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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765613

RESUMO

There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillance systems may offer a solution to this challenge by applying risk analysis principles; first to set priorities, and secondly to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The latter is done through a focus on the cost-effectiveness ratio in sampling and prioritisation. Risk-based surveillance was originally introduced into veterinary public health in 2006. Since then, experience has been gathered, and the methodology has been further developed. Guidelines and tools have been developed, which can be used to set up appropriate surveillance programmes. In this paper, the basic principles are described, and by use of a surveillance design tool called SURVTOOLS (https://survtools.org/), examples are given covering three meat-borne parasites for which risk-based surveillance is 1) either in place in the European Union (EU) (Trichinella spp.), 2) to be officially implemented in December 2019 (Taenia saginata) or 3) only carried out by one abattoir company in the EU as there is no official EU requirement (Toxoplasma gondii). Moreover, advantages, requirements and limitations of risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites are discussed.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Animais , Prioridades em Saúde/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Teníase/transmissão , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Triquinelose/transmissão
2.
Indian J Pediatr ; 87(1): 4-5, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802326
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107807, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751558

RESUMO

Foodborne parasites, most of which are zoonotic, represent an important human health hazard. These pathogens which include both protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii) and helminths (e.g., liver and intestinal flukes, Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp., Angiostrongylus spp., Anisakis spp., Ascaris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Trichostrongylus spp.), have accompanied the human species since its origin and their spread has often increased due to their behavior. Since both domesticated and wild animals play an important role as reservoirs of these pathogens the increase/decrease of their biomasses, migration, and passive introduction by humans can change their epidemiological patterns. It follows that globalization and climate change will have a tremendous impact on these pathogens modifying their epidemiological patterns and ecosystems due to the changes of biotic and abiotic parameters. The consequences of these changes on foodborne parasites cannot be foreseen as a whole due to their complexity, but it is important that biologists, epidemiologists, physicians and veterinarians evaluate/address the problem within a one health approach. This opinion, based on the author's experience of over 40 years in the parasitology field, takes into consideration the direct and indirect effects on the transmission of foodborne parasites to humans.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Parasitologia de Alimentos/tendências , Helmintos/fisiologia , Internacionalidade , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Animais , Humanos
4.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614120

RESUMO

As the only specialized institution for research and control of parasitic diseases at the national level in China for almost 70 years, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) has been instrumental in supporting the remarkable progress from high prevalence to transmission interruption or low endemicity of several diseases, lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis in particular. This has taken place through technical guidance, emergency response and scientific research as well as providing technical service, education, training, health promotion and international cooperation. With China's increasing involvement in international cooperation and the increased risk for (re)emerging tropical diseases in mind, the Chinese Government designated in 2017 a new Chinese Center for Tropical Disease Research to NIPD. Responding to the expanded responsibilities, the institute is scaling up its activities in several ways: from parasitic diseases to the wider area of tropical diseases; from disease control to disease elimination; from biological research to policy evidences accumulation; and from public health to global health. Based on this new vision and China's previous accomplishments in the areas mentioned, the institute is in a position to move forward with respect to global health and equitable development according to the central principles of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/normas , Cooperação Internacional , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Medicina Tropical/normas , Academias e Institutos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Estados Unidos
5.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 60(2): 22-31, dic. 2019. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1046713

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: determinar la presencia de Triatoma infestans y las características de sus poblaciones en algunas comunidades del Municipio de Mecapaca cercanas a la cuidad de La Paz. MÉTODOS: la búsqueda entomológica de Triatoma infestans con trampas cebo ratón en sitios silvestres y peridomiciliares o manuales dentro de domicilios, fue realizada en 11 zonas de 8 comunidades del Municipio de Mecapaca, determinando la altura sobre el nivel del mar y la ubicación geográfica de las mismas. Mediante claves dicotómicas según Lent y Wygodzinski se ha realizado la identificación morfológica de los especímenes capturados. Con la observación directa en microscopio óptico de las deyecciones de los especímenes y análisis molecular por PCR Multiplex se ha determinado la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi y las DTUs (Unidades Discretas de Tipificación). RESULTADOS: se encontraron sitios positivos para la presencia de T. infestan, siendo el Indice de Dispersión Entomológica de 50%. Del total de los especímenes capturados (N=103), 91 especímenes (88%) fueron individuos en fase ninfal y 12 individuos (12%) fueron adultos. Se caracterizó T. cruzi TcI y el índice tripano triatominico fue de 50% en individuos capturados en zona silvestre de Huayhuasi y de 16% en individuos capturados en zona peridomiciliar de Huajchilla distante solo a 20 km desde la ciudad de La Paz. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados han constatado presencia de poblaciones silvestres y domiciliadas de T. infestans en sitios silvestres y domiciliares de comunidades del Municipio de Mecapaca cercanas a la ciudad de La Paz. El hallazgo determinaría nuevos esquemas de distribución geográfica de poblaciones de T. infestans e infestación de hábitat humano.


OBJECTIVE: to determine the presence of Triatoma infestans and the characteristics of their populations in some communities of the Municipality of Mecapaca next to the city of La Paz. METHODS: The entomological search of Triatoma infestans with mouse bait traps in wild and peridomiciliary or manual sites within homes, was carried out in 11 areas of 8 communities of the Municipality of Mecapaca, determining the altitude above sea level and their geographical location. By means of dichotomous keys according to Lent and Wygodzinski, the morphological identification of the captured specimens has been carried out. With direct microscopic observation of specimen dejections and molecular analysis by Multiplex PCR, Trypanosoma cruzi infection and DTUs (Discrete Typification Units) have been determined. RESULTS: positive sites were found for the presence of T. infestan, with the Entomological Dispersion Index being 50%. Of the total of the specimens captured (N = 103), 91 specimens (88%) were individuals in the nymphal phase and 12 individuals (12%) were adults. T. cruzi TcI was characterized and the triatominic trypan index was 50% in individuals captured in the wild zone of Huayhuasi and 16% in individuals captured in the peridomiciliary area of Huajchilla, only 20 km away from the city of La Paz. CONCLUSIONS: the results have confirmed the presence of wild and domiciled populations of T. infestans in wild and domiciliary sites of communities of the Municipality of Mecapaca near the city of La Paz. The finding would determine new geographical distribution schemes of T. infestans populations and human habitat infestation.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Parasitárias , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitologia , Triatominae/anatomia & histologia
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 523-531, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over 300 species of parasites can possibly be passed on humans. Most of the parasitic infections are defined based on their pathogenicity; however, some positive effects of a parasite existence within the human body have recently been suggested. Beneficial outcomes of parasite infections might result from the production and release of metabolites, modification of host immune response or products uptake of the host. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was a comprehensive analysis of a wide range of effects of parasites on the human body, including an overview of the toxic and positive effects. STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: In the light of the latest research presenting the unconventional use of parasites in medicine, the widely understood of their impact on the human body can also be considered in a positive context. Clinical cases from diseases caused by the toxic effects of parasites, as described in recent years, indicate that the problem of parasitic infections still persists. Despite a great deal of knowledge about the toxic effects of parasites on the human organism and, above all, despite the improvement in sanitary conditions, there is a resurgence of parasitic infections, as evidenced, e.g. by the examples presented in this review. CONCLUSIONS: The examples of positive effects of parasites presented so far give hope for the future in terms of fighting many diseases for which pharmacological treatment has not yet brought a positive effect. A better understanding of those processes might lead to the development of new methods of unconventional medical treatment.


Assuntos
Parasitos/química , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Medicina , Parasitos/metabolismo , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia
7.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46893

RESUMO

A Oncocercose é uma doença parasitária crônica decorrente da infecção produzida pelo nematódeo Onchocerca volvulus, que se localiza no tecido subcutâneo das pessoas atingidas. A causa principal é a picada do inseto conhecido como borrachudo ou pium infectado com larvas do parasita.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Doenças Parasitárias , Parasitos , Insetos Vetores , Simuliidae
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46894

RESUMO

A oncocercose ou "cegueira dos rios” é uma doença parasitária que causa lesões na pele e nos olhos. Se não for tratada, pode causar cegueira. Na América Latina, o território onde a comunidade indígena Yanomami vive – entre Brasil e Venezuela – é o último foco da doença.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Oncocercose Ocular , Doenças Parasitárias , Simuliidae
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46895

RESUMO

Risco de transmissão se restringe a terra indígena Yanomami na divisa com a Venezuela. Ações apoiadas pela Secretaria Especial de Saúde Indígena foram fundamentais no combate à doença.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Oncocercose Ocular , Doenças Parasitárias , Simuliidae , Doenças Endêmicas , Medicina Tropical
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46889

RESUMO

Doença parasitária ou parasitose é uma doença infecciosa causada por um parasito protozoário ou metazoário.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias , Esquistossomose , Trematódeos , Ascaridíase , Teníase
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 546-548, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and master the infection status of key parasitic diseases in Baise City from 2006 to 2015, so as to provide evidence for the development and adjustment of the control strategy for parasitic diseases. METHODS: The relevant information of the final evaluation of the key parasitic diseases in 12 counties (cities and districts) of Baise City from 2006 to 2015 was collected, and analyzed. RESULTS: During the period of 2006-2015, a total of 20 654 person-times were investigated for parasitic diseases in Baise City and 1 147 persons were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.55%. In 2006, the infection rate was the highest (28.67%, 362/1 254), while the lowest was in 2013 (2.08%, 44/2 113). The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis was the highest, and the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was the second. The infection rates of the males and females were 5.35% (631/11 795) and 5.82% (516/8 859) respectively, with no significant difference between them (χ2 = 2.175, P > 0.05). The highest infection rate existed in the 40-49 years group, the rural residents, the farmers and the crowd with the educational level of senior high middle school or above. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of parasitic diseases presents a decline trend overall in Baise City from 2006 to 2013, however it rebounded in 2014 and 2015. The next step is to strengthen the prevention and control of parasitic diseases by promoting health education, regular insect repellent, and fecundity management.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Doenças Parasitárias , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 555-559, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713395

RESUMO

Exosomes are tiny vesicles secreted by most endogenous cells, and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) are specifically secreted by cells. Recently, it was found that exosomes contain a large quantity of important substances such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, which play important roles in material exchange and information transmission in cell-cell communication, and in modulating the immune response, metabolism, and expansion, metastasis, and drug resistance of tumors. This paper summarizes the recent researches on exosomes in parasites and parasitic diseases and hopes to be helpful for improving the researches of parasites and parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/citologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pesquisa/tendências
13.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(4): 419-433, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709939

RESUMO

Aim of the present study was to identify protozoones which are difficult to define through wet slide in fresh fecal samples by using different fixatives with modified Trichrome stain within five minutes. Two different fixatives prepared for the alternative approach. The slides were fixed by two different fixatives, one of them (fixative-1) was based ethylalcohol, formalin, acetic acid, distilled water and the other one (fixative-2) based ethylalcohol, formalin, citric acid, distilled water included a mordant [divalent or polyvalent metals which make coordination complex with some dyes] consisted copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4 .5H2 O). Slides prepared by the two different fixatives were stained by a different modification of Gomori's trichrome stain that we made. Samples fixed by Schaudinn fixative including mercury chloride were stained by Wheatley modification of Gomori's trichrome stain as a gold standard for control and comparison. We worked with 50 fecal samples which we thought included human intestinal protozoones after the wet slide examination. Comparing the methods, slides prepared with the method including citric acid gave almost similar results with the classical method excluded Entamoeba coli cystes. Slides prepared with the methode including acetic acid gave low performance compared with the classical method especially E.coli cystes and Blastocystis spp., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, E.hartmanni. Both new fixatives gave superior performance at the slides included Dientamoeba fragilis and approximately shorten the procedure process ten times than the classical method. When the both alternative methods compared in each other, the slides prepared with fixative-2 exposed better performance for the protozoones Blastocystis spp., E.nana, I.bütschlii and E.hartmanni while the fixative-1 displayed minimal superiority for D.fragilis including criterias that we based. The fixative-2 and modified stain methode that we used in our study, makes available the diagnostic phase ten times faster than the classical method in human stool parasitological tests excluding the E.coli cystes at parasitology and microbiolgy laboratories. It seems to be a good option to the classical method for routine usage.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Fezes , Microscopia , Doenças Parasitárias , Parasitologia , Eucariotos/citologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fixadores , Formaldeído , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 356-357, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612667

RESUMO

Spatial epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, and is a subject that mainly analyzes the geographical distribution and changes of population health or diseases and its related impact factors. Recently, spatial epidemiology has been extensively applied in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in China, and delightful results have been achieved. However, the research and application of theories and methods of spatial epidemiology are still needed to protect the people's health in China.


