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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov2 infection may trigger lung inflammation and acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome (ARDS) that requires active ventilation and may have fatal outcome. Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage. This off label-treatment was based on preclinical studies in mice with LPS-induced ARDS, where inhaled adenosine/A2AR agonists protected oxygenated lungs from the deadly inflammatory damage. The treatment was allowed, considering that adenosine has several clinical applications. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT: Fourteen consecutively enrolled patients with Covid19-related interstitial pneumonitis and PaO2/FiO2 ratio<300 received off-label-treatment with 9 mg inhaled adenosine every 12 hours in the first 24 hours and subsequently, every 24 days for the next 4 days. Fifty-two patients with analogue features and hospitalized between February and April 2020, who did not receive adenosine, were considered as a historical control group. Patients monitoring also included hemodynamic/hematochemical studies, CTscans, and SARS-CoV2-tests. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated with no hemodynamic change and one case of moderate bronchospasm. A significant increase (> 30%) in the PaO2/FiO2-ratio was reported in 13 out of 14 patients treated with adenosine compared with that observed in 7 out of52 patients in the control within 15 days. Additionally, we recorded a mean PaO2/FiO2-ratio increase (215 ± 45 vs. 464 ± 136, P = 0.0002) in patients receiving adenosine and no change in the control group (210±75 vs. 250±85 at 120 hours, P>0.05). A radiological response was demonstrated in 7 patients who received adenosine, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA load rapidly decreased in 13 cases within 7 days while no changes were recorded in the control group within 15 days. There was one Covid-19 related death in the experimental group and 11in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our short-term analysis suggests the overall safety and beneficial therapeutic effect of inhaled adenosine in patients with Covid-19-inflammatory lung disease suggesting further investigation in controlled clinical trials.


Assuntos
Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 340-344, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic yield of point-of-care ultrasound imaging in patients suspected of having noncritical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but no apparent changes on a chest radiograph. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a case series including patients coming to an emergency department in March and April 2020 with mild-moderate respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by SARS-CoV-2. A point-of-care ultrasound examination of the lungs was performed on all participants as part of routine clinical care. Ultrasound findings were compared according to the results of SARS-CoV-2 test results. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 44.5 (34-67) years were enrolled; 42 (72.4%) were women. Twenty-seven (46.5%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ultrasound findings were consistent with interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 33 (56.9%). Most were in cases with testconfirmed COVID-19 (100% vs 22.2% of cases with no confirmation; P < .001). The most common ultrasound findings in confirmed COVID-19 cases were focal and confluent B-lines in the basal and posterior regions of the lung (R1, 85.2%; R2, 77.8%; L1, 88.9%; and L2, 88.9%) and associated pleural involvement (70.4%, 70.4%, 81.5%, and 85.2%, respectively). The sensitivity of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%). Specificity was 85.2% (95% CI, 66.3%-95.8%); positive predictive value, 75.8% (95% CI, 59.6%- 91.9%); negative predictive value, 92% (95% CI, 74.0%-99.0%); and positive and negative likelihood ratios, 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-6.5) and 0.1 (95% CI, 0.1-0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Point-of-care lung ultrasound could be useful for the diagnosis of noncritical SARS-CoV-2 infection when chest radiographs are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Design de Software , Ultrassonografia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22453, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize and identify the available evidence from studies to estimate the clinical value of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). And provides clinicians with evidence on which to base their clinical decision making. METHODS: This review will include all studies comparing clinical efficacy of TCM in the treatment of RA-ILD. The search strategy will be performed in 9 databases. We will not establish any limitations to language and publication status, published from inception to the August 2020. Two reviewers will screen, select studies, extract data, and assess quality independently. Outcome is lung function, number of swelling joints, number of painful joints, duration of morning stiffness, VAS score, adverse effects, quality of life, ESR, CRP, rheumatoid factor and safety. The methodological quality including the risk of bias of the included studies will be evaluated. We will carry out statistical analysis using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will summarize current evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of RA-ILD. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will provide helpful evidence for the clinician, and will promote further studies, as well as studying the value of TCM. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080108 (DOI number: 10.37766/inplasy2020.8.0108).


