodegenerative diseases is lacking. The present work compiles data from circulating sphingolipidomic studies and attempts to elucidate a possible connection between certain SL species and neurodegeneration processes. Furthermore, the effects of ceramide species according to their acyl-chain length in cellular pathways such as apoptosis and proliferation are discussed in order to understand the impact of the level alteration in specific species. Finally, enzymatic regulations and the possible influence of insulin resistance in the level alteration of SL are evaluated.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores , Vias Biossintéticas , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Fenótipo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Acta Med Port ; 32(5): 402-406, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166902

RESUMO

Pathological basal ganglia calcification, or Fahr's Syndrome, can be secondary to a variety of diseases, namely parathyroid disturbances. Movement disorders are common clinical features, in which chorea is seen in less than 20% of cases and dystonia just in 8%. We report the clinical case of a 49-year-old male with a history of thyroidectomy, who was admitted in Emergency Service with acute generalized chorea and focal painful feet dystonia. Laboratory analysis showed hypocalcemia and rhabdomyolysis, and computed tomography scan revealed parenchymal calcification with basal ganglia involvement. After complementary studies we established a Fahr's Syndrome diagnosis secondary to an iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. Clinical management has been successful with stabilized calcium levels, with no more neurologic symptoms. Hypocalcemia should be readily investigated and treated after a thyroidectomy, given the irreversibility of intracerebral calcifications and potential neurological or systemic consequences.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/etiologia , Calcinose/etiologia , Coreia/etiologia , Distonia/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipocalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Doença Iatrogênica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 59(7): 425-430, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243248

RESUMO

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disease presenting with various manifestations including dementia, weakness, transient impaired consciousness, encephalitis-like episodes and also epileptic seizures. However, the nature of epileptic seizures, focal or generalized onset, remains unclear. A man at age 76 was admitted to a local hospital due to febrile impaired consciousness lasting several days. During the hospital stay, a generalized convulsion occurred, and afterward he remained obtunded. He was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. One additional seizure occurred while on an ambulance to our hospital and two additional seizures shortly after the arrival, which indicated convulsive status epilepticus (SE). The ictal EEG showed low amplitude fast activity arising from the left centro-parietal area with an evolutionary pattern. The clinical concomitant was the contralateral versive seizure evolving to a bilateral convulsion. Inter-ictal epileptiform abnormalities seen on the tracings taken on later days consisted of brief potentially ictal rhythmic discharges (B(I)RDs) and frequent sharp waves recorded from both frontal areas. These findings along with the ictal discharges would indicate a multifocal epileptic disorder in this patient. Diffusion weighted images (DWIs) of this patient showed hyperintensity signals in the cortico-medullary junctions in the bilateral frontal and the left parietal regions. Skin biopsy revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusions, and hence the diagnosis of NIID was made. The regions of epileptic foci on EEG corresponded well to the hyperintensity areas in DWIs, which suggests the cerebral cortices near the DWI hyperintensity could be more hyperactive than other regions. This case report suggests that some of the prolonged impaired consciousness and the encephalitis-like episodes in NIID could be related to epileptic seizures and even non-convulsive SE or a post-ictal twilight state after an unwitnessed convulsion. This issue should be further studied for the appropriate treatment of episodic encephalopathy and epileptic seizures in NIID.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Idoso , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/patologia , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Pele/patologia , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 192, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs). Most DM-affected PWCs are homozygous for the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) allele; however, the genetic examination for the SOD1 mutation does not exclusively detect symptomatic dogs. In order to identify novel biomarkers, the plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles of PWCs with DM were investigated. RESULTS: Quantification of the plasma levels of 277 miRNAs by an RT-qPCR array identified 11 up-regulated miRNAs and 7 down-regulated miRNAs in DM-affected PWCs from those in wild-type SOD1 PWCs. A pathway analysis identified 3 miRNAs: miR-26b, miR-181a, and miR-196a, which potentially regulate several genes associated with SOD1. In order to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the candidate miRNAs in the aged PWC population, candidate miRNAs in plasma were measured by RT-qPCR and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. miR-26b had the largest area under the ROC curve for distinguishing DM PWCs from healthy PWCs (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 87.0%). The plasma level of miR-26b was significantly higher in the DM group than in the healthy control group. A positive correlation was observed between increases in the plasma level of miR-26b and disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that plasma miR-26b is a potential novel diagnostic biomarker of DM.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mutação , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/sangue , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética
15.
J Med Syst ; 43(8): 245, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240410

