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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308860

RESUMO

Introduction: porcine cysticercosis is under-reported particularly in Nigeria, despite the reportedly high prevalence of epilepsy and associated life-threatening health implications. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and factors related to Taenia solium transmission to humans. Methods: slaughtered pigs at a major abattoir, south-western Nigeria were randomly inspected and questionnaire was administered to pig workers/consumers while the data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: a 4.4% (11/250) prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was obtained; the age, breed, sex and body conditions of pigs were not significant for infection (p < 0.05). Further, none (0.0%) of the respondents knew that T. solium could cause epilepsy in man and 39.5% often defaecated on neighbouring open fields and farmlands. Respondents purchasing pork from home slaughter were about four and ten times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74) and practice (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.22) than those purchasing from abattoir. Moreover, those lacking toilet facility were about four and five times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.86) and practice (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.45) than those who had it. Other factors associated with practices related to T. solium transmission included age (p = 0.000), sex (p = 0.000) and duration (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the increased odds of poor knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission especially among respondents purchasing home slaughter pork and lacking toilet facility provides insights into the parasite epidemiology. Above findings are important in lowering the infection prevalence in pigs and humans in this endemic area.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cisticercose/transmissão , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/parasitologia , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Toaletes/normas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Med Lav ; 110(3): 191-201, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a group of painful disorders which arise from work situations with continuous repetitive movements, carried out with speed and without time for recovery. In the performance of their job tasks, supermarket cashiers are exposed to this type of ergonomic stress. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the incidence of self-reported injuries in Portuguese hypermarket cashiers and to identify the related factors. METHODS: The sample included 176 hypermarket cashiers, aged between 18 and 65 years (39.57±11.11), 167 (94.9%) of them women. Symptoms and exposure of interest have been collected through an interview-based questionnaire. The presence of carpal tunnel syndrome was assessed by Phalen's test. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen (66.5%) cashiers reported an injury during employment, 100 (56.8%) of them reporting an injury in the previous 6 months. A total of 166 injuries were reported, corresponding to 1.14 injuries per 1,000 hours of work. The most common injuries were non-specific pain (30.4%), located in the shoulder (23.2%), cervical (22%) and lumbar spine (22%). Part-time workers showed a 2.25 times greater risk of injury (95% CI: 1.17-4.32; p=0.015) than full-time workers. Cashiers with more than 6 years of employment length had a 3.59 times higher risk of injury (95% CI: 1.84-6.99; p≤0.001) than those who had been working for a shorter period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a high rate of reported injuries among hypermarket cashiers, especially among part-time workers and those with the highest length of employment.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 30(5): 331-336, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313751

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although much has been written regarding ergonomics in ophthalmology, little information is available regarding the specific ergonomic concerns of pediatric ophthalmology and in particular, of strabismus surgery. This article will summarize current findings pertaining to musculoskeletal disorders in ophthalmology and review their implications for strabismus surgeons. RECENT FINDINGS: Optical motion capture is a promising alternative to older qualitative and quantitative methods for evaluating ergonomic posture. Recent studies support the need for training to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Postura
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 280-283, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349322

RESUMO

Low back pain is one of the most common physical symptom and is frequently related with an abnormal body posture. It may be caused by poor upper body and limb coordination; repetitive lifting of heavy objects or poor working are ergonomics. This study analysis the consequence of repetitive heavy lifting on the normal standing posture of factory workers. To asses the posture malformations the Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to obtain postural data from 88 factory workers. The study has shown that more than 90% of the study group has some sort of postural malformation and lower back pain.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Remoção , Dor Lombar , Doenças Profissionais , Humanos , Postura , Posição Ortostática , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(8): 713-718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery specialists and trainees in Spain, and to measure the effect that physical exercise could have on muscular discomfort. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered between September and December 2017 to practising otolaryngologists. RESULTS: Four hundred and three ENT surgeons responded, with a median age of 44.9 years, and 89.8 per cent reported discomfort or physical symptoms that they attributed to surgical practice. More female surgeons reported musculoskeletal symptoms (92.8 per cent vs 87.1 per cent; p = 0.04). When the level of physical activity was compared with the frequency of physical discomfort, no significant difference was found. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among ENT surgeons in Spain but has failed to demonstrate an important role of physical exercise in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/reabilitação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Falha de Tratamento
7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 147-154, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306914