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(10): 827-833, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992435

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an acute infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). COVID-19 may manifest bilateral interstitial pneumonia on imaging. About 30%-60% of patients present varying degrees of interstitial changes, while most patients have a good prognosis. Since there's little practical instruct on treating interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by COVID-19, we present this file as references for all the colleagues fighting with this disease. The primary findings on CT are bilateral, peripheral ground-glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation. Inter-/intra-lobular septal thickening are also common. Subpleural lines and traction bronchiectasis can be seen in some cases which indicate the presence of interstitial fibrosis. Images of severe cases are similar with those in advanced stage of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and organizing pneumonia (OP). COVID-19 could present the typical two phases of diffuse alveolar damage: acute and proliferative phase on pathology. Massive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis may also be present. HRCT is the best radiological approach for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of COVID-19, and to assess the presence of ILD. Periodical CT following-up is recommended for patients who present interstitial manifestations. Biomarkers such as KL-6, SP-D, RAGE may also helpful on evaluating the severity of interstitial fibrosis and therapeutic response. We do not suggest applying pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walking test on patients in active stage of the disease. The primary treatments in acute phase are antiviral therapy and supportive treatment. We do not suggest routine use of corticosteroids, while on patients with excessive activation of inflammatory response or rapid progression of lung lesions, a low to medium dosage of corticosteroids could be applied for a short course. Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are encouraged to apply on patients in reparative phase with evidence of progressing fibrosis. Low to medium dosage of corticosteroids is also feasible on patients with NSIP or OP manifestation in this phase, with a relatively longer course. Chinese traditional medicine and rehabilitation medicine may also helpful. Lung transplant surgery is an option for severe pulmonary fibrosis patients. Patients should receive CT following-up after be discharged from hospital, especially those whose pulmonary exudation is not well absorbed. We suggest a routine following-up on month 1, 4 and 10 after discharging, and an extended period for those who have developed irreversible interstitial fibrosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/virologia , Pandemias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(9): 925-934, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890499

RESUMO

Within the spectrum of fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) is a subset of patients who have inexorable progression of pulmonary fibrosis despite treatment, which is known as the progressive fibrotic phenotype. Although the concept of progressive fibrosing ILD has been applied largely to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there is now an increasing focus on irreversible progressive fibrosis in a proportion of patients with a range of underlying ILD diagnoses. Evidence has emerged to support a possible role for antifibrotic therapy in these patients. In this Position Paper, we discuss the importance of retaining diagnostic scrutiny within the multidisciplinary team and suggest a multidomain definition for progressive fibrosis. We consider the potential role of antifibrotic drugs as second-line therapy in the treatment algorithm for patients with progressive non-IPF ILD. We highlight risk factors that might predispose individuals to developing progressive fibrosis. Finally, we discuss key uncertainties and future directions for research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Biomédica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa
6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1029-1035, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) based on clinical manifestations and myositis- specific antibodies using cluster analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with IIM admitted in Nanfang Hospital in 2015-2019. The clinical data of the patients including serum creatine kinase (CK), interstitial lung disease (ILD), cancer, and myositis-specific antibodies were collected for two-step cluster analysis to identify the distinct clusters of patients, whose clinical characteristics were subsequently analysed. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients with IIM were included in this study, including 30 (42.3%) with polymyositis (PM), 20 (28.2%) with classic dermatomyositis (DM), 16 (22.5%) with amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM), and 5 (7.0%) with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Two-step cluster analysis identified 3 distinctive subgroups: Cluster 1 of 15 (51.7%) patients characterized by rash, positive anti-MDA5 antibody and hypoproteinemia (P < 0.05) with normal or slightly elevated CK level, mainly corresponding to CADM; Cluster 2 of 4 (57.1%) patients with significantly elevated CK and positive anti-SRP antibody (P < 0.001) corresponding to IMNM; and Cluster 3 of 17 (48.6%) patients consisting primarily of patients with PM, characterized by positivity for anti- aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetases antibodies (P=0.022) corresponding to antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IIM can be divided into 3 subgroups based on their clinical and serological characteristics (especially myositis-specific antibodies), and among them ASS may represent an independent IIM subgroup with unique clinical characteristics.


