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1.
Georgian Med News ; (299): 131-137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242860

RESUMO

The article indicates that the oral cavity is one of the complex and stable biotopes, very favorable for the growth and maintenance of the vital activity of microorganisms. However, the biocenoses of all human biotopes are inextricably linked and a change in one of them causes changes in the others. These changes can also lead to negative consequences for the macroorganism. It is known that such common human diseases as tooth decay and inflammatory periodontal diseases are caused by representatives of oral microbiocenosis. These pathologies have their own characteristics and are the result of intermicrobial and organismic relationships. The questions of intermicrobial relations were dealt with by the American ecologist Eugene Odum, who classified biotic relationships by the nature of their influence on interacting species, as well as the Italian mathematician Vito Volterra, considered the founder of the modern mathematical theory of populations. Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy employees pay great attention to the study of oral microbiocenosis in normal conditions and in various pathologies. We carried out the calculations of microflora studied in one of these researches according to the V. Volterra formulas and using the modified classification of Yu. Odum. They showed the possibility of determining the type of relationship between associates of the oral biotope. This position may be useful when planning hygienic and therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Humanos
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(2): 115-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023578

RESUMO

A new difunctional Zn(II) coordination polymer (CP) with the chemical formula of [Zn(TBTA) (L)1.5]n (1) has been synthesized hydrothermally from tetrabromoterephthalic acid (H2TBTA) and 4,4'-bis(imidazole-1-yl)-biphenyl (L) ligands. Furthermore, due to its strong intense emission and open N donor sites, complex 1 could be used as a light-emitting sensor to determine 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) which has high selectivity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the anti-bacterial effect of the compound against P. gingivalis in vitro was evaluated by measuring the P. gingivalis growth curves after compound treatment. And the RT-PCR assay was performed to detect the relative expression of ragA and ragB, which are important for the P. gingivalis growth. The potential anti-infectious mechanism was further studied by using molecular docking technique.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trinitrobenzenos/química , Trinitrobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Zinco/química , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Depressão Química , Humanos , Ligantes , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Polímeros , Trinitrobenzenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109938

RESUMO

Periodontal disease, the most prevalent infectious disease in the world, is caused by biofilms formed in periodontal pockets. No specific bacterial species that can cause periodontitis alone has been found in any study to date. Several periodontopathic bacteria are associated with the progress of periodontal disease. Consequently, it is hypothesized that dysbiosis of subgingival microbiota may be a cause of periodontal disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the subgingival microbiota and the clinical status of periodontal pockets in a quantitative and clinically applicable way with the newly developed Oral Care Chip. The Oral Care Chip is a DNA microarray tool with improved quantitative performance, that can be used in combination with competitive PCR to quantitatively detect 17 species of subgingival bacteria. Cluster analysis based on the similarity of each bacterial quantity was performed on 204 subgingival plaque samples collected from periodontitis patients and healthy volunteers. A significant difference in the number of total bacteria, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus intermedia bacteria in any combination of the three clusters indicated that these bacteria gradually increased in number from the stage before the pocket depth deepened. Conversely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus constellatus, which had significant differences only in limited clusters, were thought to increase in number as the pocket depth deepened, after periodontal pocket formation. Furthermore, in clusters where healthy or mild periodontal disease sites were classified, there was no statistically significant difference in pocket depth, but the number of bacteria gradually increased from the stage before the pocket depth increased. This means that quantitative changes in these bacteria can be a predictor of the progress of periodontal tissue destruction, and this novel microbiological test using the Oral Care Chip could be effective at detecting dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Microbiota , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Adulto , Campylobacter rectus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Índice Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus constellatus/isolamento & purificação , Tannerella forsythia/isolamento & purificação , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 259-269, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674085

RESUMO

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to destruction of periodontal tissues. As a local inflammation, periodontopathic bacterium, pro-inflammatory mediators, and local immune response play pivotal role in the progress of periodontal disease. Besides, cigarette smoke has long been associated with periodontal disease and tooth loss. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans. As a lysosomal degradation pathway of self-digestion, it is critical for maintaining cells homeostasis and development. The role of autophagy has been investigated in oral diseases, such as oral cancer, periapical lesions, and oral candidiasis. Recently, increasing studies investigated the role of autophagy in periodontal disease. In this review, we try to illustrate the effect of autophagy on periodontal disease pathogenesis from 5 aspects: autophagy affects the intracellular infection and survival of bacteria; autophagy has an interaction with periodontal inflammation; autophagy is pivotal in periodontal cells biology and periodontal tissues destruction and reconstruction; autophagy can be induced by cigarette smoke; last but not least, autophagy may affect periodontal disease via endoplasmic reticulum stress.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/microbiologia , Autofagia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Lisossomos
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859706

