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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e007320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935770

RESUMO

Although anemia has been historically linked to Haemonchus contortus infection, other infectious agents, such as hemotropic mycoplasmas and tick-borne disease pathogens, may also lead to anemic crisis in sheep. This study has aimed to investigate infections related to anemia in a sheep herd from Bandeirantes City, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Seven out of forty-two (16.6%; 95% CI: 8.32-30.6%) sheep were positive for hemoplasmas by a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and all tested negative for A. marginale/A. ovis and Babesia/Theileria spp. by PCR based on msp4 and 18S rRNA genes, respectively. Two (4.7%; 95% CI: 1.32-15.79%) animals were infested with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. Fecal egg counting was performed in 38 sheep and 24 (63.15%; 95% CI: 47.2-76.6%) presented > 500 eggs per gram. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the detected hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed that the animals were infected with Mycoplasma ovis. Polymorphism analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences showed three different genotypes of M. ovis infecting sheep assessed in the present study. Mycoplasma ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes occurs in sheep from the northern region of Paraná State.


Assuntos
Anemia/veterinária , Nematoides , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Doenças dos Ovinos , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935771

RESUMO

This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. These 201 species comprise 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura and 2 Pentastomida, arranged in 84 host fish species. This work carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River contributes to the listing of parasite species and host interactions of the local ichthyofauna. Little is known about these communities and its riches are underestimated due to the high density of fish found in this region, highlighting the importance of conducting studies on the local fauna.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3617-3625, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833049

RESUMO

Two myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa were isolated from the gallbladders of marine fish in the South China Sea. Sphaeromyxa scorpaena n. sp. was collected from Scorpaenodes albaiensis Evermann and Seale, 1907. The mature myxospores were arcuate-shaped with tapered to pointed ends, and a length of 14.1 ± 0.7 (13.8-15.1) µm and a width of 5.2 ± 0.3 (4.9-5.8) µm. The polar capsules (PCs) were pyriform with a length of 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.1-3.5) µm and a width of 1.6 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.8) µm, and containing ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded 1.5-2.5 turns. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA as well as morphological comparison confirmed that S. scorpaena n. sp. was a previously undescribed species. Sphaeromyxa theraponi, isolated from Terapon jarbua Forsskål, 1775, was reported for the first time from the South China Sea. The mature myxospores were slightly arched, tapering to bluntly rounded ends, with a length of 17.3 ± 0.9 (15.5-19.4) µm and a width of 4.8 ± 0.3 (4.1-5.3) µm. A sporoplasm was situated in the space between PCs in the myxospore. The PCs were pyriform, which contained ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded by 2-3 turns, with a length of 7.0 ± 0.5 (5.8-8.1) µm and a width of 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.2-3.0) µm. Our morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pointed ends of S. scorpaena n. sp. might be a secondarily acquired characteristic rather than an ancestral trait.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Percas , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3627-3637, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852620

RESUMO

This study increases the known biodiversity of cnidarian parasites in neotropical bryconid fishes. Two novel Myxobolus species are described based on morphology, ultrastructure and small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) sequencing: Myxobolus vetuschicanus n. sp. infecting fins of Salminus franciscanus and Myxobolus mineirus n. sp. infecting the mesentery of Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ultrastructural analysis of the two species revealed an asynchronous sporogenesis process, with germinative cells and young developmental stages of myxospores in the periphery of the plasmodia. In M. vetuschicanus n. sp., the plasmodia were surrounded by a layer of fibroblasts and in M. mineirus n. sp., the plasmodial membrane had direct contact with the host tissue. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ssrDNA of Henneguya/Myxobolus species showed that the two novel Myxobolus species grouped in subclades together with other parasite species of bryconid fishes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos , Rios/parasitologia
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667503

RESUMO

Infection of fish gills by Henneguya causes greater contact between the secondary gill lamellae, thereby giving rise to decreased absorption surface area at the end of the filaments. This ectoparasite can cause damages on the gills infected fish. In the present study, fresh gills of Metynnis lippincottianus were analyzed using optical microscopy techniques. The myxoporean Henneguya sp. was found to be infecting 80% of the gills of this host fish. Presence of this parasite caused hyperplasia and fusion of the gill lamellae, but without inflammation in the parasitized organ.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Brânquias , Myxozoa , Animais , Brasil , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609239

