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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 396-407, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799170

RESUMO

The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether canine gingival margin (GM) plaque is a reliable surrogate for subgingival (SG) plaque from a microbial community (microbiota) perspective. SG and GM plaque samples were collected from 381 dogs visiting pet hospitals in the USA, China and Thailand. Dogs with clinically healthy gingivae through to early periodontitis were included in the study. The samples were subject to next generation Illumina sequence analysis to allow microbiota comparisons to be made between the two plaque sources. Overall, the SG and GM samples indicated commonality via the majority community that were shared between them; health associations led to the identification of some significant taxa-specific differences. GM microbiota exhibited lower variability and diversity and were shown to reflect a sub-population of those associated with SG plaque. Both plaque niches, however, demonstrated similar changes in microbial signatures with health and early periodontal disease and did not indicate divergent trends. The key, most abundant microbiota of GM plaque strongly reflect those observed with SG plaque across health and early periodontitis. Microbiota in plaque from above the gum line may therefore be employed as a biomarker of oral health. This opens up the potential to use plaque, sampled from conscious dogs, to define oral health status and improve the diagnosis, treatments and interventions for periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , China , Estudos de Coortes , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Tailândia
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease of dogs worldwide and results from a complex interplay between plaque bacteria, the host and environmental factors. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the associations between the plaque microbiota and canine periodontal disease. These studies, however, were limited in their geographical reach. Thus associations between the canine oral microbiota and geographical location were investigated by determining the composition of subgingival plaque samples from 587 dogs residing in the United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), China and Thailand using 454-pyrosequencing. RESULTS: After quality filtering 6,944,757 sequence reads were obtained and clustering of these at ≥98% sequence resulted in 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) following exclusion of rare OTUs (present at < 0.05% in all four countries). The subgingival plaque from dog populations located in the UK, USA, China and Thailand had a similar composition although the abundance of certain taxa varied significantly among geographical locations. Exploration of the effect of clinical status and age revealed a marked similarity among the bacteria associated with increased age and those associated with gingivitis: Young dogs and those with no gingivitis were dominated by taxa from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria whereas older dogs and those with moderate gingivitis were dominated by members of the Firmicutes. The plaque microbiota of small breed dogs was found to significantly differ to medium and large breeds and was dominated by species belonging to the Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial associations with health, gingivitis and periodontitis were conserved across dogs from the UK, USA, China and Thailand. These bacterial signatures of periodontal health and disease have potential as biomarkers for disease detection.


Assuntos
Gengiva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia
4.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(1): 239-247, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034564

RESUMO

Degeneration of intracranial aneurysm wall is under active research and recent studies indicate an increased risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysm among patients with periodontal diseases. In addition, oral bacterial DNA has been identified from wall samples of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. These novel findings led us to evaluate if oral diseases could predispose to pathological changes seen on intracranial aneurysm walls eventually leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this review is to consider mechanisms on the relationship between periodontitis and aneurysm rupture, focusing on recent evidence.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/etiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Aneurisma Roto/etiologia , Aneurisma Roto/microbiologia , Humanos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/microbiologia
5.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 69-82, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from inflamed periodontal pockets into coronary atheroma via systemic circulation is one of the proposed pathways that links periodontitis and myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the reported prevalence of periodontal microorganisms in coronary atheroma and/or aspirated clot samples collected from MI patients with periodontal disease. METHODOLOGY: The "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Six databases were systematically searched using Medical Subject Headings/Index and Entree terms. After a thorough screening, fourteen publications spanning over ten years (2007-2017) were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Out of 14 included studies, 12 reported presence of periodontal bacterial DNA in coronary atherosclerotic plaque specimens. Overall, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were the most frequently detected periodontal bacterial species. Meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of P. gingivalis was significantly higher than A. actinomycetemcomitans in coronary atheromatous plaque samples. Apart from periodontal microbes, DNA from a variety of other microbes e.g. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus species, Chlamydia pneumoniae were also recovered from the collected samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent detection of periodontal bacterial DNA in coronary atheroma suggests their systemic dissemination from periodontal sites. It should further be investigated whether they are merely bystanders or induce any structural changes within coronary arterial walls.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/microbiologia , Trombose Coronária/microbiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Trombose Coronária/patologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e21171, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197074