RESUMO

Laboratory evidence has demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (MEL) against oral microorganisms. This randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, compared the anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of MEL nanoparticles with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on biofilm-free (BF) and biofilm-covered (BC) surfaces. Before each experimental period, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene practices for 72 hours. The 60 participants were randomly assigned to professional prophylaxis in two quadrants (Q1-Q3 or Q2-Q4), and rinsed with MEL or CHX for four days. The Quigley & Hein plaque index (QHPI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, and participants' perceptions were assessed. CHX showed significantly lower mean QHPI on BF (2.65 ± 0.34 vs. 3.34 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) and BC surfaces (2.84 ± 0.37 vs. 3.37 ± 0.33, p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons indicated reductions in GCF in all the groups, with significant differences only for CHX on BF surfaces (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Based on individual perceptions, CHX had better taste and biofilm control, but resulted in a greater change in taste. Nevertheless, MEL demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of CHX. Further clinical trials testing different protocols, concentrations and follow-up periods are required to establish its clinical application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 377-382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880883

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Feminino , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 79-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732936

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen with the ability to induce oral dysbiosis and periodontal disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which P. gingivalis could abrogate the host-microbe symbiotic relationship leading to oral dysbiosis remain unclear. We have recently demonstrated that P. gingivalis specifically increased the antimicrobial properties of oral epithelial cells, through a strong induction of the expression of PLA2-IIA in a mechanism that involves activation of the Notch-1 receptor. Moreover, gingival expression of PLA2-IIA was significantly increased during initiation and progression of periodontal disease in non-human primates and interestingly, those PLA2-IIA expression changes were concurrent with oral dysbiosis. In this chapter, we present an innovative hypothesis of a potential mechanism involved in P. gingivalis-induced oral dysbiosis and inflammation based on our previous observations and a robust body of literature that supports the antimicrobial and proinflammatory properties of PLA2-IIA as well as its role in other chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Doenças Periodontais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/enzimologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fosfolipases/genética , Poliésteres , Porphyromonas gingivalis/enzimologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética
8.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 24(6): e776-e781, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to estimate the possible relationship between periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity and the birth of Preterm Birth (PTB) and/or Low Birth Weight (LBW). MATERIAL AND METHODS: It's a case- control study with the subgengival biofilm samples were collected from four sites up deeper until 48 hours postpartum and were processes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for presence the periodontal pathogens Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) e Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). The mothers were divided into case grup (babies weighing < 2500 g and/or gestational age < 37 weeks) and control group (babies weighing ≥ 2500 g and gestational age ≥ 37 weeks). Chi-square test and the measure of association obtained by Odds Ratio (OR) were used to estimate the association between the variables. RESULTS: Microbial analyses results showed no significant association between PTB and LBW with most periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity, even with association with the clinical presence of periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: given the high presence of periodontal pathogens in the biofilm subgengival of recent mothers, it is suggested that the findings of this research serve as the basis for future studies on the pathophysiology involved in the relationship between periodontitis and PTB and/or LBW


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Nascimento Prematuro , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella intermedia/isolamento & purificação , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
9.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(11): 1990-2000, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adipokine levels in early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) and first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with RA and establish their association with rheumatic disease activity and periodontal variables. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with eRA patients, FDR and a healthy population. Adipokine levels, clinical, joint radiological indexes and periodontal variables were evaluated. A descriptive, bivariate analysis was performed based on the adipokine levels by χ2 , Fisher's test and Mann-Whitney U test. A logistic regression was made for associations. RESULTS: High leptin levels were associated with the diagnosis of eRA (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% CI 1.54-5.07). Early rheumatoid arthritis with high adiponectin levels was less likely to have Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire score >3, body mass index (BMI) >25 and Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score >12 (OR = 0.16; 95% CI 0.03-0.72). Early rheumatoid arthritis was more likely to present high leptin and interleukin (IL)6 levels with low adiponectin simultaneously (OR = 5.03; 95% CI 1.05-24.0). High leptin levels were associated with the FDR adjusted for IgG2 Porphyromonas gingivalis, swollen joints, P gingivalis and low IL6 (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.14-5.95). CONCLUSION: High adipokine levels in eRA may modulate the disease activity. Having more than 1 adipokine at high serum levels is associated with increased disability, disease activity and BMI, indicating that RA is controlled by adiponectin levels in the early stages of the disease. High leptin levels, presence of P gingivalis and swollen joints may be the factors associated with the development of RA in FDR.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Família , Doenças Periodontais/sangue , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Regulação para Cima
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e16976, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574796