RESUMO

This study describes Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp. in specimens of the Osteichthyes Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840), collected in the Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá Brazil. Using optical microscopy and molecular analysis, these cyst-shaped parasites were analyzed. The gills of 57.14% of the analyzed S. jurupari contained hundreds of spores. The cysts found on the gill lamellae were oval-shaped and whitish. The Henneguya spores had an average length of 46.5 (41.3-56.92) µm. The fusiform body of the Henneguya measured 16.5 (13.16-20.01) µm long and 5.1 (3.91-6.12) µm in width, the two polar capsules had a taper of 3.83 (3.4-4.32) µm and a width of 1.68 (1.4-1.99) µm, and the tail measured 30 (22.47-41.67) µm in length, containing a polar filament coiled seven to nine times. Morphogical and phylogenetic analysis allowed the preposition of a new species, Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp, that belongs to the family Myxobolidae and the genus Henneguya.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Brasil , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609240

RESUMO

This study investigated the fauna of ectoparasitic crustaceans in Leporinus affinis from Reservoir Coaracy Nunes, in eastern Amazon (Brazil), as well as the parasite-host interactions. The mouth, gills and tegument of 50.9% of the fish examined were parasitized by Argulus chicomendesi, Ergasilus turucuyus and Excorallana berbicensis, and a total of 118 parasites were collected. The dominance was found for E. berbicensis and the higher infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts, but E. turucuyus had the highest prevalence on the gills of this host. The cluster analysis revealed higher similarity in the infestations by E. berbicensis and A. chicomendesi in relation to infestation site in hosts. Host sex and relative condition factor (Kn) were not influenced by moderate parasitism, but the abundance of parasites presented negative correlation with weight and Kn of the fish. This is the first study on the parasites of L. affinis showing low species diversity, with moderate prevalence and low parasite abundance.


Assuntos
Arguloida , Caraciformes , Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Animais , Arguloida/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Copépodes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2463-2471, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529296

RESUMO

Members of the genus Sphaeromyxa Thélohan, 1892 have been reported from a wide variety of fish species worldwide. In the present study, specimens of rusty blenny, Parablennius sanguinolentus, collected from Sinop on the Turkish Black Sea coast were investigated for myxosporean parasites by using both conventional and molecular methods. Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova 1970 was the only myxosporean parasite found in the gall bladder of host fishes. The morphology peculiarities of obtained S. sevastopoli spores are in good agreement with those of original description and the morphometric data overlapped in spore length and width but differed in polar capsule length and width; however, they were within the ranges previously reported from 18 host fish species. Moreover, in the present study, molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA gene of S. sevastopoli isolate in our P. sanguinolentus as well as isolates from shore rockling Gaidropsarus mediterraneus and knout goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus which were previously morphologically identified and reported by Okkay and Özer (Acta Zool Bulg 72(1):123-130, 2020) was done for the first time and our three S. sevastopoli genotypes were allocated to the "balbianii" group which is characterized by straight or slightly curved and fusiform or ovoid spores with ovoid polar capsules.


Assuntos
Cnidários/anatomia & histologia , Cnidários/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Mar Negro , Cnidários/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 125-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530589

RESUMO

Parasitic zoonosis (PZs) have a cosmopolitan significant impact on public health but they are often omitted in discussions, especially in developing countries. Zoonotic parasites include protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods, and notably in African and Arabian countries have a high prevalence among livestock and man. Through this comprehensive review, we summarize the extant published research of the most significant zoonotic parasites present in some countries of Arabic world and we identify the epidemiology and risk factors for significant infections and suggest some effective control measures. This review might help the researches, governments about the zoonotic impact of these neglected infections for future considerations and application for real control programs.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
10.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(8): e12730, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403171

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is one of the most serious parasitic diseases of salmonids in which outbreaks cause severe economic constraints for the aquaculture industry and declines of wild species throughout Europe and North America. Given that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely farmed freshwater fish and an important model species for fish immunology, most of the knowledge on how the fish immune response is affected during PKD is from this organism. Once rainbow trout are infected, PKD pathogenesis results in a chronic kidney immunopathology mediated by decreasing myeloid cells and increasing lymphocytes. Transcriptional studies have revealed the regulation of essential genes related to T-helper (Th)-like functions and a dysregulated B-cell antibody type response. Recent reports have discovered unique details of teleost B-cell differentiation and functionality and characterized the differential immunoglobulin (Ig)-mediated response. These studies have solidified the rainbow trout T. bryosalmonae system as a sophisticated disease model capable of feeding key advances into mainstream immunology and have contributed essential information to design novel parasite disease prevention strategies. In our following perspective, we summarize these efforts to evaluate the immune mechanisms of rainbow trout during PKD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunoglobulina D/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2431-2438, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394002