RESUMO

Skeletal muscles have a high metabolic capacity, which play key roles in glucose metabolism. Although periodontal disease increases the risk of metabolic syndrome, the relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and skeletal muscle metabolic dysfunction is unclear. We found that anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) antibody titers positively correlated with intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), fasting blood glucose, and HOMA-IR in metabolic syndrome patients. In C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet, recipients of oral Pg (HFPg) had impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and higher IMAC compared to recipients of saline (HFco). The soleus muscle in HFPg mice exhibited fat infiltration and lower glucose uptake with higher Tnfa expression and lower insulin signaling than in HFco mice. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that TNFα signaling via NFκB gene set was enriched in the soleus muscle of HFPg mice. Moreover, TNF-α also decreased glucose uptake in C2C12 myoblast cells in vitro. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, Pg administration altered the gut microbiome, particularly by decreasing the abundance of genus Turicibacter. Microbial network of the gut microbiome was dramatically changed by Pg administration. Our findings suggest that infection with Pg is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and skeletal muscle metabolic dysfunction via gut microbiome alteration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/sangue , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Resistência à Insulina , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295858

RESUMO

In the mid-1960s the microbial aetiology of periodontal diseases was introduced based on classical experimental gingivitis studies . Since then, numerous studies have addressed the fundamental role that oral microbiota plays in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. Recent advances in laboratory identification techniques have contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of the oral microbiome in both health and disease. Modern culture-independent methods such as human oral microbial identification microarray and next-generation sequencing have been used to identify a wide variety of microbial taxa residing in the gingival sulcus and the periodontal pocket. The first theory of the 'non-specific plaque' hypothesis gave rise to the 'ecological plaque' hypothesis and more recently to the 'polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis hypothesis'. Periodontitis is now considered to be a multimicrobial inflammatory disease in which the various bacterial species within the dental biofilm are in a dysbiotic state and this imbalance favours the establishment of chronic inflammatory conditions and ultimately the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Apart from the known putative periodontal pathogens, the whole biofilm community is now considered to play a role in the establishment of inflammation and the initiation and progression of periodontitis in a susceptible host. Treatment is unlikely to eliminate putative pathogens but, when it is thoroughly performed it has the potential to establish a healthy ecosystem by altering the microbial community in numbers and composition and also contribute to the maturation of the host immune response.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/terapia
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 25-31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815124

RESUMO

Tannerella forsythia, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is one of the most important pathogens in periodontal disease. However, it has been difficult to construct a gene-deletion mutant in this organism, which may serve as a useful tool in microbiological research. We reported a highly efficient method to construct a gene-deletion mutant of T. forsythia in 2007, and it was accomplished by preparing competent cells from a colony grown on an agar medium instead of a broth culture. Here, we describe the same method with some improvements.


Assuntos
Tannerella forsythia/genética , Animais , Competição entre as Células/genética , Deleção de Genes , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Coelhos , Ovinos/microbiologia
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 33-41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815125

RESUMO

Prevotella melaninogenica is a bacterium that is resident in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract and is associated with periodontal disease and aspiration pneumonia. Prevotella mutants are difficult to produce and only few reports have been reported. We examined several methods and many strains and succeeded in producing mutants in Prevotella melaninogenica GAI 07411. In this chapter, we will describe how to create a mutation of a target gene by carrying out conjugation transfer using Escherichia coli S17-1 as a donor and introducing a plasmid into P. melaninogenica.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Mutação/genética , Prevotella melaninogenica/genética , Animais , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Coelhos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 215-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815142

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen responsible for severe and chronic manifestations of periodontal disease, which is one of the most common infectious disorders of humans. Although human gingival epithelium prevents intrusions by periodontal bacteria, P. gingivalis is able to invade gingival epithelial cells. To study the dynamics and the fate of intracellular P. gingivalis, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a method of choice. Information gained with CLSM contains not only the number of P. gingivalis associated with gingival epithelial cells but also the bacterial localization on/inside the host cells, morphological change of host cells, and physical interaction between the bacteria and host organelle. In this chapter, we describe the protocols for microscopy techniques to morphologically study gingival epithelial cells infected by P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Gengiva/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolamento & purificação , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117285, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278951

RESUMO

ß-glucans are potent immunomodulators, with effects on innate and adaptive immune responses via dectin-1 as the main receptor. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of ß-glucan from Schizophyllum commune, called Schizophyllan (SPG) on Interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression induced by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in murine macrophages (J774.1). SPG and dectin-1 interaction up-regulates LPS-induced IL-10 expression. The regulative effect of SPG on IL-10 expression is dependent on prolongation of nuclear translocation activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κBα) pathway induced by LPS. We also found that LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB), followed by up-regulation of IL-10, was stimulated by SPG priming via activation of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data indicate that SPG augments the anti-inflammatory response in murine macrophages which can be useful to create an intervention for periodontal disease treatment.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Schizophyllum/química , Sizofirano/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sizofirano/metabolismo
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 469, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease (PD) in dogs is prompted by the establishment of a polymicrobial biofilm at the tooth surface and a subsequent host inflammatory response. Several strategies may be used for PD control, including dental hygiene home care procedures, like toothbrushing, special diet and chew toys that reduce dental plaque accumulation, or professional periodontal treatments. Aiming at PD control, a biogel composed by nisin and guar-gum was previously developed. This work aimed to establish an in vitro model mimicking the PD-associated biofilms and to evaluate the nisin-biogel inhibitory activity against this polymicrobial biofilm by determining its Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory (MBIC) and Eradication Concentrations (MBEC). Bacterial species tested included Neisseria zoodegmatis CCUG 52598T, Corynebacterium canis CCUG 58627T, Porphyromonas cangingivalis DSMZ VPB 4874, Peptostreptococcus canis CCUG 57081 and an Enterococcus faecalis isolate belonging to a collection of oral bacteria obtained from dogs with PD. Before establishing the biofilm, coaggregation between species was determined by optical density measurement after 2 and 24 hours. Nisin-biogel MBIC and MBEC values regarding the polymicrobial biofilm were determined using a modified version of the Calgary biofilm pin lid device, after confirming the presence of the five bacterial species by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Only 40% of the bacterial dual suspensions were able to coaggregate at 2 hours, but all species tested exhibited a coaggregation percentage higher than 30% at 24 hours. It was possible to establish a 48 h polymicrobial biofilm model composed by the five bacterial species selected. This model was used to determine nisin-biogel MBIC (26.39 ± 5.89 µg/mL) and MBEC (62.5 ± 27.73 µg/mL) values. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the nisin-biogel can inhibit and eradicate PD multispecies biofilms. As this in vitro model mimics an in vivo periodontal polymicrobial biofilm, our results reinforce the potential of the application of nisin-biogel for canine PD control.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Nisina/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cães , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16299, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004892

RESUMO

Infectious agents have been suggested to be involved in etiopathogenesis of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). However, the relationship between bacterial infection and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not yet been completely clarified. The objective of this study is to detect bacterial DNA in thrombotic material of patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI). We studied 109 consecutive patients with STEMI, who underwent thrombus aspiration and arterial peripheral blood sampling. Testing for bacterial DNA was performed by probe-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 12 probes and primers were used for the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Chlamydia pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannarella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Helycobacter pylori, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococus aureus,  Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus mutans. Thus, DNA of four species of bacteria was detected in 10 of the 109 patients studied. The most frequent species was viridans group streptococci (6 patients, 5.5%), followed by Staphylococus aureus (2 patients, 1.8%). Moreover, a patient had DNA of Porphyromonas gingivalis (0.9%); and another patient had DNA of Prevotella intermedia (0.9%). Bacterial DNA was not detected in peripheral blood of any of our patients. In conclusion, DNA of four species of endodontic and periodontal bacteria was detected in thrombotic material of 10 STEMI patients. Bacterial DNA was not detected in the peripheral blood of patients with bacterial DNA in their thrombotic material. Bacteria could be latently present in plaques and might play a role in plaque instability and thrombus formation leading to ACS.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/microbiologia , Trombose/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Pulpite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1812): 20190578, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012223

RESUMO

While microbial communities in the human body (microbiota) are now commonly associated with health and disease in industrialised populations, we know very little about how these communities co-evolved and changed with humans throughout history and deep prehistory. We can now examine these communities by sequencing ancient DNA preserved within calcified dental plaque (calculus), providing insights into the origins of disease and their links to human history. Here, we examine ancient DNA preserved within dental calculus samples and their associations with two major cultural periods in Japan: the Jomon period hunter-gatherers approximately 3000 years before present (BP) and the Edo period agriculturalists 400-150 BP. We investigate how human oral microbiomes have changed in Japan through time and explore the presence of microorganisms associated with oral diseases (e.g. periodontal disease, dental caries) in ancient Japanese populations. Finally, we explore oral microbial strain diversity and its potential links to ancient demography in ancient Japan by performing phylogenomic analysis of a widely conserved oral species-Anaerolineaceae oral taxon 439. This research represents, to our knowledge, the first study of ancient oral microbiomes from Japan and demonstrates that the analysis of ancient dental calculus can provide key information about the origin of non-infectious disease and its deep roots with human demography. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi/genética , Cárie Dentária/história , Genoma Bacteriano , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/história , Chloroflexi/classificação , Demografia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , Humanos , Japão , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional
15.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(12): 815-824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107981

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate the detection rates of periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) and herpesviruses (herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1], cytomegalovirus [CMV], and Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]) in different forms and severity of periodontal disease, and to compare them with those in periodontally healthy subjects. One hundred and twenty-nine patients participated in the study: 39 diagnosed with periodontal abscess (PA), 33 with necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP), 27 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 30 participants with healthy periodontal tissue represented a healthy control group. All patients with periodontal disease (PA, NUP, and CP) were also divided into two groups according to the severity of their disease: moderate and severe periodontitis. The subgingival samples were collected from the periodontitis active sites and the detection of microorganisms was performed by end-point polymerase chain reaction analyses. The results revealed significantly higher detection rates of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia in all three groups of patients with periodontitis than in healthy participants. The highest detection rate of A. actinomycetemcomitans was noticed in CP, which was significantly higher than that in PA, NUP, and healthy control. The occurrence of EBV was significantly higher in NUP than in CP and healthy participants. CMV was detected significantly more frequently in PA and NUP than in CP and healthy participants. Comparisons among healthy participants and patients with moderate and severe periodontitis showed significantly higher detection rates of EBV and CMV in patients with severe forms of periodontitis than in healthy participants and those with moderate periodontitis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/virologia , Adulto , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/virologia , Citomegalovirus , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Sérvia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18313, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110205

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a causative agent in the onset and progression of periodontal disease. This study aims to investigate the effects of quercetin, a natural plant product, on P. gingivalis virulence properties including gingipain, haemagglutinin and biofilm formation. Antimicrobial effects and morphological changes of quercetin on P. gingivalis were detected. The effects of quercetin on gingipains activities and hemolytic, hemagglutination activities were evaluated using chromogenic peptides and sheep erythrocytes. The biofilm biomass and metabolism with different concentrations of quercetin were assessed by the crystal violet and MTT assay. The structures and thickness of the biofilms were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bacterial cell surface properties including cell surface hydrophobicity and aggregation were also evaluated. The mRNA expression of virulence and iron/heme utilization was assessed using real time-PCR. Quercetin exhibited antimicrobial effects and damaged the cell structure. Quercetin can inhibit gingipains, hemolytic, hemagglutination activities and biofilm formation at sub-MIC concentrations. Molecular docking analysis further indicated that quercetin can interact with gingipains. The biofilm became sparser and thinner after quercetin treatment. Quercetin also modulate cell surface hydrophobicity and aggregation. Expression of the genes tested was down-regulated in the presence of quercetin. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that quercetin inhibited various virulence factors of P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases Gingipaínas/metabolismo , Hemaglutininas/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Porphyromonas gingivalis/ultraestrutura , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112888

RESUMO

To assess the influence of periodontal disease on cerebral hemorrhage and its clinical course, we examined the association of the serum IgG titer of periodontal pathogens with hemorrhage growth and 3-month outcome. We consecutively enrolled 115 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (44 females, aged 71.3 ± 13.1 years) and used ELISA to evaluate the serum IgG titers of 9 periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter (A.) actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, Campylobacter rectus, and Eikenella corrodens. Significant hematoma growth was defined as an increase in the volume of >33% or an absolute increase in the volume of >12.5 mL. A poor outcome was defined as a 3 or higher on the modified Rankin Scale. We observed hemorrhage growth in 13 patients (11.3%). Multivariate analysis revealed that increased IgG titers of A. actinomycetemcomitans independently predicted the elevated hemorrhage growth (odds ratio 5.26, 95% confidence interval 1.52-18.25, p = 0.01). Notably, augmented IgG titers of F. nucleatum but not A. actinomycetemcomitans led to a poorer 3-month outcome (odds ratio 7.86, 95% confidence interval 1.08-57.08, p = 0.04). Thus, we demonstrate that elevated serum IgG titers of A. actinomycetemcomitans are an independent factor for predicting cerebral hemorrhage growth and that high serum IgG titers of F. nucleatum may predict a poor outcome in patients with this disease. Together, these novel data reveal how systemic periodontal pathogens may affect stroke patients, and, should, therefore, be taken into consideration in the management and treatment of these individuals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/complicações , Bacteroidaceae/imunologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Idoso , Bacteroidaceae/classificação , Bacteroidaceae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/imunologia , Prognóstico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031428

RESUMO

Oral health conditions and cerebral small vessel disease, such as white matter lesions or cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), are associated with the incidence of stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between oral health conditions (serum IgG titers of periodontal pathogens) with the presence or severity of CMBs in acute stroke patients. From January 2013 to April 2016, acute stroke patients were registered in two hospitals. Serum samples were evaluated for antibody titers against 9 periodontal pathogens using the ELISA method. The cut-off points for reactivity (the positive decision point) to each antigen were defined as more than a mean ELISA unit + 1 standard deviation (after logarithmic transformation) in all subjects. CMBs were evaluated on T2*-weighted MRI. In all, 639 patients were evaluated (ischemic, n = 533 and hemorrhagic, n = 106; 73.1 ± 12.9 years old). Among these patients, 627 were available for CMB evaluation. Among the 9 evaluated periodontal pathogens, only Campylobacter rectus (C. rectus) was associated with the presence of CMBs. the prevalence of positive serum antibody titers against C. rectus was higher among patients with CMBs than among those without CMBs (14.6% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.025). In addition, positive serum antibody titers against C. rectus remained one of the factors associated with the presence of CMBs in multivariate logistic analysis (odds ratio 2.03, 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.47, P = 0.010). A positive serum antibody titer against C. rectus was associated with the presence of CMBs in acute stroke patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Campylobacter rectus/patogenicidade , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/microbiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066082

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO), a small gaseous and multifunctional signaling molecule, is involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. It is endogenously produced in the vascular endothelium by specific enzymes known as NO synthases (NOSs). Subsequently, NO is readily oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. Nitrite is also derived from exogenous inorganic nitrate (NO3) contained in meat, vegetables, and drinking water, resulting in greater plasma NO2 concentration and major reduction in systemic blood pressure (BP). The recycling process of nitrate and nitrite to NO (nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway), known as the enterosalivary cycle of nitrate, is dependent upon oral commensal nitrate-reducing bacteria of the dorsal tongue. Veillonella, Actinomyces, Haemophilus, and Neisseria are the most copious among the nitrate-reducing bacteria. The use of chlorhexidine mouthwashes and tongue cleaning can mitigate the bacterial nitrate-related BP lowering effects. Imbalances in the oral reducing microbiota have been associated with a decrease of NO, promoting endothelial dysfunction, and increased cardiovascular risk. Although there is a relationship between periodontitis and hypertension (HT), the correlation between nitrate-reducing bacteria and HT has been poorly studied. Restoring the oral flora and NO activity by probiotics may be considered a potential therapeutic strategy to treat HT.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Boca/microbiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos , Boca/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/fisiopatologia
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7289208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908908

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are mainly the results of infections and inflammation of the gum and bone that surround and support the teeth. In this study, the alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis is hypothesized to be treated with novel Mg-Cu alloy grafts due to their antimicrobial and osteopromotive properties. In order to study this new strategy using Mg-Cu alloy grafts as a periodontal bone substitute, the in vitro degradation and antibacterial performance were examined. The pH variation and Mg2+ and Cu2+ release of Mg-Cu alloy extracts were measured. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), two common bacteria associated with periodontal disease, were cultured in Mg-Cu alloy extracts, and bacterial survival rate was evaluated. The changes of bacterial biofilm and its structure were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results showed that the Mg-Cu alloy could significantly decrease the survival rates of both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Furthermore, the bacterial biofilms were completely destroyed in Mg-Cu alloy extracts, and the bacterial cell membranes were damaged, finally leading to bacterial apoptosis. These results indicate that the Mg-Cu alloy can effectively eliminate periodontal pathogens, and the use of Mg-Cu in periodontal bone grafts has a great potential to prevent infections after periodontal surgery.


Assuntos
Ligas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Transplante Ósseo/efeitos adversos , Cobre/farmacologia , Magnésio/fisiologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodontia/métodos , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos
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