Assuntos
Métodos Epidemiológicos , Doenças Parasitárias , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/tendências
15.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542370

RESUMO

China was once a country plagued by parasitic diseases. At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, nearly 80% of the population suffered from parasitic diseases because of poverty and poor sanitary conditions. After nearly 70 years of development, China has made remarkable achievements in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, and the prevalence of parasitic diseases has been greatly reduced. In addition to organizational leadership from the government and various preventive measures, drug treatment and drug research & development are important and irreplaceable links in prevention and control work. Since the 1950s, China has begun to introduce, produce and imitate antiparasitic drugs from abroad, such as santonin, benzimidazole, and praziquantel. Chinese scientists have also contributed to the optimization of production techniques, improvements in drug formulation, the application in the clinic and the mechanisms of actions of generic drugs. At the same time, China has independently developed tribendimidine (TrBD, a broad spectrum anthelminthic), and its anthelminthic spectrum has been comprehensively studied. It is active against almost 20 parasites, is especially superior to benzimidazoles against Necator americanus, and surpasses the effectiveness of praziquantel against Clonorchis sinensis. In the treatment of tapeworm disease, the traditional Chinese medicines pumpkin seeds and betel nuts have good curative effects for taeniasis. Chinese scientists have explored the action modes and clinical administration methods of pumpkin seeds and betel nuts, which is still the main clinical regimen for the disease. This paper reviews the history and progress of the study of anthelmintics in intestinal helminth infections since the founding of the People's Republic of China and aiming to support clinicians and drug researchers in China and other countries.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/história , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/história , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/história , China/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/história , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Fenilenodiaminas/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/história , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico , Teníase/história
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 329-339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533400

RESUMO

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
18.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: xi-xiii, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530398

RESUMO

This special issue is going to introduce the origins of the "Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis (RNAS)" which can be traced back to 1996. RNAS was originally a collaboration of scientists from China and Philippines, and then expanded to Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan and Laos, with focusing on research and control of schistosomiasis japonica. However, at its fifth meeting in Bali, Indonesia in 2005, more countries such as Vietnam, Thailand and Korea were brought on board along with a string of neglected tropical diseases such as cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis, and RNAS thus became RNAS+. We all expected that the progress made so far will be enough to persuade donors to assist RNAS+ in its current activities and forward movement.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/patologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa/tendências , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/tendências
20.
J Biosci ; 44(4)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502575

RESUMO

The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is one of the world's most important parasites of small ruminants that causes significant economic losses to the livestock sector. The population structure and selection in its various strains are poorly understood. No study so far compared its different populations using genome-wide data. Here, we focused on different geographic populations of H. contours from China (Tibet, TB; Hubei, HB; Inner Mongolia, IM; Sichuan, SC), UK and Australia (AS), using genome-wide population-genomic approaches, to explore genetic diversity, population structure and selection. We first performed next-generation high-throughput 2b RAD pool sequencing using Illumina technology, and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all the strains. We identified 75,187 SNPs for TB, 82,271 for HB, 82,420 for IM, 79,803 for SC, 83,504 for AS and 78,747 for UK strain. The SNPs revealed low-nucleotide diversity (pi= 0.0092-0.0133) within each strain, and a significant differentiation level (average Fst = 0.34264) among them. Chinese populations TB and SC, along with the UK strain, were more divergent populations. Chinese populations IM and HB showed affinities to the Australian strain. We then analysed signature of selection and detected 44 (UK) and 03 (AS) private selective sweeps containing 49 and 05 genes, respectively. Finally, we performed the functional annotation of selective sweeps and proposed biological significance to signature of selection. Our data suggest that 2b-RAD pool sequencing can be used to assess the signature of selection in H. contortus.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/genética , Doenças Parasitárias/genética , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Haemonchus/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tibet/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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