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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(2): 115-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023578

RESUMO

A new difunctional Zn(II) coordination polymer (CP) with the chemical formula of [Zn(TBTA) (L)1.5]n (1) has been synthesized hydrothermally from tetrabromoterephthalic acid (H2TBTA) and 4,4'-bis(imidazole-1-yl)-biphenyl (L) ligands. Furthermore, due to its strong intense emission and open N donor sites, complex 1 could be used as a light-emitting sensor to determine 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) which has high selectivity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the anti-bacterial effect of the compound against P. gingivalis in vitro was evaluated by measuring the P. gingivalis growth curves after compound treatment. And the RT-PCR assay was performed to detect the relative expression of ragA and ragB, which are important for the P. gingivalis growth. The potential anti-infectious mechanism was further studied by using molecular docking technique.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trinitrobenzenos/química , Trinitrobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Zinco/química , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Depressão Química , Humanos , Ligantes , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Polímeros , Trinitrobenzenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
2.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 619-630, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914706

RESUMO

Tannerella forsythia is a periodontopathogen that expresses miropin, a protease inhibitor in the serpin superfamily. In this study, we show that miropin is also a specific and efficient inhibitor of plasmin; thus, it represents the first proteinaceous plasmin inhibitor of prokaryotic origin described to date. Miropin inhibits plasmin through the formation of a stable covalent complex triggered by cleavage of the Lys368-Thr369 (P2-P1) reactive site bond with a stoichiometry of inhibition of 3.8 and an association rate constant (kass) of 3.3 × 105 M-1s-1. The inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin was nearly as effective as that exerted by α2-antiplasmin. Miropin also acted in vivo by reducing blood loss in a mice tail bleeding assay. Importantly, intact T. forsythia cells or outer membrane vesicles, both of which carry surface-associated miropin, strongly inhibited plasmin. In intact bacterial cells, the antiplasmin activity of miropin protects envelope proteins from plasmin-mediated degradation. In summary, in the environment of periodontal pockets, which are bathed in gingival crevicular fluid consisting of 70% of blood plasma, an abundance of T. forsythia in the bacterial biofilm can cause local inhibition of fibrinolysis, which could have possible deleterious effects on the tooth-supporting structures of the periodontium.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Serpinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Feminino , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Fibrinolisina/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Serpinas/metabolismo
3.
In Vivo ; 34(1): 81-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Microbial tetracycline (TC) pastes have been employed to treat oral bacterial infection. In the present study, we investigated the kinetic radical-scavenging and pro-/anti-inflammatory activity of TC with or without visible light irradiation (VLI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radical-scavenging activity of TC and minocycline (MC) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The stoichiometric factor (n) and the rate constant of inhibition and propagation (kinh/kp) were determined. The levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2), tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfα) or nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) mRNA in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The n and kinh/kp values for 1 mM TC in 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile and benzoyl peroxide systems were 0.1-0.2 and 119-250, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for quercetin (QU) and resveratrol (RE) were 2-4 and 7-15, respectively. In RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, Cox2 and Tnfα mRNA were over-expressed in the presence of TC. MC down-regulated only the expression of Cox2 by about 50% in LPS-stimulated cells. The anti-inflammatory activity determined on the basis of Cox2 inhibition declined in the order QU>RE>MC>TC. Upon application of VLI, only TC down-regulated the expression of LPS-stimulated Cox2 and Tnfα mRNA. After exposure to VLI, TC, but not MC, markedly up-regulated hemoxygenase-1 (Ho-1) expression. CONCLUSION: TC is a chain-breaking antioxidant with a large kinh Upon activation by VLI, TC may undergo degradation and its degradation products affect pleiotropic mediators such as Cox2, Tnfα and Ho-1. TC may be useful as a local photodynamic therapy for periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2019-2023, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813866

RESUMO

Inflammation and its mediators have an important role in gingivitis and periodontitis. Prostaglandin is one of the eicosanoid involved in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontal diseases. Aspirin irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase and inactivate this enzyme responsible for the production of PGE2 that mediates pain and inflammation. The aim of the study was to prepare aspirin gel and mouthwash in 1% concentration and use it in patients with periodontal diseases during the non-surgical periodontal treatment and to assess its anti-inflammatory effects on salivary biomarkers PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide. Thirty patients were divided into three treatment groups, standard treatment group, second received scaling and root planning with gel application of 1% aspirin, third received scaling and root planning followed by rinsing with 1% aspirin mouthwash. Results indicated that the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and nitric oxide in the groups of patients received gel treatment and mouthwash treatment was decreased to significant levels (p<0.001) as compared to the group of standard treatment. Aspirin gel was found to be more effective in reducing inflammatory biomarkers in contrast to aspirin mouthwash (p<0.001). We concluded from our study, that low concentration of aspirin oral preparations are highly active in reducing the inflammatory biomarkers associated with periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Géis/farmacologia , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/metabolismo , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e1779, oct.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093254

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: El tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal incluye la terapia mecánica, el cual se complementa con el uso de antibióticos/antisépticos, lo que podría plantear efectos adversos a largo plazo. Objetivo: Describir el potencial farmacológico del fruto de la M. dubia, y su aplicación como complemento en la terapia periodontal. Métodos: Se revisaron revistas internacionales de impacto de la Web of Science relacionadas con el tema (58 revistas). Se consultaron las bases de datos Google Académico, SciELO, PubMed y EBSCO, utilizando los descriptores: "review"; "phytotherapy"; "myrtaceae"; "gingivitis"; "periodontitis"; "periodontal diseases"; "anti-bacterial agents"; "anti-inflammatory agents"; "dental plaque"; "antioxidants"; "plants, toxic"; "adverse effects". Se obtuvo 517 artículos de los cuales 60 fueron incluidos en el estudio. El 91,7 por ciento de los artículos fueron de los últimos tres años. Integración de la información: Se expuso las propiedades y seguridad en humanos del uso de la M. dubia. Conclusiones: La M. dubia tiene actividad antimicrobiana in vitro frente a microorganismos de la biopelícula dental, siendo más sensibles el S. mutans, S. mitis y P. gingivalis al extracto hidroalcohólico de la semilla, y el S. aureus al extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas y corteza. También se evidencia su actividad antiinflamatoria. Los hallazgos sugieren que el extracto etanólico de la M. dubia podría incorporarse en antisépticos de uso bucal, dado su potencial antibiopelícula y antiinflamatoria(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Treatment of periodontal disease includes mechanical therapy complemented with antibiotics / antiseptics, which could lead to the occurrence of long-term adverse effects. Objective: Describe the pharmacological potential of the fruit of M. dubia and its use as adjunct in periodontal therapy. Methods: A review was conducted of international high impact journals from the Web of Sciences which dealt with the topic (58 journals). The databases Google Scholar, SciELO, PubMed and EBSCO were consulted, using the descriptors "review", "phytotherapy", "Myrtaceae", "gingivitis", "periodontitis", "periodontal diseases", anti-bacterial agents", "anti-inflammatory agents", "dental plaque", "antioxidants", "plants, toxic", "adverse effects". A total 517 papers were obtained, of which 60 were included in the study. 91.7 percent of the papers had been published in the last three years. Data integration: A description was provided of the properties and safety of the use of M. dubia in humans. Conclusions: M. dubia has in vitro antimicrobial activity against dental biofilm microorganisms, particularly S. mutans, S. mitis and P. gingivalis to the seed hydroalcoholic extract, and S. aureus to the leaf and peel hydroalcoholic extract. Anti-inflammatory activity was also observed. Results suggest that M. dubia ethanolic extract could be incorporated into oral antiseptics, given its antibiofilm and anti-inflammatory potential(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Myrtaceae/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas
6.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(3): 197-200, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185994

RESUMO

Las proteínas participan en el resguardo del estado fisiológico de los tejidos buco-dentales, contribuyendo en la protección y recuperación de los mismos. En el caso de la leptileptina, una citoquina tipo I reconocida por regular la ingesta de alimentos y el gasto energético, la evidencia actual señala además su rol en la inmunidad e inflamación, induciendo la producción de otras citoquinas y estimular la fagocitosis. Siendo la enfermedad periodontal la segunda patología bucodental más prevalente en el mundo, caracterizada por inflamación crónica, inducida por bacterias periodontopatógenas, es necesario conocer los elementos biológicos que participan en la patogenia de la misma. La siguiente revisión bibliográfica tiene como propósito discernir la participación de la leptina en la enfermedad periodontal. En el periodonto la leptina participa exhibiendo un comportamiento protector, donde la disminución de los niveles del péptido en encía, fluido crevicular gingival (FCG) y saliva, es inversamente proporcional al grado de severidad de la enfermedad periodontal; permitiendo considerar que la valoración de leptina en FCG puede ser empleada como herramienta de diagnóstico y pronóstico de las alteraciones periodontales


Proteins participate in the protection of the physiological state of the oral tissues, contributing in the protection and recovery of them. In the case of leptin, a type I cytokine, recognized for regulating food intake and energy expenditure, current evidence also points to its role in immunity and inflammation, inducing the production of other cytokines and stimulating phagocytosis. Being the periodontal disease the second most prevalent oral pathology in the world, characterized by chronic inflammation, induced by periodontopathogenic bacteria, it is necessary to know the biological elements that participate in the pathogenesis of it. The purpose of the following literature review is to discern the participation of leptin in periodontal disease. In the periodontium leptin participates exhibiting a protective behavior, where the decrease in the levels of the peptide in the gingiva, gingival crevicular fluid (FCG) and saliva, is inversely proportional to the degree of severity of the periodontal disease; allowing to consider that the evaluation of leptin in FCG can be used as a tool for diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal alterations


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Leptina/uso terapêutico , Leptina/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Pharm ; 572: 118833, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715363

RESUMO

Different types of in-situ forming implants based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) for the controlled dual release of an antiseptic drug (chlorhexidine) and an anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen) were prepared and thoroughly characterized in vitro. N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as water-miscible solvent, acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC) as plasticizer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was added to enhance the implants' stickiness/bioadhesion upon formation within the periodontal pocket. Different drug forms exhibiting substantially different solubilities were used: chlorhexidine dihydrochloride and digluconate as well as ibuprofen free acid and lysinate. The initial drug loadings were varied from 1.5 to 16.1%. In vitro drug release, dynamic changes in the pH of the surrounding bulk fluid and in the systems' wet mass as well as polymer degradation were monitored. Importantly, the release of both drugs, chlorhexidine and ibuprofen, could effectively be controlled simultaneously during several weeks. Interestingly, the tremendous differences in the drug forms' solubilities (e.g., factor >5000) did not translate into major differences in the resulting release kinetics. In the case of ibuprofen, this can likely (at least in part) be attributed to significant drug-polymer interactions (ibuprofen acts as a plasticizer for PLGA). In the case of chlorhexidine, the release of the much less soluble dihydrochloride was even faster compared to the more soluble digluconate (when combined with ibuprofen free acid). In the case of ibuprofen, at higher initial drug loadings also limited solubility effects within the implants seem to play a role, in contrast to chlorhexidine. In the latter case, instead, increased system porosity effects likely dominate at higher drug loadings.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Adesividade , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Química Farmacêutica , Clorexidina/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Implantes de Medicamento , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Excipientes/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Plastificantes/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Porosidade , Solubilidade , Solventes/química
8.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(11): 121, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696343

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Epidemiological surveillance documents an escalating epidemic prevalence of both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and periodontal disease (PD). The principal goals of this review are to: 1) re-examine the clinical significance of associations between PD and T2DM, based on strength of collective evidence as determined by systematic review and meta-analysis, and 2) review findings of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses in light of the current understanding of PD-associated pathophysiology and intersection with T2DM pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Tooth loss predicts risk for chronic disease and mortality. PD is significantly associated with complications of diabetes, including retinopathy. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the adjunctive use of certain antibiotics enhances non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) in patients with T2DM. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support NSPT efficacy in achieving metabolic control. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the association between PD and T2DM, albeit the effect size may be modest. PD-T2DM interactions have important clinical implications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/fisiopatologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia
9.
Int J Pharm ; 572: 118821, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711981

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases remain a challenge due to a complex interplay of factors involving a chronic inflammatory activation and bacteria internalization in periodontal cells. In this work, chitosan-nanoparticles loaded with minocycline (MH-NPs), a tetracycline with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, were developed for in situ delivery in the periodontal milieu aiming to improve drug effectiveness. A general cytocompatibility evaluation and a detailed approach to address the cellular uptake process, trafficking pathways and the modulation of relevant inflammatory gene expression was conducted using human gingival fibroblasts. Results show that MH-NPs with an adequate cytocompatible profile can be internalized by distinct endocytic processes (macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis). The ability to modulate autophagy with the delivery within the same endosomal/lysosomal pathway as periodontal pathogens was observed, which increases the intracellular drug effectiveness. Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-stimulated cultures, grown in the presence of MH-NPs, were found to express significantly reduced levels of inflammation-related markers (IL-1b, TNFα, CXCL-8, NFKB1). These nanoparticles can be potentially used in periodontal disease treatment conjoining the ability of intracellular drug targeting with significant anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/química , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Minociclina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4(Supplementary)): 1855-1860, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680083

RESUMO

Amitriptyline, an agent universally used to treat depression, has an anti-inflammatory activity and a potential for lowering inflammatory mediators. Periodontal diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis if untreated contributes to gingival tissue destruction and bone resorption. These diseases are commonly treated with conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics along with standard periodontal treatment. The aim of this experimental, observational and randomized clinical control trial was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of amitriptyline on clinical parameters and on inflammatory biomarkers in patients of periodontal diseases by developing 1% oral gel and mouthwash formulations. 30 patients participated in the study were grouped in three categories, patients received standard conventional treatment, patients received gel treatment for four weeks after standard treatment, patients received mouthwash for four weeks after standard periodontal treatment. Results showed that amitriptyline gel and mouthwash in 1% formulation showed promising results by significantly reducing periodontal parameters and inflammatory biomarkers (p<0.001) as compared to standard treatment. Thus, we suggest that gel and mouthwash formulation of amitriptyline is highly efficacious in treating the periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Amitriptilina/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Periodontite/metabolismo
11.
J Periodontal Res ; 54(6): 690-701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary bioactive materials having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials are able to inhibit diabetes-associated periodontal complications. Although numerous studies indicate that administration of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) ameliorates diabetes and diabetes-related complications, the roles of p-CA on periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic mice and the possible mechanisms therein are not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with p-CA protects mice against diabetes-associated spontaneous periodontal destruction and also explored the associated mechanism therein using in vivo and in vitro experimental systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were divided into sham, streptozotocin (STZ), and STZ+CA groups (n = 5/group). Sham group was intraperitoneally injected with sodium buffer, whereas other two groups were injected with the buffer containing 160 mg/kg of STZ. STZ-induced diabetic mice received oral gavage with p-CA (50 mg/kg) (STZ+CA group) or with buffer only (STZ group) daily for 6 weeks. The effect of p-CA on diabetes-associated spontaneous periodontal destruction was evaluated using µCT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and immunohistochemical staining methods. The efficacies of p-CA on cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and antioxidant-related marker expression were examined using human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) cultured under high glucose condition. RESULTS: Streptozotocin group exhibited periodontal tissue destruction along with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and osteoclast formation, as well as with decreased osteogenesis. However, oral administration with p-CA protected mice against STZ-induced periodontal destruction by inhibiting inflammation and osteoclastic activation. STZ+CA group also showed higher expression of antioxidant and osteogenic markers in periodontal tissue than did STZ group. Treatment with high glucose concentration (30 mmol/L) impaired proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of hPLFs along with cellular ROS accumulation, whereas these impairments were almost completely disappeared by supplementation with p-CA. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that supplementation with p-CA inhibits diabetes-associated spontaneous destruction of periodontal tissue by enhancing anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoclastogenic, and antioxidant defense systems in STZ-treated mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Propionatos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Estreptozocina
12.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(8): 1527-1534, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111263

RESUMO

The periodontal disease (PD) etiology is mainly associated with some bacterial strains, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Nonsurgical root scaling (e.g., antibiotics) may achieve a temporary decrease in the P. gingivalis level, yet it cannot eradicate the microorganism. Moreover, antibiotics can lead to bacterial resistance and undesirable side effects. This systematic review was performed to identify animal data defining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PACT) role on experimental PD models in the treatment of P. gingivalis. Embase, MEDLINE, and PubMed were examined for studies published from January 1980 to August 2018. MeSH terms and Scopus data were used to find more related keywords. Four studies were selected and reviewed by two independent researches with a structured tool for rating the research quality. The beneficial effect of PACT included reductions in P. gingivalis counts, bleeding on probing, redness, and inflammation on multiple sites (i.e., first molar, dental implants; subgingival; and mandibular premolars). Although our results suggest that PACT displays antimicrobial action on P. gingivalis, thus improving the PD, a nonuniformity in the PACT protocol and the limited number of studies included lead to consider that the bactericidal efficacy of PACT against periodontal pathogens in PD remains unclear.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
13.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035477

RESUMO

Resveratrol is an anti-inflammatory compound found in several foods. Periodontal disease (PD) is associated to other systemic diseases, and inflammation may be responsible for the association. Consequently, controlling inflammation not only may benefit oral health but also may assist with the management of other chronic inflammatory conditions. We aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol administration on PD control in preclinical studies. A systematic search was performed for scientific articles using both electronic databases and a manual search using combinations of the following keywords: "resveratrol" OR "3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene" AND "periodontal disease" OR "periodontitis" OR "gingivitis". Only in vivo original studies investigating resveratrol treatment on experimental animal models of PD were selected. A quality assessment of the studies was performed using the Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiment (ARRIVE) guidelines, and the risk of bias was assessed using the Syrcle tool. The search returned 570 articles, and 11 matched the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis showed that resveratrol treatment attenuated alveolar bone loss (τ2 = 0.0041; 95% CI: -0.14; -0.04). The ARRIVE criteria reported a good quality of studies in general (mean score 28.5 ± 2.5). However, five Syrcle domains indicated a high risk of bias or did not present information clearly. We concluded that, in preclinical studies, resveratrol treatment prevented PD progression.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais
14.
Orv Hetil ; 160(19): 739-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055960

RESUMO

Billions of microorganisms can be found in the oral cavity, from which bacteria are the most frequent. More than 600 bacterial species can be isolated. Most of them are harmless, moreover, some species prove themselves to be specifically useful. However, in the case of a weakened immune status or inappropriate oral hygiene, they may cause many types of soft and hard tissue disorders. Caries and periodontal diseases are the most common bacterial diseases of the oral cavity. In both cases, the dental biofilm gives rise to the disorder, which is caused by the insufficient oral hygiene. Dental caries are mainly caused by cariogenic streptococci and lactobacilli. In the case of serious periodontal diseases, anaerob parodonto-pathogen microorganisms play the major role. Untreated caries may result in the necrosis of the pulp, which can cause an inflammation expanding towards the parodontium. This can be characterized as a focal infection, like the untreated periodontal pockets. Dental foci may have lots of systemic consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pneumonia, arthritis, preterm birth and alopecia areata. When these diseases occur, dental foci should always be considered. The professional plaque control and chlorhexidine rinsing before the proposed surgeries have an outstanding role in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Oral cancer is multicausal; more and more researchers are analyzing the role of certain bacteria in the carcinogenesis of oral cancer. In addition to the mentioned clinical aspects, we are planning to describe the relatively rare, but diverse and diagnostically challenging bacterial soft tissue disorders in another publication. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(19): 739-746.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Higiene Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 306-312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been shown to be efficient in killing planktonic periodontopathogenic bacteria, its activity on established biofilms is very limited. The aim of the present in-vitro study was to evaluate the potential effect of hydrogen peroxide as a pretreatment for aPDT. METHODS: aPDT consisting of riboflavin as photosensitizer and illumination by a LED lamp emitting in the blue spectrum for 30 s and 60 s (aPDT60) was combined with a pretreatment with 0.25% and 3% hydrogen peroxide. The antimicrobial activity of these treatments was determined against eight oral species (incl. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia) and against eight-species biofilms. Treatment of biofilms in an artificial pocket model included a mechanical removal of the biofilm. RESULTS: Against planktonic bacteria, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide increased killing of planktonic bacteria, after aPDT60 no viable bacteria were detected in 7 of 8 strains. In biofilms formed on well-plates, aPDT60 reduced bacterial counts only by 0.53 log10 cfu, whereas reduction was closed to 4 log10 or higher when 3% hydrogen peroxide was used. When biofilms were treated in the periodontal-pocket model, reduction of cfu was less than 0.5 log10 after mechanical therapy or aPDT60 only, however no bacteria were detected after mechanical biofilm removal followed by the use 3% of hydrogen peroxide and aPDT60. CONCLUSIONS: aPDT using riboflavin and blue LED light applied after mechanical removal of biofilm and adjunctive 3% hydrogen peroxide solution appears to represent an alternative for antimicrobial periodontal therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Riboflavina/farmacologia
16.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 6367402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936777

RESUMO

The pleiotropic effects of statins have been evaluated to assess their potential benefit in the treatment of various inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases including periodontitis. Herein, the adjunctive use of statins in periodontal therapy in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical trials was reviewed. Statins act through several pathways to modulate inflammation, immune response, bone metabolism, and bacterial clearance. They control periodontal inflammation through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and promotion of anti-inflammatory and/or proresolution molecule release, mainly, through the ERK, MAPK, PI3-Akt, and NF-κB pathways. Moreover, they are able to modulate the host response activated by bacterial challenge, to prevent inflammation-mediated bone resorption and to promote bone formation. Furthermore, they reduce bacterial growth, disrupt bacterial membrane stability, and increase bacterial clearance, thus averting the exacerbation of infection. Local statin delivery as adjunct to both nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies results in better periodontal treatment outcomes compared to systemic delivery. Moreover, combination of statin therapy with other regenerative agents improves periodontal healing response. Therefore, statins could be proposed as a potential adjuvant to periodontal therapy. However, optimization of the combination of their dose, type, and carrier could be instrumental in achieving the best treatment response.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/metabolismo
18.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 129-137, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672328

RESUMO

Candida albicans is involved in periodontal disease, which is influenced by sex hormones. AIM: To study the effects of the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen (TAM) on periodontal disease of oncological patients; clinical oral strains of C. albicans. PATIENTS: With periodontitis and breast cancer and other with AIDS were used. MATERIALS & METHODS: Periodontal disease was evaluated by the academy of periodontology procedures and the growth of clinical C. albicans isolates were evaluated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute techniques. RESULTS: Women who consumed TAM for more than 2 years decreased periodontitis severity. In vitro, TAM inhibited the growth of both fluconazole-sensitive and resistant C. albicans. CONCLUSION: Administered TAM chronically improves periodontal health and has antifungal activity on oral strains isolated from patients with odontologic and medical pathologies.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Azóis , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Estrogênios , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Periodontite
19.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 75-80, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465936

RESUMO

Chronic periodontitis is associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) infection. Hyaluronic Acid (HA), a critical component of the extracellular matrix, exhibits anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of various molecular weights of HA (30, 300 and 1300 kDa) on P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory and wound-healing responses in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were assessed by Lactate dehydrogenase and MTT assays, respectively. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of interleukin (IL) -1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10. Cell migration was evaluated with a scratch wound healing assay. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB), IкBα, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were analyzed with Western blotting. The results showed that P. gingivalis (1.6 × 106 CFU/mL) and HA (1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/mL) exhibited no toxicity to the HGFs. The 1300 kDa HA inhibited P. gingivalis-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10 production in a dose-dependent manner, while the 30 and 300 kDa HA did not have an effect. Meanwhile, cell migration was significantly promoted by the 30 and 1300 kDa HA. Furthermore, the 1300 kDa HA inhibited NF-κB expression, IκBα degradation and P. gingivalis-induced ERK and P38 activation. Therefore, our study suggests that high molecular weight HA may have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation and oral wounds.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Fitoterapia ; 132: 30-39, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496806

RESUMO

Plant-derived polyphenols with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory characteristics appear to provide a variety of oral health benefits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the scientific literature to identify these effects of polyphenols on periodontal pathogens and inflammation. A MEDLINE search from 1st January 2013 to 18th January 2018 was performed to identify studies reporting polyphenol-containing plant extracts. Reports regarding pure compounds and essential oils, as well as effects on bacteria that are not defined as periodontal pathogens, were excluded. Thirty-eight studies matched the selection criteria. Studies on immunomodulatory effects included in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies (n = 23), whereas studies reporting antibacterial effects against periodontal pathogens included only in vitro studies (n = 18). Three studies were included in both groups. The antibacterial effects were characterised by inhibition of bacterial growth, adhesion to oral cells, and enzymatic activity. Decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory and increased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines were demonstrated. Higher attachment levels, lower inflammation, and bone loss were reported by in vivo studies. Due to the high heterogeneity, it is difficult to draw clear conclusions for applicability; nevertheless, polyphenols have great potential as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory substances in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
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