RESUMO

Spit guards, also known as spit hoods or spit masks (and occasionally bite guards) are devices intended to cover the mouth, face and sometimes the head of a restrained person in order to prevent them spitting at, or biting others. There is substantial controversy about their use with views often polarised between civil and human rights campaigners who express concerns about their utility, their safety, and their possible encroachment on human rights, and in contrast by (predominantly) law enforcement campaigners highlighting concerns about the possible risks of transmission of infection and subsequent need for prophylaxis by law enforcement professionals exposed to biological fluids. This study explored the extent to which police services deploy spit guards and the rationale underpinning their use. A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was used to analyse data obtained from police services under the Freedom of Information Act. This study shows there is paucity of information readily available from police services in respect of quantifying the numbers of police officers who have contracted infectious disease as a result of spitting and/or bites, despite the fact that risk of infection and the need for subsequent prophylaxis is a driver of police services adopting the use of spit guard devices. Consideration must be afforded to the possibility that the use of spit guards represents a form of mechanical restraint rather than a means to prevent transmission of infection, especially given the paucity of information available from police services in respect of officers who have contracted infectious disease as a result of spiting and/or bites.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Polícia , Mordeduras Humanas/prevenção & controle , Inglaterra , Humanos , Irlanda do Norte , Saliva , País de Gales
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16466, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Korea, low back pain (LBP) which is occupation-related symptom is one of the major health issues owing to rapid industrialization. Even traditional Korean medicine has the long history in pain treatment, there still has been lack of supporting evidence on herbal prescription itself. Sogyeonghwalhyeol-tang, a Korean herbal medicine prescription, has been suggested as a medication for treating chronic LBP as well as work-related pains. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of herbal medicine, Sogyeonghwalhyeol-tang on work-related chronic LBP patients. METHOD: This trial is designed as a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Seventy-two participants who have chief complaint of LBP in Korean medicine rehabilitation center will be randomly assigned to ether Sogyeonghwalhyeol-tang group or placebo group with a ratio of 1:1. They will receive assigned drugs in 4 weeks and follow-up for 2 weeks. DISCUSSION: The result of this study will provide the valuable information for efficacy and safety of Sogyeonghwalhyeol-tang for patients with work-related chronic LBP.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia
9.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180149, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the relation between the self-reported shyness and perceived vocal handicap in teachers from Early childhood and Primary education (elementary and middle school). METHODS: 200 teachers (mean age 41.8 years old) without vocal complaint answered to personal identification protocol, work characterization information, the Vocal Handcap Index and the Shyness Scale. RESULTS: From the total sample, 142 (71%) teachers had no vocal disadvantage, 42% (n = 59) were shy and 58% (n = 83) were non-shy. Among the 58 (29%) teachers with vocal disadvantage, most of them were shy (64%) instead of non-shy (26%). Considering the shy teachers, most of them worked in Early Childhood Education, were aged between 20-30 years old, had from 1 to 10 years of teaching experience and were working in a noisy classroom. The presence of upper airway affections was more frequent in shy teachers without vocal disadvantage and this was the only aspect that differentiated shy and non-shy teachers. CONCLUSION: Shy teachers showed higher frequency of vocal disadvantage when compared to non-shy teachers. Teachers between 20 and 30 years old, with up to 10 years of teaching experience and who teach in Early Childhood Education reported shyness, but there was no relation with vocal disadvantage.


Assuntos
Fonação , Timidez , Distúrbios da Voz/psicologia , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Professores Escolares , Autoimagem , Percepção da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 145, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Welders are at an increased risk of eye disorders as a result of their occupation, leading to enormous vocational and economic consequences. With limited published studies among welders in low resource settings, we sought to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with ocular disorders among small-scale welders in Katwe, Kampala. METHODS: In a field-based cross-sectional study, we recruited 343 small-scale welders. Simple random sampling was done to select the study participants. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, ocular, general history, systemic and ocular examination. The proportion of small-scale welders with ocular disorders (defined as any abnormal finding on eye examination) was determined. The bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, using logistic regression methods at a level of significance of 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36 years (SD ± 12). The overall prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 59.9%. The common ocular disorders included conjunctiva disorders (32%) and presbyopia (27%). There was a statistically significant relationship between females (OR = 4.279, P-value = 0.007), age 35 and above (OR = 4.244, P-value< 0.001), history of foreign body removal (OR = 1.677, P-value = 0.041), and ocular disorders. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of ocular disorders among small-scale welders. Conjunctiva disorders, presbyopia and myopia were the commonest. Being female, age 35 and above and foreign body removal, were significantly associated with ocular disorders among welders. Policies should be put in place to ensure all welders use proper personal -protective equipment (welding helmets), and also receive regular eye checkup and health education.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Soldagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Oftalmoscopia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180120, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to verify the self-perception of vocal fatigue of dysphonic teachers in school year activity who sought speech-language pathology assistance. METHODS: Sixty teachers with voice complaints participated in the study, 30 of whom sought treatment in the Programa de Saúde Vocal do Sindicato dos Professores de São Paulo (SinproSP), and 30 volunteers' teachers who did not seek treatment (G2). All the participants answered a personal identification protocol and work characterization, vocal self-assessment, vocal signs and symptoms checklist, Vocal Fatigue Index protocol (VFI). In addition, a number counting from 1 to 10 and sustained vowel "e" were registered for the definition of the mean vocal deviation using perceptual-auditory judgment. RESULTS: Teachers who sought treatment (G1) obtained worst scores in the VFI, more numbers of signs and symptoms, and worst self-evaluation of the voice when compared with those who did not seek treatment (G2). In addition, teachers in both groups had light to moderate vocal deviation. CONCLUSION: Dysphonic teachers who sought vocal treatment presented greater sensation of vocal fatigue, especially in the factors of tiredness of voice and voice avoidance and related to physical discomfort associated with voicing of the VFI. In addition, they reported greater number of symptoms and worse vocal self-assessment in relation to those who did not seek treatment, although both groups present deviated voices.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brasil , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/reabilitação , Saúde do Trabalhador , Professores Escolares , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios da Voz/reabilitação , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(1): 71-82, 2019 January February.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the number, the prevalence and the socio-occupational characteristics of the employees who were allowed to benefit from prevention measures due to their exposure to occupational biomechanical factors before and after the modification, by the reform (order n° 2017-1389), of the law dealing with occupational health and safety preventive measures. METHODS: This study was based on the French national survey on occupational exposures (Sumer 2010). Almost 48,000 employees, representative of the French population, were included. Exposure to the four biomechanical factors, initially included in the law and associated with a minimum exposure threshold, were assessed during the employee's interview by the occupational physician. RESULTS: Before the reform, 31.2% of men and 23.6% of women were likely to benefit from measures of prevention due to their exposure to occupational biomechanical factors. Following the reform, 11,6% of men and 13,7% of women employees are still able to benefit from these occupational preventive measures, leading to an overall decrease of 3.3 million of beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) remain the first cause of recognition as an occupational disease, the exclusion, by the reform, of three biomechanical occupational risk factors of MSDs from the preventives measures in occupational health and safety risk assessment will substantially decrease the number of employees exposed to biomechanical factors that could benefit from these preventive and compensatory occupational measures.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15950, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169719

RESUMO

Although the association between perceived stress and psychological distress has been demonstrated, the mechanism behind the association is not well understood in physicians. The purpose of this study was to examine how coping styles (positive and negative) mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress among Chinese physicians.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Liaoning Province, China, between October and December 2017. Self-administered questionnaires, including the General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress, the Stress Reaction Questionnaire to assess perceived stress, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire to assess coping style, as well as surveys of demographic and occupational characteristics, were distributed to 1120 physicians employed in large general hospitals. The final sample consisted of 1051 participants. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to examine how coping style mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress.Perceived stress was significantly and positively associated with psychological distress among physicians. Both positive and negative coping significantly mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress. For psychological distress and its 3 dimensions (depression, anxiety, and reduced self-affirmation), the proportions of mediating roles of coping styles were 26.1%, 29.9%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively.Perceived stress had positive effects on psychological distress, and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese physicians. In addition to reducing stress in clinical practice, appropriate coping styles should be adopted in psychological distress prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
16.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(3): 142-148, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245976

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry eye symptoms among lecturers. Materials and Methods: The study included 254 lecturers employed at Mersin University. The lecturers were selected by simple random sampling from lists obtained from the personnel department. Data were obtained between November 15 and December 15, 2017 using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and correlation tests with the SPSS package program. Results: Of the lecturers who participated in the study, 52.8% were male and 47.2% were female, and the mean age was 39.29±9.41 years. According to OSDI scores, 20.5% of the participants had mild, 15% had moderate, and 36.5% had severe disease. There were significant differences in mean OSDI score based on sex (p<0.001), alcohol use (p=0.01), continuous drug use (p=0.03), wearing glasses (p=0.04), history of dry eye (p<0.001), and presence of dry eye symptoms (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the OSDI score categories in terms of sex (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.04), wearing glasses (p=0.03), history of dry eye (p<0.001), and presence of dry eye symptoms. The only factor significantly correlated with OSDI score was daily duration of computer usage (p=0.009). Conclusion: Our study showed that a substantial proportion of lecturers experience dry eye symptoms, and OSDI scores were associated with daily duration of computer use. Determining the factors associated with dry eye is important for the planning of preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensino , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(2): 108-116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201762

RESUMO

Temperature increases due to climate changes and operations expected to be conducted in hot environments make heat-related injuries a major medical concern for the military. The most serious of heat-related injuries is exertional heat stroke (EHS). EHS generally occurs when health individual perform physical activity in hot environments and the balance between body heat production and heat dissipation is upset resulting in excessive body heat storage. Blood flow to the skin is increased to assist in dissipating heat while gut blood flow is considerably reduced, and this increases the permeability of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Toxic materials from gut bacteria leak through the gastrointestinal mucosa into the central circulation triggering an inflammatory response, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiorgan failure, and vascular collapse. In addition, high heat directly damages cellular proteins resulting in cellular death. In the United States military, the overall incidence of clinically diagnosed heat stroke from 1998 to 2017 was (mean ± standard deviation) 2.7 ± 0.5 cases/10,000 Soldier-years and outpatient rates rose over this period. The cornerstone of EHS diagnosis is recognition of central nervous dysfunction (ataxia, loss of balance, convulsions, irrational behavior, unusual behavior, inappropriate comments, collapse, and loss of consciousness) and a body core temperature (obtained with a rectal thermometer) usually >40.5°C (105°F). The gold standard treatment is whole body cold water immersion. In the field where water immersion is not available it may be necessary to use ice packs or very cold, wet towels placed over as much of the body as possible before transportation of the victim to higher levels of medical care. The key to prevention of EHS and other heat-related injuries is proper heat acclimation, understanding work/rest cycles, proper hydration during activity, and assuring that physical activity is matched to the Soldiers' fitness levels. Also, certain dietary supplements (DSs) may have effects on energy expenditure, gastrointestinal function, and thermoregulation that should be considered and understood. In many cases over-motivation is a major risk factor. Commanders and trainers should be alert to any change in the Soldier's behavior. Proper attention to these factors should considerably reduce the incidence of EHS.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Golpe de Calor , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Militares , Doenças Profissionais , Golpe de Calor/diagnóstico , Golpe de Calor/epidemiologia , Golpe de Calor/fisiopatologia , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177689

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of new occupational diseases in Tianjin from 2008 to 2017, and to provide scientific basis for the formulation of prevention and control measures for occupational diseases in Tianjin. Methods: In 2018, data on the new occupational disease in Tianjin from 2008 to 2017 were collected from the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Statistical analysis was performed on the basic situation, the nature of the company, and the distribution of the industry. Results: A total of 5201 cases of occupational diseases were reported in Tianjin from 2008 to 2017, mainly including pneumoconiosis (92.37%) , followed by occupational poisoning (2.88%) , and the third occupational ENT disease (2.31%) . The male cases were higher than females, with a median age of 56 years and a median of 20 years of service. The most reported area was Hedong District (26.86%) . The economic type and scale of the cases belonged to state-owned large and medium-sized enterprises. The industry is mainly composed of non-metallic mineral products, and there are significant differences in the composition ratios of its economic type (χ(2)=19240.00, P<0.01) , enterprise size (χ(2)=3883.00, P<0.01) and industry (χ(2)=52050.00, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis, occupational poisoning and occupational ENT diseases are the key prevention and control occupational diseases in Tianjin city. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of occupational diseases in large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises, and to respond to occupational disease hazards in such key industries as the manufacturing industry so as to protect the health of occupational groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Pneumoconiose , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177698

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in Yichang City from 2006 to 2016, and to provide a scientific basis for the administrative department to formulate prevention and control strategies for pneumoconiosis. Methods: From 2006 to 2016, through the China Disease Control Information System Occupational Disease and Occupational Health Inspection System, relevant data were obtained, and the types of pneumoconiosis, the disease area and the dust-collecting age in Yichang City were statistically analyzed. Results: There were 1494 cases of pneumoconiosis in Yichang City, which were mainly distributed in 1 076 cases (72.02%) of coal workers' pneumoconiosis and 382 cases (25.57%) of silicosis, which occurred in Yiling District, Changyang County, Yidu City and Zigui County. The average age of dust collection was 13.78 years, and the age of onset was mainly concentrated in 5~9 years (35.27%) and 10~19 years (30.32%) . The incidence and severity of pneumoconiosis (phase) were related to the age of dusting (P<0.01) . Conclusion: The pneumoconiosis in Yichang City is mainly concentrated in the mining industry. The types of pneumoconiosis are mainly coal workers' pneumoconiosis. The occupational health and health management of key industries, regions and types of work should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Doenças Profissionais , Pneumoconiose , Adolescente , Antracose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Poeira , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177705

RESUMO

Pneumoconiosis is the most common and severe occupational disease, has become a major public health problem in the world. Its causes are well known, but the pathogenesis of it is not completely clear and effective therapies are not currently available. Epigenetic modifications have been considered an initial event in the development of pneumoconiosis. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in pneumoconiosis include DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) , and histone modification. In recent years, many researchers have studied the effect of dust-induced pulmonary fibrosis-related gene expression at the epigenetic level on macrophage activation, lung fibroblast proliferation, activation, transdifferentiation, and epithelial or endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT/EndMT) to further elucidate the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis. In this review, we discusses the epigenetic modifications in pneumoconiosis, with an aim to provide new insights into the early diagnosis, condition assessment and targeted therapy of this occupational disease.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Doenças Profissionais , Pneumoconiose , Metilação de DNA , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Pneumoconiose/genética
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