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Halitosis is an unpleasant odor that emanates from the mouth. Studies show halitosis returns in a week, after treatment with PDT. Probably, bacteria living in the periodontal sulcus could recolonize the dorsum of the tongue. Until nowadays, there are no study in adult population that associates halitosis and periodontal treatment with follow-up evaluation. The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial is to treat oral halitosis in healthy adults with photodynamic therapy (PDT), associated with periodontal treatment and follow them up for 3 months. PATIENT CONCERNS:: the concerns assessments will be done over the study using anamnesis interviews and specific questionnaire. DIAGNOSES:: halitosis will be evaluated by OralChroma. INTERVENTIONS: The participants (n = 40) with halitosis will be randomized into 2 groups: G1-treatment with PDT (n = 20) or G2-cleaning of the tongue with a tongue scraper (n = 20). OUTCOMES: Halitosis will be evaluated by measuring volatile sulfur compounds using gas chromatography. After the treatments, a second evaluation will be performed, along with a microbiological analysis (RT-PCR) for the identification of the bacteria T. denticola. The assessment of halitosis and the microbiological analysis will be repeated. After that, patients will receive periodontal treatment. The participants will return after 1 week and 3 months for an additional evaluation. Quality of life will be measured by Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). LESSONS: This protocol will determine the effectiveness of phototherapy regarding the reduction of halitosis in adults. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03996915. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol received approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Nove de Julho (certificate number: 3.257.104). The data will be published in a peer-reviewed periodical.


Assuntos
Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Seguimentos , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 207, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral flagellated protozoan Trichomonas tenax has been associated with patients with periodontal disease. However, no recent studies have been conducted on the prevalence of T. tenax in Chile. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. tenax in patients with periodontal disease, admitted to the Dental Clinic of the University of Antofagasta, Chile, through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, 20 of them with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis. T. tenax was identified by PCR amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. Associations between the protozoan and periodontal disease or the presence of risk factors to establish T. tenax infection were determined using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: T. tenax was present in 28 out of 50 (56%) of patients with periodontal disease, and was more prevalent when associated with periodontitis (21 out of 30; 70%) than dental plaque-induced gingivitis (7 out of 20; 35%). Non-statistically-significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and age, gender, smoking habit or diabetes. Statistically significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and periodontal disease, and between T. tenax and the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) index. CONCLUSION: T. tenax showed a high presence in patients with progressive states of periodontal diseases. Consequently, T. tenax detection is strongly recommended in patients with periodontal disease diagnosis and with a PSR index greater than 3.


Assuntos
Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Clínicas Odontológicas , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Universidades
12.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(4): 244-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periodontal tissues are continuously exposed to specific bacterial components that have the ability to alter many local functions. Normal endogenous infections in healthy mouths cause disease when their numbers increase significantly. OBJECTIVE: Determine the percentage of different periodontal pathogenic bacteria and their association with periodontal status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, analytical. SETTINGS: School children of both genders in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical examination consisted of measurement of the gingival and periodontal supporting tissue including attachment loss, probing pocket depth and furcation involvement following the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and taking samples of the subgingival bacterial flora. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentage of periodontal pathogenic bacteria and its association with periodontal status in Saudi Arabia. SAMPLE SIZE: Bacterial samples were collected from 277 subjects. RESULTS: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was present in 21.7% of the subjects, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 21.3%; Tannerella forsythia in 10.1%; Treponema denticola in 34.7% and Prevotella inter-media in 12.3%. The red complex bacteria were found in 2.9% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The percentages of bacteria varied but only T denticola was significantly associated with periodontal breakdown. In addition, the presence of more than 2 of the 5 species tested were significantly associated with tissue damage. LIMITATIONS: Cannot be generalized to all of Saudi Arabia. Larger controlled studies are needed. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gengiva/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
13.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(11): 2005-2019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372904