RESUMO

Neurons of the human brain are primarily affected by the Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease and so on. Classification of these neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) is clinically important to analyze the destruction of nerve cells. Early diagnosis of NDD'S helps in saving the human life. Based on the report of previous studies, motor impairment or human gait cycle is largely affected by the clinical symptoms of NDD. Accurate diagnosis of various neurodegenerative diseases in correct time is very important for early diagnosis of the disease. Diseases can be diagnosed earlier by means of characterizing the gait cycle. In this work, a gait dynamics classification method is proposed for determining the neurodegenerative diseases from the brain signals using multilevel feature extraction method. From force sensitive resistors, the left and right feet signals recorded in 60 one minute are included in the input database. It is obtained through fixing 16 healthy subjects, 13 ALS, 20 HD, and 15 PD. Using six levels of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), the features are determined by means of decomposing the raw signal. Ultimately, the pathological gait signals are classified through exploiting three multilevel feature extraction techniques named as, (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Positive, Negative Peak Histogram Analysis (PNPHA) (proposed Method) and Statistical Temporal parameter Analysis (STA)). Experimental outcomes proved that the gait dynamics are successively distinguished between NDD and group of healthy controls using the proposed method.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/classificação , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Ondaletas
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 695-703, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082423

RESUMO

A MicroRNA (miR) based electrochemical method for quantification of miR-146a, a known biomarker for neurodegenerative disease, was developed. In this bioassay, the capture microRNA (C-miR) was self-assembled on the gold surface and used for quantification of target microRNA (T-miR) of miR-146a. For this purpose, an optimized concentration of C-miR was immobilized on the surface of gold electrode and used for capture of target analyte (T-miR). All of preparation steps were characterized by electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the optimized conditions, the linear dynamic range, limit of quantification and relative standard deviation of the proposed bioassay were obtained as 10 pM to 1 µM, 10 pM and 1.59%, respectively. The unprocessed human serum sample was used as a real sample and the results fully confirm that the designed microRNA based biosensor is capable for detection of miR-146a as neurodegenerative disease biomarker. The developed method offers a more precise and high sensitive tool to be used in clinical applications for early detection of neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's and Parkinson.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Humanos , MicroRNAs/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052309

RESUMO

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemical messengers which play an important role in many of the brain functions, abnormal levels being correlated with physical, psychotic and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Therefore, their sensitive and robust detection is of great clinical significance. Electrochemical methods have been intensively used in the last decades for neurotransmitter detection, outclassing more complicated analytical techniques such as conventional spectrophotometry, chromatography, fluorescence, flow injection, and capillary electrophoresis. In this manuscript, the most successful and promising electrochemical enzyme-free and enzymatic sensors for neurotransmitter detection are reviewed. Focusing on the activity of worldwide researchers mainly during the last ten years (2010-2019), without pretending to be exhaustive, we present an overview of the progress made in sensing strategies during this time. Particular emphasis is placed on nanostructured-based sensors, which show a substantial improvement of the analytical performances. This review also examines the progress made in biosensors for neurotransmitter measurements in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/tendências , Nanoestruturas/química , Neurotransmissores/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurotransmissores/química
19.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol overuse may be related to increased aluminum (Al) exposure, the brain accumulation of which contributes to dementia. However, some reports indicate that silicon (Si) may have a protective role over Al-induced toxicity. Still, no study has ever explored the brain content of Al and Si in alcoholic use disorder (AUD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To fill this gap, the present study employed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to investigate levels of Al and Si in 10 brain regions and in the liver of AUD patients (n = 31) and control (n = 32) post-mortem. RESULTS: Al content was detected only in AUD patients at mean ± SD total brain content of 1.59 ± 1.19 mg/kg, with the highest levels in the thalamus (4.05 ± 12.7 mg/kg, FTH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (3.48 ± 9.67 mg/kg, ILF), insula (2.41 ± 4.10 mg/kg) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (1.08 ± 2.30 mg/kg). Si content displayed no difference between AUD and control, except for FTH. Positive inter-region correlations between the content of both elements were identified in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and ILF. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that AUD patients may potentially be prone to Al-induced neurodegeneration in their brain-although this hypothesis requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Alumínio/análise , Química Encefálica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Silício/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Alumínio/toxicidade , Autopsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Tálamo/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA