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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765613

RESUMO

There is a plethora of meat-borne hazards - including parasites - for which there may be a need for surveillance. However, veterinary services worldwide need to decide how to use their scarce resources and prioritise among the perceived hazards. Moreover, to remain competitive, food business operators - irrespective of whether they are farmers or abattoir operators - are preoccupied with maintaining a profit and minimizing costs. Still, customers and trade partners expect that meat products placed on the market are safe to consume and should not bear any risks of causing disease. Risk-based surveillance systems may offer a solution to this challenge by applying risk analysis principles; first to set priorities, and secondly to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The latter is done through a focus on the cost-effectiveness ratio in sampling and prioritisation. Risk-based surveillance was originally introduced into veterinary public health in 2006. Since then, experience has been gathered, and the methodology has been further developed. Guidelines and tools have been developed, which can be used to set up appropriate surveillance programmes. In this paper, the basic principles are described, and by use of a surveillance design tool called SURVTOOLS (https://survtools.org/), examples are given covering three meat-borne parasites for which risk-based surveillance is 1) either in place in the European Union (EU) (Trichinella spp.), 2) to be officially implemented in December 2019 (Taenia saginata) or 3) only carried out by one abattoir company in the EU as there is no official EU requirement (Toxoplasma gondii). Moreover, advantages, requirements and limitations of risk-based surveillance for meat-borne parasites are discussed.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Animais , Prioridades em Saúde/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Teníase/transmissão , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Triquinelose/transmissão
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107807, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751558

RESUMO

Foodborne parasites, most of which are zoonotic, represent an important human health hazard. These pathogens which include both protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii) and helminths (e.g., liver and intestinal flukes, Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp., Angiostrongylus spp., Anisakis spp., Ascaris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Trichostrongylus spp.), have accompanied the human species since its origin and their spread has often increased due to their behavior. Since both domesticated and wild animals play an important role as reservoirs of these pathogens the increase/decrease of their biomasses, migration, and passive introduction by humans can change their epidemiological patterns. It follows that globalization and climate change will have a tremendous impact on these pathogens modifying their epidemiological patterns and ecosystems due to the changes of biotic and abiotic parameters. The consequences of these changes on foodborne parasites cannot be foreseen as a whole due to their complexity, but it is important that biologists, epidemiologists, physicians and veterinarians evaluate/address the problem within a one health approach. This opinion, based on the author's experience of over 40 years in the parasitology field, takes into consideration the direct and indirect effects on the transmission of foodborne parasites to humans.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Parasitologia de Alimentos/tendências , Helmintos/fisiologia , Internacionalidade , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Animais , Humanos
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 209: 107813, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830462

RESUMO

The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) is a funding organization for the creation of research networks. These networks support collaboration and networking among scientists across Europe and thereby give impetus to research advancements and innovation. One of the most important mechanisms of COST actions are the short-term scientific missions (STSM), which are a funding mechanism that enables scientists, particularly those earlier in their careers, to visit an institution or laboratory in another COST Member state in order to learn techniques that will enhance their skills and improve the scientific knowledge of their institution. The European Network for Foodborne Parasites (Euro-FBP; FA1408) was a COST Action that ended in early 2019, which brought together different experts with knowledge and interest on a broad spectrum of different foodborne parasites of relevance in Europe. In the course of the Euro-FBP COST Action, 32 such STSM occurred. This article provides a short overview of the short-term scientific missions that were approved during this action, as well as the relation of these actions to several relevant socio-economic parameters. The subjects of these STSM, the majority of which were concerned with detection techniques, probably reflect the priorities for research skills on foodborne parasites in Europe.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Serviços de Informação , Doenças Parasitárias , Pesquisa , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Serviços de Informação/economia , Serviços de Informação/tendências , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Pesquisa/economia
4.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101993, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521766

RESUMO

Despite the increasing popularity of seafood in Australia and various reports of infection with transmissible parasites in Australian edible aquatic animals such as fish, the number of reported cases of human infections in the country is low. This raised the question that Australian medical doctors may not be fully aware of the presence of these parasites in Australia, which in turn can lead to misdiagnosis of infections. This also may lead to an underestimation of the risk seafood-borne parasites may pose to public health. This preliminary study was conducted to determine the awareness and level of knowledge among Australian medical practitioners in New South Wales, the most populated and multicultural state in Australia, about seafood-borne parasitic diseases. Medical doctors, both general practitioners and gastroenterologists, were surveyed through an anonymous questionnaire (n = 376). Although the response rate was low at 11%, participants represented a diverse group in terms of gender, age, nationality and expertise. Despite several publications on occurrence of zoonotic parasites in Australian fish and other edible aquatic animals, and also in humans in the country, all respondents said no seafood-borne parasite had been reported as being seen within Australian or overseas practice. Although, due to low response rate, we are unable to confidently comment on the level of awareness, the findings of this study clearly suggest that further research is needed to investigate the extent of unawareness among Australian medical doctors about these highly important parasites and understanding the underlying issues in medical education that lead to the unawareness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Parasitárias/psicologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Médicos , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Educação Médica , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 329-339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533400

RESUMO

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 36, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drylands, which are among the biosphere's most naturally limiting and environmentally variable ecosystems, constitute three-quarters of the African continent. As a result, environmental sustainability and human development along with vector-borne disease (VBD) control historically have been especially challenging in Africa, particularly in the sub-Saharan and Sahelian drylands. Here, the VBD burden, food insecurity, environmental degradation, and social vulnerability are particularly severe. Changing climate can exacerbate the legion of environmental health threats in Africa, the social dimensions of which are now part of the international development agenda. Accordingly, the need to better understand the dynamics and complex coupling of populations and environments as exemplified by drylands is increasingly recognized as critical to the design of more sustainable interventions. MAIN BODY: This scoping review examines the challenge of vector-borne disease control in drylands with a focus on Africa, and the dramatic, ongoing environmental and social changes taking place. Dryland societies persisted and even flourished in the past despite changing climates, extreme and unpredictable weather, and marginal conditions for agriculture. Yet intrusive forces largely out of the control of traditional dryland societies, along with the negative impacts of globalization, have contributed to the erosion of dryland's cultural and natural resources. This has led to the loss of resilience underlying the adaptive capacity formerly widely exhibited among dryland societies. A growing body of evidence from studies of environmental and natural resource management demonstrates how, in light of dryland system's inherent complexity, these factors and top-down interventions can impede sustainable development and vector-borne disease control. Strengthening adaptive capacity through community-based, participatory methods that build on local knowledge and are tailored to local ecological conditions, hold the best promise of reversing current trends. CONCLUSIONS: A significant opportunity exists to simultaneously address the increasing threat of vector-borne diseases and climate change through methods aimed at strengthening adaptive capacity. The integrative framework and methods based on social-ecological systems and resilience theory offers a novel set of tools that allow multiple threats and sources of vulnerability to be addressed in combination. Integration of recent advances in vector borne disease ecology and wider deployment of these tools could help reverse the negative social and environmental trends currently seen in African drylands.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 33(2): 567-591, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005139

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients may infrequently develop parasitic infections at the time of the procedure via contamination from allograft tissue or blood products, and in the post-transplantation period through the traditional route of infection or as a reactivation caused by immunosuppression related to the transplant. To reduce risk, efforts should be directed at performing a comprehensive history, maintaining a high index of suspicion, and adhering to preventive measures. Additional strategies for the prevention, screening and careful follow-up, identification, and pre-emptive treatment of parasitic infections are required to reduce morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/parasitologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Parasitárias/etiologia , Estrongiloidíase/etiologia , Toxoplasmose/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Acta Trop ; 193: 211-216, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871988

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases are among the major health problems of various societies, especially people in developing countries, causing high economic and mortality burdens. Many researchers have reported that awareness and knowledge of a disease are effective in preventing and controlling the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes on parasitic diseases of the population in Ahvaz County, southwestern Iran. This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2017 on 3500 subjects above 15 years old of Ahvaz County. First, participants were provided the necessary information regarding the study, and then data were collected using a constructed questionnaire. Of the 3500 participants, 1732 (49.5%) were female and 1768 (50.5%) were male, 348 (9.9%) said that they had been infected with a parasitic disease at least once in their lifetime. Almost half of the participants (42.8%) knew malaria was a parasitic disease and 50.2%, 48.9%, and 41.5% were aware of the possible transmission of parasitic diseases through uncooked meat, dirty hands, and close contact with animals. Regarding clinical symptoms, 73.2% and 32.6% of the respondents knew diarrhea and abdominal pain respectively were clinical symptoms of intestinal parasitic diseases. However, only 31.3% were aware of the close contact with cats and the risk of human toxoplasmosis and possible abortion in pregnant women. The findings reveal that the attitude of most participants toward treatment was positive (93.9%), but only 47.5% of believed that disinfecting fruits and vegetables could prevent intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Parasitárias/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Dor Abdominal/parasitologia , Aborto Espontâneo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/transmissão , Irã (Geográfico) , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Primates ; 60(3): 297-306, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631972

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates host a variety of gastrointestinal parasites that infect individuals through different transmission routes. Social contact among group members (e.g., body contact, grooming) brings the risk of parasite infection, especially when the pathogen infection is directly transmitted. Along with this, accidental provisioning (i.e., food provisioning occurring during close tourist-wildlife interactions) is also considered to increase the risk of infection, as aggregation during feeding can cause higher exposure to parasite infective stages. However, while some attention has been paid to the relationship between social behavior and parasites, the link between accidental food provisioning and characteristics of parasite infection in primates has thus far received less attention. This study examines the potential effect of accidental provisioning on patterns of inter-individual spatial association, and in turn on parasite infection risk in a wild group of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. To do so, we simulated events of accidental provisioning via researcher-managed provisioning experiments and tested whether experimental provisioning affects the inter-individual spatial distribution within groups. In addition, we determined whether patterns of parasite infection were better predicted by naturally occurring spatial networks (i.e., spatial association during natural observations) or by provisioning spatial networks (i.e., spatial interactions during experimental provisioning). We found a significant increase in network centrality that was potentially associated with an overall increase in individual connections with other group members during experimental trials. However, when assessing the effects of natural and provisioning network metrics on parasite characteristics, we did not observe a significant effect of centrality measures (i.e., closeness and betweenness) on parasite richness and single infection by Filariopsis sp. Taken together, our findings suggest that alterations of within-group spatial networks due to accidental provisioning may have a limited influence in determining the characteristics of parasite infections in black capuchin monkeys.


Assuntos
Cebus/parasitologia , Alimentos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Asseio Animal
10.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(4): 225-233, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden of diseases. The present article investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in South Korea. METHODS: The incidence and distribution of common tick-borne diseases in Korea (Lyme disease, Q fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS]) were investigated and analyzed, using data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) infectious disease reporting system. A literature review was compiled on the current status of uncommon tick-borne diseases (Rickettsia, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, bartonellosis, tularemia, tick-borne encephalitis, and babesiosis). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In South Korea, SFTS is an emerging disease, showing a rapid increase in reports since 2012, with high mortality. Likewise, reports of Lyme disease and Q fever cases have also been rapidly increasing during 2012-2017, although caution should be taken when interpreting these results, considering the likely influence of increased physician awareness and reporting of these diseases. Other tick-borne diseases reported in South Korea included spotted fever group rickettsiae, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Bartonella, and babesiosis. Evidences on human infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever were recently unavailable, but both need constant monitoring.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão
11.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(1): 49-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481116

RESUMO

Tolerance, or the maintenance of host health or fitness at a given parasite burden, has often been studied in evolutionary and medical contexts, particularly with respect to effects on the evolution of parasite virulence and individual patient outcomes. These bodies of work have provided insight about tolerance for evolutionary phenomena (e.g., virulence) and individual health (e.g., recovering from an infection). However, due to the specific motivations of that work, few studies have considered the ecological ramifications of variation in tolerance, namely, how variation in forms of tolerance could mediate parasite movement through populations and even community-level disease dynamics. Tolerance is most commonly regarded as the relationship between host fitness and parasite burden. However, few if any studies have actually quantified host fitness, instead utilizing proxies of fitness as the response variables to be regressed against parasite burden. Here, we address how attention to the effects of parasite burden on traits that are relevant to host competence (i.e., the ability to amplify parasites to levels transmissible to other hosts/vectors) will enhance our understanding of disease dynamics in nature. We also provide several forms of guidance for how to overcome the challenges of quantifying tolerance in wild organisms.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Resistência à Doença , Carga Parasitária , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/fisiopatologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4324, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337529

RESUMO

Stopping interventions is a critical decision for parasite elimination programmes. Quantifying the probability that elimination has occurred due to interventions can be facilitated by combining infection status information from parasitological surveys with extinction thresholds predicted by parasite transmission models. Here we demonstrate how the integrated use of these two pieces of information derived from infection monitoring data can be used to develop an analytic framework for guiding the making of defensible decisions to stop interventions. We present a computational tool to perform these probability calculations and demonstrate its practical utility for supporting intervention cessation decisions by applying the framework to infection data from programmes aiming to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Uganda and Nigeria, respectively. We highlight a possible method for validating the results in the field, and discuss further refinements and extensions required to deploy this predictive tool for guiding decision making by programme managers.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Humanos , Oncocercose/diagnóstico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Oncocercose/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 90, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission dynamics, vectorial capacity, and co-infections have substantial impacts on vector-borne diseases (VBDs) affecting urban and suburban populations. Reviewing key factors can provide insight into priority research areas and offer suggestions for potential interventions. MAIN BODY: Through a scoping review, we identify knowledge gaps on transmission dynamics, vectorial capacity, and co-infections regarding VBDs in urban areas. Peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 2000 and 2016 was searched. We screened abstracts and full texts to select studies. Using an extraction grid, we retrieved general data, results, lessons learned and recommendations, future research avenues, and practice implications. We classified studies by VBD and country/continent and identified relevant knowledge gaps. Of 773 articles selected for full-text screening, 50 were included in the review: 23 based on research in the Americas, 15 in Asia, 10 in Africa, and one each in Europe and Australia. The largest body of evidence concerning VBD epidemiology in urban areas concerned dengue and malaria. Other arboviruses covered included chikungunya and West Nile virus, other parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, and bacterial rickettsiosis and plague. Most articles retrieved in our review combined transmission dynamics and vectorial capacity; only two combined transmission dynamics and co-infection. The review identified significant knowledge gaps on the role of asymptomatic individuals, the effects of co-infection and other host factors, and the impacts of climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on VBD transmission in urban areas. Limitations included the trade-off from narrowing the search strategy (missing out on classical modelling studies), a lack of studies on co-infections, most studies being only descriptive, and few offering concrete public health recommendations. More research is needed on transmission risk in homes and workplaces, given increasingly dynamic and mobile populations. The lack of studies on co-infection hampers monitoring of infections transmitted by the same vector. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening VBD surveillance and control, particularly in asymptomatic cases and mobile populations, as well as using early warning tools to predict increasing transmission, were key strategies identified for public health policy and practice.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/transmissão , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Malária/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Animais , Humanos , Saúde da População Urbana
14.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(11): 934-944, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266447

RESUMO

Host-manipulation by trophically transmitted parasites is thought to always predispose the intermediate hosts to enhanced predation by definitive hosts ('enhancement'). However, theory predicts that enhancement can disrupt stable, bottom-heavy predator-prey ratios, leading to fluctuation-driven extinction of intermediate hosts and parasites. How then can enhancement persist in nature despite this apparent instability? We address this paradox and conceptualize the 'switcher-paradigm', a novel framework incorporating sequential phases of reduced predation ('suppression') followed by enhancement. Theoretical models within the framework that consider 'switching' from suppression to enhancement indicate that switching likely increases parasite persistence and, in some circumstances, cancels out the effects of strong enhancement, leading to bottom-heavy predator-prey ratios. The switcher-paradigm confronts interdisciplinary research challenges, linking ecological processes across scales from within-host to community-wide dynamics.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Comportamento Predatório
16.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 42(2): 144-153, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070646

RESUMO

Working in a laboratory is very difficult and needs special attention. Laboratory workers can be exposed to numerous potential hazards including chemical, biological, physical, and radioactive. That is why it is really important to follow the working principles in laboratories for the sake of the lab analyzers and others who work with them in the lab. Laboratory safety includes the use of certain laboratory rules, methods, infrastructures, and devices during work to protect the working person and the working material. All studies show that > 70% of medical decisions are based on laboratory results. In such important laboratories, it is must to get safe and reliable results. This requires a well-established working system and strict observance of laboratory safety. Biosafety is very important in parasitology laboratories as well as in all microbiology laboratories. Usually, it takes a long time for people to detect parasitic diseases through laboratory accidents, who are working in laboratories. That is why, especially in parasitology laboratories, the issue of laboratory safety should be emphasized more sensitively. We will be reviewing the hazards, parasites, exposure routes, and protective measures imposed in parasitology laboratories.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Laboratórios/normas , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Parasitologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(7): 549-552, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703586

RESUMO

Recent molecular and cellular studies have highlighted a potentially important role for tick exosomes in parasite transmission. Here we summarize evolving hypotheses about the largely unknown cellular events that may take place at the tick-host-pathogen interface, focusing on a potential role for arthropod exosomes in this tripartite interaction.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/parasitologia , Exossomos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 28, 2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snail-borne parasitic diseases, such as angiostrongyliasis, clonorchiasis, fascioliasis, fasciolopsiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and schistosomiasis, pose risks to human health and cause major socioeconomic problems in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. In this review we summarize the core roles of snails in the life cycles of the parasites they host, their clinical manifestations and disease distributions, as well as snail control methods. MAIN BODY: Snails have four roles in the life cycles of the parasites they host: as an intermediate host infected by the first-stage larvae, as the only intermediate host infected by miracidia, as the first intermediate host that ingests the parasite eggs are ingested, and as the first intermediate host penetrated by miracidia with or without the second intermediate host being an aquatic animal. Snail-borne parasitic diseases target many organs, such as the lungs, liver, biliary tract, intestines, brain and kidneys, leading to overactive immune responses, cancers, organ failure, infertility and even death. Developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have the highest incidences of these diseases, while some endemic parasites have developed into worldwide epidemics through the global spread of snails. Physical, chemical and biological methods have been introduced to control the host snail populations to prevent disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we summarize the roles of snails in the life cycles of the parasites they host, the worldwide distribution of parasite-transmitting snails, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of snail-transmitted parasitic diseases, and the existing snail control measures, which will contribute to further understanding the snail-parasite relationship and new strategies for controlling snail-borne parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças Parasitárias , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 252: 74-79, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559155

RESUMO

One of the main goals in academia is, and has been, high quality education of students to provide theoretical and practical knowledge essential for professional life. Achieving this goal is highly dependent on teaching procedures and, consequently, on a constant adaptation of teaching styles to align to technical advances and cutting-edge topics. Technical advances can strongly influence teaching and learning in the complex subject area of veterinary parasitology. Today's students are provided with extensive, digital lecture notes, and e-learning offers including virtual microscope technology to independently obtain intensified theoretical knowledge and understanding. As veterinary parasitology is also highly reliant on proficient practical skills, lectures with integrated diagnostic exercises are mandatory. Nowadays, such practical skills, such as carrying out faecal examination procedures, can be strengthened by having access to clinical skills labs. Advances such as digital lecture notes, e-learning and virtual microscopes do not only provide new, innovative opportunities, but can also comprise challenges. In this context, provision of sufficient relevant studying material may discourage students to take on responsibilities for autonomous gathering of information. Besides technical advances, 'Zeitgeist' changes are shaping teaching contents, which are progressively expanding as zoonoses are increasingly being focused on. With the aim of adopting the one-health concept, students today are expected not only to bear responsibilities for animals, but also for their owners and public health. This article will cast light on some key challenges and opportunities in modern veterinary parasitology teaching from the teachers´ and the students´ perspectives.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária/história , Parasitologia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Ensino/história , Animais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Zoonoses
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(3): 602-603, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460761

RESUMO

Knowing the mode of transmission of a disease can affect its control and prevention. Here, we identify 5 protozoan parasites with demonstrated presence in seminal fluid, only 1 of which has been identified as a sexually transmitted disease among humans.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Sêmen/parasitologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Testículo/parasitologia
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