RESUMO

Human oral cavity (mouth) hosts a complex microbiome consisting of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi and viruses. These bacteria are responsible for two common diseases of the human mouth including periodontal (gum) and dental caries (tooth decay). Dental caries is caused by plaques, which are a community of microorganisms in biofilm format. Genetic and peripheral factors lead to variations in the oral microbiome. It has known that, in commensalism and coexistence between microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in the oral microbiome is preserved. Nonetheless, under some conditions, a parasitic relationship dominates the existing situation and the rise of cariogenic microorganisms results in dental caries. Utilizing advanced molecular biology techniques, new cariogenic microorganisms species have been discovered. The oral microbiome of each person is quite distinct. Consequently, commonly taken measures for disease prevention cannot be exactly the same for other individuals. The chance for developing tooth decay in individuals is dependent on factors such as immune system and oral microbiome which itself is affected by the environmental and genetic determinants. Early detection of dental caries, assessment of risk factors and designing personalized measure let dentists control the disease and obtain desired results. It is necessary for a dentist to consider dental caries as a result of a biological process to be targeted than treating the consequences of decay cavities. In this research, we critically review the literature and discuss the role of microbial biofilms in dental caries.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/genética , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Saliva/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382656

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by kidney damage with proteinuria, hematuria, and progressive loss of kidney function. The final stage of CKD is known as end-stage renal disease, which usually indicates that approximately 90% of normal renal function is lost, and necessitates renal replacement therapy for survival. The most widespread renal replacement therapy is dialysis, which includes peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). However, despite the development of novel medical instruments and agents, both dialysis procedures have complications and disadvantages, such as cardiovascular disease due to excessive blood fluid and infections caused by impaired immunity. Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation induced by various pathogens and its frequency and severity in patients undergoing dialysis are higher compared to those in healthy individuals. Therefore, several investigators have paid special attention to the impact of periodontal disease on inflammation-, nutrient-, and bone metabolism-related markers; the immune system; and complications in patients undergoing dialysis. Furthermore, the influence of diabetes on the prevalence and severity of manifestations of periodontal disease, and the properties of saliva in HD patients with periodontitis have been reported. Conversely, there are few reviews discussing periodontal disease in patients with dialysis. In this review, we discuss the available studies and review the pathological roles and clinical significance of periodontal disease in patients receiving PD or HD. In addition, this review underlines the importance of oral health and adequate periodontal treatment to maintain quality of life and prolong survival in these patients.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Diálise Peritoneal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Falência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/imunologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 7241312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341421

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) are Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria possessing several virulence factors that make them potential pathogens associated with periodontal disease. Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, including gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontitis can lead to tooth loss and is considered one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum possess virulence factors that allow them to survive in hostile environments by selectively modulating the host's immune-inflammatory response, thereby creating major challenges to host cell survival. Studies have demonstrated that bacterial infection and the host immune responses are involved in the induction of periodontitis. The NLRP3 inflammasome and its effector molecules (IL-1ß and caspase-1) play roles in the development of periodontitis. We and others have reported that the purinergic P2X7 receptor plays a role in the modulation of periodontal disease and intracellular pathogen control. Caspase-4/5 (in humans) and caspase-11 (in mice) are important effectors for combating bacterial pathogens via mediation of cell death and IL-1ß release. The exact molecular events of the host's response to these bacteria are not fully understood. Here, we review innate and adaptive immune responses induced by P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum infections and discuss the possibility of manipulations of the immune response as therapeutic strategies. Given the global burden of periodontitis, it is important to develop therapeutic targets for the prophylaxis of periodontopathogen infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/patogenicidade , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/terapia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Infecções por Fusobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/terapia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/imunologia , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Virulência
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297343

RESUMO

An altered oral microbiota has been linked with the development of several oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral stomatitis. Moreover, poor oral health has been linked to head and neck cancer, particularly oral cancer. In recent years a growing number of studies indicate that oral microbiota could be involved in the development of primary tumours outside of head and neck region. The aim of this article is to review the recent studies based on high-throughput technology to present evidences of a relationship between oral microbiota and "non-head and neck tumours." Oral dysbiosis seem to be more pronounced in patients with tumours of gastrointestinal tract, in particular oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers, paving the way for developing specific oral microbiota test to allow early cancer detection. Regarding other tumour types, the results are promising but highly preliminary and still debated. Currently, there are several factors that limit the generalization of the results, such as the small sample size, the lack of adequate clinical information about patients, the different sequencing techniques used, and biological sample heterogeneity. Although only at the beginning, the analysis of oral microbiota could be the next step in the evolution of cancer therapy and will help clinicians to develop individualised approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 102, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental calculus, calcified oral plaque biofilm, contains microbial and host biomolecules that can be used to study historic microbiome communities and host responses. Dental calculus does not typically accumulate as much today as historically, and clinical oral microbiome research studies focus primarily on living dental plaque biofilm. However, plaque and calculus reflect different conditions of the oral biofilm, and the differences in microbial characteristics between the sample types have not yet been systematically explored. Here, we compare the microbial profiles of modern dental plaque, modern dental calculus, and historic dental calculus to establish expected differences between these substrates. RESULTS: Metagenomic data was generated from modern and historic calculus samples, and dental plaque metagenomic data was downloaded from the Human Microbiome Project. Microbial composition and functional profile were assessed. Metaproteomic data was obtained from a subset of historic calculus samples. Comparisons between microbial, protein, and metabolomic profiles revealed distinct taxonomic and metabolic functional profiles between plaque, modern calculus, and historic calculus, but not between calculus collected from healthy teeth and periodontal disease-affected teeth. Species co-exclusion was related to biofilm environment. Proteomic profiling revealed that healthy tooth samples contain low levels of bacterial virulence proteins and a robust innate immune response. Correlations between proteomic and metabolomic profiles suggest co-preservation of bacterial lipid membranes and membrane-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we find that there are systematic microbial differences between plaque and calculus related to biofilm physiology, and recognizing these differences is important for accurate data interpretation in studies comparing dental plaque and calculus.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cálculos Dentários/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Dente/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cálculos Dentários/história , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Proteômica
18.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(8): 293-302, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209914

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides play important roles in the innate immune system of various organisms, and they may also be considered to prevent the organisms from infections. In particular, ß-defensins, mainly produced in epithelial cells, are recognized as one of the major antimicrobial peptides in mammals, including humans. In this study, we showed that Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171), one of the several species of lactic acid bacteria, upregulates the production of ß-defensins in oral epithelial cells in vitro. Moreover, LH2171 reduced the increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulation, in gingival epithelial cells. These data suggested that LH2171 suppresses P. gingivalis-induced inflammation by upregulating the expression of ß-defensins in gingival epithelial cells. We subsequently investigated the effects of LH2171 in vivo and revealed that ß-defensin expression was increased in the oral cavities of LH2171-fed mice. Furthermore, LH2171 decreased alveolar bone loss, gingival inflammation, and amounts of P. gingivalis-specific 16S ribosomal RNA in the gingiva of P. gingivalis-inoculated mice. Taken together, our results showed that LH2171 upregulates the expression of ß-defensins in oral cavity, thereby decreasing the number of P. gingivalis consequently ameliorating the experimental periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactobacillus helveticus/fisiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengiva/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 145, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research findings support an antimicrobial effect of polyphenols against a variety of pathogens, but there is no evidence of this effect against periodontal pathogens in complex biofilms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of red wine and oenological extracts, rich in polyphenols, against the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum and total bacteria growing in an in vitro oral biofilm static model. METHODS: A previously validated biofilm model, including Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella parvula, F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans was developed on sterile hydroxyapatite discs. Red wine (and dealcoholized wine), and two polyphenols-rich extracts (from wine and grape seeds) were applied to 72 h biofilms by dipping the discs during 1 and 5 min in the wine solutions and during 30 s and 1 min in the oenological extracts. Resulting biofilms were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and viable bacteria (colony forming units/mL) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction combined with propidium monoazide. A generalized linear model was constructed to determine the effect of the tested products on the viable bacterial counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, as well on the total number of viable bacteria. RESULTS: The results showed that red wine and dealcoholized red wine caused reduction in viability of total bacteria within the biofilm, with statistically significant reductions in the number of viable P. gingivalis after 1 min (p = 0.008) and in A. actinomycetemcomitans after 5 min of exposure (p = 0.011) with red wine. No evidence of relevant antibacterial effect was observed with the oenological extracts, with statistically significant reductions of F. nucleatum after 30 s of exposure to both oenological extracts (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although moderate, the antimicrobial impact observed in the total bacterial counts and counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, encourage further investigations on the potential use of these natural products in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/fisiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Vitis/química
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15922, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and periodontal disease (PD). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible articles published from inception up to April 2018. Further articles were retrieved through a manual search of recent reviews. Cross-sectional studies, case-control studies and cohort studies reporting the association between H pylori and PD were included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Four case-control studies and nine cross-sectional studies were included. A total of 6800 patients were included in this review. The odds for oral H pylori positivity was 2.31 times (95% CI: 1.99-2.68) greater than those without H pylori. Subgroup analyses involving different study locations, designs, and types of study population showed the similar results. The pooled OR for the gastric disease patients was the largest (3.50, 95% CI: 2.22-5.53, five articles). Stomach H pylori was also significantly associated with PD, with OR 2.90 (95% CI: 1.37-6.14, two articles). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports an association between H pylori and PD. More well-designed studies, especially prospective cohort studies are necessary to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
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