RESUMO

The specimens of Trachinus draco collected from the Bay of Bizerte were found to be infected with a new Ceratomyxa species described as Ceratomyxa draconis n. sp. The sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene obtained in this study differs from other Ceratomyxa sequences available in GenBank. Mature spores of this species were elongated and crescent-shaped in sutural view, measuring 7.4 ± 0.77 (6.4-8.0) µm in thickness and 30.8 ± 1.65 (28.8-32.8) µm in width. The polar capsules were spherical, equal in size, and measuring 3.3 ± 0.2 (3.6-4.0) µm in diameter. The Ceratomyxa draconis n. sp. showed a clearly seasonal variation of prevalence with highest prevalence noted during summer months.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Baías , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Estações do Ano , Tunísia/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109103, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299042

RESUMO

Despite morphological differences of eggs and adults, Capillaria boehmi infections have been occasionally misdiagnosed as C. aerophila infections in the past. Capillaria boehmi is found in the nasal and paranasal sinuses of wild canids and dogs, which may suffer from nasal discharge, sneezing, epistaxis and, importantly, their scent can be impaired. In this study we present three challenging cases of nasal capillariosis in dogs, report and review the variable success of anthelmintic treatments and investigate C. boehmi prevalence in Swiss red foxes, considered as potential wild life reservoir. Out of two females and one male dog (all scent hounds, aged 3-9 years and weighing 19-31 kg), two dogs were previously coproscopically misdiagnosed with Trichuris infections. Two dogs showed clinical signs such as sneezing, coughing and impaired scent. From one dog adult living C. boehmi were obtained by nasal lavage. The identity of worms and eggs of all three dogs were genetically confirmed (18S rRNA, 100 % identity in 578 base pairs). Dogs 1-3 were followed-up for overall 54, 8, and 67 months, respectively. All dogs repeatedly excreted C. boehmi eggs in faecal samples despite treatments with the following compounds, in various dosage and retreatment protocols: fenbendazole, milbemycin oxime (orally), moxidectin/imidacloprid/ (spot-on) and levamisole (intramuscularly). The different anthelmintic compounds showed variable success regarding their effect on clinical outcome and on stopping egg excretion. Reinfections due to a contaminated environment could not be fully excluded. In winter 2016 and 2017, 218 foxes from the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, were examined. Tissues of nasal and paranasal sinuses were investigated for adult Capillaria specimens and eggs. We describe for the first time C. boehmi infections in Switzerland, observing a high prevalence (190/218, 87.2 %). Overall, 107 of 126 adults (84.9 %, 95 % Confidence Interval, CI: 77.5-90.7 %) and 83 of 92 youngsters (90.2 %, CI: 82.2-95.4 %) were infected. The presence of C. boehmi did not correlate with age (P = 0.209), but correlated significantly with sex: male foxes (102 of 107, 95.3 %, CI: 89.4-98.5 %) were significantly (P = 0.001) more often infected than females (88 of 111, 79.3 %, CI: 70.5-86.4 %). Worm burden ranged from 1 to 72 adult specimens (geometric mean: 5.7). In conclusion, C. boehmi infections can be mis- and/or underdiagnosed in dogs. Appropriate anthelmintic treatments, preventing coprophagia and egg contamination of the surroundings and performing coproscopic controls after treatments are fundamental aspects. Potentially, nasal washing may represent an auxiliary alternative. However, the successful elimination of C. boehmi infections in dogs remains challenging.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Raposas/parasitologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência , Suíça/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1553-1562, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236709

RESUMO

We confirm the presence of nymphs of the introduced pentastomid, Linguatula serrata, in the introduced rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in Australia, based on morphological and molecular results. Two nymphs were collected from a single rabbit near the Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales. Unlike reports of nymphs from domestic animals, these nymphs were not encapsulated, despite having the morphological features of infective nymphs. The possibility of different development pathways in lagomorphs is discussed. Examination of feral deer for L. serrata was unsuccessful and potential reasons for a lack of infection in these animals are postulated. Our results reiterate the need for a combined morphological and molecular approach to the identification of L. serrata. Further sampling of a range of feral and native animals is required to determine the true range of intermediate hosts and their relative importance in the transmission of L. serrata in Australia.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Lagomorpha/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cervos/parasitologia , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1906-1913, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241470