Assuntos
Miosite , Anticorpos , Autoanticorpos , Dermatomiosite , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963028

RESUMO

Reviews of COVID-19 CT imaging along with postmortem lung biopsies and autopsies indicate that the majority of patients with COVID-19 pulmonary involvement have secondary organising pneumonia (OP) or its histological variant, acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia, both well-known complications of viral infections. Further, many publications on COVID-19 have debated the puzzling clinical characteristics of 'silent hypoxemia', 'happy hypoxemics' and 'atypical ARDS', all features consistent with OP. The recent announcement that RECOVERY, a randomised controlled trial comparing dexamethasone to placebo in COVID-19, was terminated early due to excess deaths in the control group further suggests patients present with OP given that corticosteroid therapy is the first-line treatment. Although RECOVERY along with other cohort studies report positive effects with corticosteroids on morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, treatment approaches could be made more effective given that secondary OP often requires prolonged duration and/or careful and monitored tapering of corticosteroid dose, with 'pulse' doses needed for the well-described fulminant subtype. Increasing recognition of this diagnosis will thus lead to more appropriate and effective treatment strategies in COVID-19, which may lead to a further reduction of need for ventilatory support and improved survival.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/etiologia , Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica/fisiopatologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921749

RESUMO

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Dispneia/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 98-105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with regard to: 1. the association between skin thickness progression rate (STPR) at baseline visit and incidence rate of cardiopulmonary complications; 2. comparison of the mortality rate between patients with skin improvers and those with skin non-improvers. METHODS: An inception cohort of early dcSSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand, was selected. All patients were assessed for clinical manifestations, and modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and underwent echocardiography, and HRCT at study entry and then annually. RESULTS: One hundred and four dcSSc patients (57 of whom were females and 91 anti-topoisomerase I-positive) with a mean disease duration of 11.1±8.6 months were enrolled. Forty-two patients had rapid STPR [RPsp], 38 intermediate STPR [IMsp] and 24 slow STPR [SLsp]. At enrolment, the RPsp group had a significantly shorter disease duration, more prevalent anti-topoisomerase-I-positive, higher mRSS, more prevalent creatine kinase≥500 IU/L and higher NT-proBNP levels compared to the IMSp and SLsp groups. During a mean observation period of 4.5±2.0 years, the RPsp group had a significantly higher incidence rate of LVEF< 50% (6.06 vs. 0 per 100 person- years, p=<0.01) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) (69.69 vs. 34.66 per 100 person-years, p=0.012) than the SLsp group. Skin non-improvers had a signif- icantly higher mortality rate than skin improvers (28.6% vs. 5.8 %, p= 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this early dcSSc study cohort it was found that skin change determined by STPR at the baseline visit was a useful surrogate marker for cardiac and ILD complications. It was also found that skin improvers assessed 1-year later were a useful surrogate marker of mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Esclerodermia Difusa , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pele , Tailândia
11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 85-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Major vascular complication, such as digital ulcers (DUs), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the major cause of mortality in SSc. The aim of study is to identify cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) variables that predict MVC and mortality for ILD in SSc patients. METHODS: In this cohort study, 45 SSc patients underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), high resolution computerised tomography (HRCT) and CPET. PFTs and echocardiography were performed annually for a 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: 16 (35.6%) SSc patients had MVC: 14 new DUs (31.1%), 1 PAH (2.2%) and 1 SRC (2.2%). At univariate regression analysis, mRss [HR 1.099 (1.008-1.199), p<0.05], NVC patterns (active and late) [HR 0.032 (0.004-0.250), p<0.001], V'E/V'CO2 slope [HR 1.123 (1.052-1.198), p<0.001] were predictive of new onset of MVC. In multivariate analysis, NVC patterns (active and late) (HR 0.044 (0.004-0.486), p<0.05), V'E/V'CO2 (HR 1.094 (1.020-1.198), p<0.05) were predictive of new onset of MVC. The 5-year mortality for ILD is 8.9%. In univariate analysis, DLco [(HR 0.927(CI 0.874- 0.983), p<0.05], V'E/V'CO2 slope and lung parenchymal with radiological patterns of ILD [(1.2.02 (CI 1.018-1.419), p<0.05], represent risk factors for 5-year mortality for ILD [HR 1.142 (1.030-1.267), p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, only V'E/V'CO2 slope [1.268 (CI 1.003-1.602), p<0.05] represents a risk factor for 5-year mortality for ILD. CONCLUSIONS: V' E/V' CO2 slope is a prognostic marker of MVC and five-year mortality for ILD.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos
12.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926781, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and is associated with severe respiratory disease. There are extensive publications on the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of COVID-19 pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities (GGO) and mixed GGO and consolidation being the most common findings. Those with interstitial thickening manifesting as reticular opacities typically show superimposed ground-glass opacities, giving a crazy-paving pattern. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 77-year-old man with a background of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) who presented with progressive cough and shortness of breath for 2 days. He was in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The initial chest radiograph was negative for lung consolidation and ground-glass opacities. During admission, he had worsening shortness of breath with desaturation, prompting a chest CT examination, which was performed on day 14 of illness. The chest CT revealed an atypical finding of predominant focal subpleural interstitial thickening in the right lower lobe. He was provided supportive treatment along with steroid and antibiotics. He recovered well and subsequently tested negative for 2 consecutive swabs. He was discharged after 34 days. CONCLUSIONS Interstitial thickening or reticular pattern on CT has been described in COVID-19 pneumonia, but largely in association with ground-glass opacity or consolidation. This case demonstrates an atypical predominance of interstitial thickening on chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia on day 14 of illness, which is the expected time of greatest severity of the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Meios de Contraste , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 708, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravesical administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has proven useful for treatment and prevention of recurrence of superficial bladder cancer and in situ carcinoma. However, fatal side effects such as disseminated infections may occur. Early diagnosis and accurate therapy for interstitial pneumonitis (IP) are important because exacerbation of IP triggered by infections is the major cause of death. Although some fatality reports have suggested newly appeared IP after intravesical BCG treatment, to our knowledge, there are no reports which have demonstrated acute exacerbation of existing IP. Moreover, autopsy is lacking in previous reports. We report the case of a patient with fatal IP exacerbation after BCG instillation and the pathological findings of the autopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man with a medical history of IP was referred to our hospital because of fever and malaise. He had received an intravesical injection of BCG 1 day before the admission. His fever reduced after the use of antituberculosis drugs, so he was discharged home. He was referred to our hospital again because of a high fever 7 days after discharge. On hospitalisation, he showed high fever and systemic exanthema. Hepatosplenomegaly and myelosuppression were also observed. Biopsies revealed multiple epithelioid cell granulomas with Langhans giant cells of the liver and bone marrow. Biopsy DNA analyses of Mycobacterium bovis in the bone marrow, sputum, and blood were negative. His oxygen demand worsened drastically, and the ground-glass shadow expanded on the computed tomography scan. He was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of existing IP. We recommenced the antituberculosis drugs with steroid pulse therapy, but he died on day 35 because of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed a diffuse appearance of multiple epithelioid cell granulomas with Langhans giant cells in multiple organs, although BCG was not evident. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of acute exacerbation of chronic IP by BCG infection. This is also the first case of autopsy of a patient with acute exacerbation of existing IP induced by intravesical BCG treatment. Whether the trigger of acute IP exacerbation is infection or hypersensitivity to BCG is still controversial, because pathological evidence confirming BCG infection is lacking. Physicians who administer BCG against bladder cancer should be vigilant for acute exacerbation of IP.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/etiologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Administração Intravesical , Idoso , Autopsia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma in Situ/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma in Situ/prevenção & controle , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Resultados Negativos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Pulsoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle
14.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(8): 665-669, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867459