RESUMO

The intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Although many of these microbes execute functions that are critical for host physiology, the host immune system must control the microbial community so that the dynamics of this interdependent relationship is maintained. To facilitate host homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the microbial load is tolerated, but anatomically contained, while remaining reactive to microbial invasion. Although the microbiota is required for intestinal immune development, immune responses regulate the structure and composition of the intestinal microbiota by evolving unique immune adaptations that manage this high-bacterial load. The immune mechanisms work together to ensure that commensal bacteria rarely breach the intestinal barrier and that any that do invade should be killed rapidly to prevent penetration to systemic sites. The communication between microbiota and the immune system is mediated by the interaction of bacterial components with pattern recognition receptors expressed by intestinal epithelium and various antigen-presenting cells resulting in activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Interaction between the microbial community and host plays a crucial role in the mucosal homeostasis and health status of the host. In addition to providing a home to numerous microbial inhabitants, the intestinal tract is an active immunological organ, with more resident immune cells than anywhere else in the body, organized in lymphoid structures called Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles such as the cecal tonsils. Macrophages, dendritic cells, various subsets of T cells, B cells and the secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) they produce, all contribute to the generation of a proper immune response to invading pathogens while keeping the resident microbial community in check without generating an overt inflammatory response to it. IgA-producing plasma cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and γδT cell receptor-expressing T cells are lymphocytes that are uniquely present in the mucosa. In addition, of the γδT cells in the intestinal lamina propria, there are significant numbers of IL-17-producing T cells and regulatory T cells. The accumulation and function of these mucosal leukocytes are regulated by the presence of intestinal microbiota, which regulate these immune cells and enhance the mucosal barrier function allowing the host to mount robust immune responses against invading pathogens, and simultaneously maintains immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Sistema Imunitário , Microbiota , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1743-1752, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318807

RESUMO

A new parasite species, Kudoa yasai n. sp. (Multivalvulida), is described from the king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon), which is an important commercial fishery resource on the Brazilian Amazon coast. A total of 190 M. ancylodon specimens were obtained from the central fish market of the town of Bragança, and pseudocysts were found in the skeletal muscle fiber samples of all (100%) of the specimens, although no inflammatory reaction was observed in any of the cases. The myxospores are quadrate in shape with four polar capsules of equal size, 6.9 ± 0.94 µm long, 8.2 ± 0.39 µm wide, and 5.5 ± 0.60 µm thick. The polar capsules are 1.8 ± 0.26 µm in length and 1.4 ± 0.18 µm in width. The morphological and morphometric parameters, together with the phylogenetic analysis of a partial sequence of the 18S (SSU rDNA) gene, all indicate conclusively that Kudoa yasai n. sp. is a new species, distinct from all other Kudoa species. The study also verified the loss of quality in the meat of the host fish (M. ancylodon) sold in the Bragança market, which reinforces the need for the more systematic control of the quality of the product and the prevention of possible health problems for the consumer.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 350-359, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227224

RESUMO

Thelohanellus magnacysta n. sp. (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) infects the skeletal muscle of blacktail shiner, Cyprinella venusta Girard, 1856 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in Bull Creek, Chattahoochee River Basin, eastern Georgia. Although numerous members of ThelohanellusKudo, 1933 have overlapping myxospore dimensions with the new species, it differs from all nominal congeners by polar filament coil number and polar capsule width as well as by lacking a mucous envelope, iodinophilic vacuole, and sutural markings. With the use of novel primers for Myxozoa, a phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) suggests that the new species shares a recent common ancestor with a clade of cyprinid-infecting species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) and Thelohanellus. Consistent with other published research concerning the systematics of Thelohanellus, this result suggested that Thelohanellus and Myxobolus are polyphyletic and need revision. Histological sections of infected blacktail shiners confirmed that myxospores were only found within a plasmodium and only infected skeletal muscle and that plasmodia were encapsulated by a granuloma comprising varying degrees of acute granulomatous inflammation. The new species is the fourth of Thelohanellus reported from North America and the first reported from Cyprinella, as well as the first myxozoan described from the blacktail shiner.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Análise de Fourier , Georgia , Microscopia de Interferência , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Rios , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Esporos/isolamento & purificação , Esporos/ultraestrutura
17.
J Helminthol ; 94: e141, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238198