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the CT features and dynamic changes of new developed lung cancer in patients with connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). Methods: A series of chest CT images of 58 CTD-ILD patients during follow-up were collected. The CT features of interstitial lung disease, the initial appearance time of lung cancer, the time of diagnosis of lung cancer, the morphological characteristics (location, shape, size) of lung cancer lesions and the dynamic changes of CT features were analyzed. Results: Among 58 patients, rheumatoid arthritis was the most common (31 cases). Chest CT images showed coexistence of two or more interstitial CT signs. During the follow-up, a total of 59 lung cancer lesions were found. The median time of lung cancer lesion occurred was 289 days. The median delay in diagnosis was 43 days. There were 44 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (including 23 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 19 cases of adenocarcinoma), 12 cases of small cell lung cancer. Forty-three (72.9%) lesions were located in the lower lobes and 41 (69.5%) lesions were located in the area of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. According to CT morphological characteristics of lung cancer, nodular type (37 cases), inflammatory consolidation (12 cases) and intra-honeycomb type (10 cases) were identified. Conclusions: The chest CT features of patients with CTD-ILD are complex. New developed lung cancer is easily missed or misdiagnosed in the early stage. Pay attention to the special CT characteristics of CTD-ILD with lung cancer is helpful for early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 667-672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). METHODS: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) from 71 IPF, 67 SSc-ILD, and 75 HP cases were independently evaluated by 2 thoracic radiologists blinded to patient data. Studies were assessed for the presence of DPO, HRCT scanning pattern, stigmata of granulomatous infection, and honeycombing. RESULTS: The prevalence of DPO was significantly higher in cases of IPF and SSc compared with HP, although there was no significant difference in prevalence between the IPF and SSc groups, even when accounting for the presence of prior granulomatous infection. Interobserver agreement for the presence of DPO was substantial. CONCLUSIONS: Although prevalence DPO on HRCT varies between some forms of ILD, the use of DPO to influence characterization of ILD should be considered with caution.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossificação Heterotópica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossificação Heterotópica/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 656-666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842067

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to review interstitial lung fibrosis Imaging Reporting and Data System (ILF-RADS) that was designed for reporting of interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF). Findings include pulmonary and extrapulmonary findings and is subsequently designed into 4 categories. Pulmonary findings included lung volume, reticulations, traction bronchiectasis, honeycomb, nodules, cysts, ground glass, consolidation, mosaic attenuation and emphysema, and distribution of pulmonary lesions; axial (central, peripheral and diffuse), and zonal distribution (upper, middle, and lower zones). Complications in the form of acute infection, acute exacerbation, and malignancy were also assessed. Extrapulmonary findings included mediastinal, pleural, tracheal, and bone or soft tissue lesions. The lexicon of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) was classified into 4 categories designated as belonging in 1 of 4 categories. Lexicon of ILF-RADS-1 (typical UIP), ILF-RADS-2 (possible UIP), ILF-RADS-3 (indeterminate for UIP), and ILF-RADS-4 (inconsistent with UIP).


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Radiologistas
19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(8): 897-902, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800039

RESUMO

A female infant, aged 43 days, had shortness of breath, cyanosis, groan, and dyspnea since birth. Physical examination showed cyanosis of lips and three-concave sign, and multiple lung imaging examinations showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. The girl was given anti-infective therapy and continuous mechanical ventilation but there were no significant improvements in symptoms. Gene testing confirmed a compound heterozygous mutation, c.1890C>A(p.Tyr630Ter)+c.3208G>A(p.Ala1070Thr), in the ABCA3 gene, with the former from her father and the latter from her mother. Pathological examination of the lungs indicated pulmonary interstitial disease. The girl was diagnosed with infantile diffuse pulmonary interstitial disease caused by mutations in the ABCA3 gene. When full-term neonates experience shortness of breath and dyspnea after birth, pulmonary imaging suggests diffuse ground-glass changes, and conventional treatment is not effective (ventilator-dependent), congenital pulmonary surfactant metabolism defects needs to be considered. Gene testing, which can provide a basis for early intervention, prognostic evaluation, and genetic counseling, should be performed as early as possible.


Assuntos
Dispneia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Mutação , Surfactantes Pulmonares
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(8): 786-794, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has been introduced recently in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the distinction between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases with the use of TBLC data in multidisciplinary team (MDT) diagnosis. METHODS: In this single-centre, retrospective, investigator-initiated comparative study, we evaluated consecutive patients without a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on high-resolution CT, who presented to the GB Morgagni Hospital (Forlì, Italy), and who underwent TBLC (Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014) or surgical lung biopsy (SLB; Jan 1, 2002, to Dec 31, 2016). Three pathologists reviewed the specimens, masked to clinical information. MDT evaluation was done before and after biopsy. The primary endpoint was the prognostic significance of the MDT diagnostic separation between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases in patients undergoing TBLC. Mortality was evaluated by means of Cox regression analysis. FINDINGS: We evaluated 500 consecutive cases, 426 of which were included: 266 had TBLC and 160 had SLB. 189 patients had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 143 had other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases, and 94 had non-fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. Patients undergoing TBLC had more comorbidities and better preserved lung function compared with those undergoing SLB; among patients with a final MDT diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, patients undergoing TBLC were older, had more comorbidities, and had a different post-biopsy treatment profile than those who received SLB. The distinction between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases made by MDT diagnosis on the basis of TBLC biopsy had clear prognostic significance, with a 5-year transplant-free survival of 68% (95% CI 57-76) in patients with an MDT idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis based on TBLC compared with 93% (87-96) in patients without an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis based on TBLC (hazard ratio 5·28, 95% CI 2·72-10·04; p<0·0001). This distinction remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, smoking status, comorbidities, pulmonary function, and high-resolution CT patterns (p=0·02). INTERPRETATION: TBLC makes an important diagnostic contribution in interstitial lung disease, on the basis of the prognostic distinction between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases when TBLC findings are included in multidisciplinary diagnosis. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Pulmão/patologia , Broncoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/cirurgia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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