RESUMO

Larval stages of pentastomids were collected from different organs of small mammals from the Peruvian Amazon. These parasitized mammals included: a western Amazonian oryzomys (Hylaeamys perenensis), an elegant oryzomys (Euryoryzomys nitidus), a lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), two kinkajous (Potos flavus), two silvery woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) and a brown-mantled tamarin (Leontocebus fuscicollis). Pentastomids were found in the mesentery and parenchyma of the liver and lungs of these animals. All pentastomids were morphologically identified as nymphs of Porocephalus spp. Only the nymphs collected from select animals (the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin) were analysed molecularly. Molecular analysis was performed amplifying the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from select nymphs collected from the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin. The nucleotide sequences exhibited 95.8-97.7% similarity between them. Also, these sequences showed an identity of 95.8-97.9% to Porocephalus crotali (GenBank accession numbers MG559647-MG559655). Molecular analysis indicated the presence of at least two Porocephalus species. These findings represent the first record of Porocephalus in these mammals, thus adding new intermediate hosts for this pentastomid genus. This work represents the first molecular data of Porocephalus in a Neotropical climate.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/anatomia & histologia , Vísceras/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Ninfa/genética , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Peru , Clima Tropical
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1485-1491, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146540

RESUMO

In the present study, we described a new species of Myxidium Bütschli, 1882, obtained from the gallbladder of Spinibarbus sinensis (Bleeker, 1871) from the Jialing River in Chongqing, China. Myxidium spinibarba sp. nov. was identified based on morphological and SSU rDNA sequence data. The mature myxospores were fusiform in valvular view and ovoid in sutural view, with somewhat protrusive poles and mean dimensions (all in µm) of 11.8 ± 0.5 (10.6-12.4) in length and 6.1 ± 0.5 (5.5-7.2) in width. The polar capsules were pyriform and equal in size with mean dimensions of 3.6 ± 0.4 (3.0-4.4) in length and 3.0 ± 0.2 (2.7-3.2) in width. The new species was distinct from related species of Myxidium in its morphology and molecular characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the clustering of species based on the presence or absence of valvular striations. Moreover, myxospore morphology, rather than the host environment, played an important role in the partial phylogenetic clustering.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1493-1503, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185480

RESUMO

Three new myxosporeans of the genus Sphaeromyxa Thélohan 1892 were discovered from the coastal waters off Xiamen in the East China Sea and characterized based on morphological and SSU rDNA data. Sphaeromyxa photopectoralis sp. n. was described from Photopectoralis bindus, and Sphaeromyxa sebastisca sp. n. was described infecting both Sebastiscus marmoratus (type-host) and Scorpaenopsis cirrosa. These two species are morphologically consistent with the "balbianii" group, possessing straight myxospores and truncated ends, but are distinct from one another genetically and by myxospore dimensions. A third myxosporean infecting Siganus fuscescens was described as Sphaeromyxa xiamenensis sp. n., and this species is morphologically consistent with the "incurvata" group, bearing arcuate myxospores with rounded ends. The molecular phylogeny and estimated rRNA secondary structure suggest that marine sphaeromyxids are probably derived from freshwater myxidiids, and "incurvata" and "balbianii" groups might each represent independent evolutionary lineages. The present study also shows that S. limocapitis phylogenetically nested in "incurvata" group.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/citologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/química , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1515-1522, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206884

RESUMO

Ceratomyxa mennani n. sp. is a new coelozoic Ceratomyxa species found in the gallbladder of Epinephelus marginatus from the Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia. Mature plasmodia were disporic, ovoid in shape measuring 9-12 µm in width and 11-14 µm in length. Mature myxospores were slightly crescent-shaped with almost straight posterior margin, measuring 5.8 ± 0.2 (5.4-6.1) µm in length and 12.7 ± 0.3 (11.9-13.0) µm in thickness. The two valves were unequal with rounded ends. Polar capsules were spherical, equal in size with 2.1 ± 0.2 (1.9-2.6) µm in diameter. The binucleated sporoplasm filled the entire cavity of the myxospore. Molecular analysis of SSU rDNA sequences indicated that C. mennani n. sp. was distinct from all other Ceratomyxa sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. mennani n. sp. clustered with Ceratomyxa species infecting Epinephelinae fishes. Seasonal prevalence of infection over one year was significantly higher in winter and the lowest in autumn. This is the third report of Ceratomyxa species infecting the gallbladder of Epinephelus marginatus from Tunisia and the first study to include molecular data.


Assuntos
Bass/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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