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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 540-544, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379727

RESUMO

Respiratory pathogens, such as novel influenza A viruses, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and now, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are of particular concern because of their high transmissibility and history of global spread (1). Clusters of severe respiratory disease are challenging to investigate, especially in resource-limited settings, and disease etiology often is not well understood. In 2014, endorsed by the Group of Seven (G7),* the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) was established to help build country capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats.† GHSA is a multinational, multisectoral collaboration to support countries towards full implementation of the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (IHR).§ Initially, 11 technical areas for collaborator participation were identified to meet GHSA goals. CDC developed the Detection and Response to Respiratory Events (DaRRE) strategy in 2014 to enhance country capacity to identify and control respiratory disease outbreaks. DaRRE initiatives support the four of 11 GHSA technical areas that CDC focuses on: surveillance, laboratory capacity, emergency operations, and workforce development.¶ In 2016, Kenya was selected to pilot DaRRE because of its existing respiratory disease surveillance and laboratory platforms and well-developed Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) (2). During 2016-2020, Kenya's DaRRE partners (CDC, the Kenya Ministry of Health [MoH], and Kenya's county public health officials) conceptualized, planned, and implemented key components of DaRRE. Activities were selected based on existing capacity and determined by the Kenya MoH and included 1) expansion of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) surveillance sites; 2) piloting of community event-based surveillance; 3) expansion of laboratory diagnostic capacity; 4) training of public health practitioners in detection, investigation, and response to respiratory threats; and 5) improvement of response capacity by the national emergency operations center (EOC). Progress on DaRRE activity implementation was assessed throughout the process. This pilot in Kenya demonstrated that DaRRE can support IHR requirements and can capitalize on a country's existing resources by tailoring tools to improve public health preparedness based on countries' needs.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
3.
West Afr J Med ; 37(2): 152-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked morbidity and mortality of individuals to exposure to atmospheric gaseous and particulate matter especially fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10).The process of garri (cassava crisps) production (frying with firewood) is associated with production of gaseous and particulate matter which contribute to ambient particulate matter air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of air quality indices on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the garri processing workers in Ogbomoso. METHODOLOGY: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 351 garri processing workers in Ogbomoso as subjects and 351 residents of Ogbomoso metropolis as controls that were age, sex and height-matched. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic profiles and respiratory symptoms of participants and document physical examination findings. Particulate matter counter was used for air quality sampling. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 41.7 ± 14.9 years and that of controls was 41.6 ± 14.7 years (p =0.960). The two groups were also matched for socioeconomic status, sex and height. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher at 48.4% among the garri workers than the control group which was 29.1% (p<0.001). Cough was the predominant symptom with a prevalence of 29.3% and 10.5% among the subjects and controls respectively. The mean count of PM1.0 in garri processing locations was significantly higher than that recorded in Ogbomoso metropolis; 73.77±42.08 vs 15.04±6.66mg/m3 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Garri processing work is associated with significant increase in ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the workforce compared to the control population. Effective preventive strategies including education and provision of safety masks may reduce the occupational hazards associated with garri processing factory workers in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. patol. respir ; 23(supl.1): S22-S27, feb. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188031

RESUMO

Los nuevos avances tecnológicos están suponiendo una constante revolución a nivel científico y de relaciones sociales, lo que incluye la relación entre profesionales, la forma de obtención de información y la forma de interacción entre profesionales sanitarios y pacientes. Los profesionales sanitarios estamos obligados a adaptarnos a los cambios tecnológicos de forma crítica para conseguir una utilización racional de los mismos, y en beneficio de los pacientes. En esta revisión analizamos el presente y el futuro de la utilización y aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en el asma. Analizaremos el uso y los estudios disponibles en telemedicina y aplicaciones móviles diseñadas para pacientes asmáticos, así como la utilización cada vez mayor de dispositivos electrónicos y weareables. Por otro lado, analizaremos la utilidad de las redes sociales dentro de los cuidados de la salud en el asma, su utilización como medio de interacción con los pacientes, y por profesionales sanitarios como método de compartir información y experiencia


The new technological advances are assuming a constant revolution in science and social relations, which includes the relationship between professionals, the way of obtaining information and the form of interaction between health professionals and patients. Health professionals are obligated to adapt to technological changes critically, to achieve a rational use of them, and to use them for the benefit of patients. In this review we analyze the present and future utility and application of new technologies in asthma. In this review we analyze the available studies of telemedicine and mobile applications designed for asthmatic patients, as well as the increasing use of electronic and wearable devices. On the other hand, we analyze the usefulness of social networks within health care in asthma, its use as a method of interaction with patients, and its use by health professionals as a method of sharing scientific information and medical experience


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Rede Social , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 90, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902018

RESUMO

Owing to the rise in population, lifestyle changes, high traffic rates in urban areas and environmental pollution, respiratory diseases have become much more prevalent on both regional and urban scales. Respiratory diseases affect over 300 million people worldwide and are thus among the major threats to humans' general well-being. The identification of underlying factors and the specification of accompanying risk areas for the temporal exacerbation of respiratory diseases are effective steps in managing the damage caused by such disorders. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for modelling the risk zone of respiratory diseases temporally, using a location-based social network (LBSN) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The main contribution of this paper is to consider the environmental and infrastructural factors and identify their relationships with the geographical locations of respiratory attacks. The study also utilizes Telegram, which is the most popular and conventional social media platform, in order to observe temporal changes in the location of respiratory attacks in Iran, in the form of a developed Telegram bot known as @respiratoryassociation. The relations between the factors behind and the location of respiratory attacks are determined using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN. All the required data have been collected on a daily basis over a 5-year period from December 2013 to December 2018 in Tehran, Iran. The results indicated air pollution, especially pollution from carbon monoxide (CO) and suspended particulate matter (PM) as the most decisive factors. Following air pollution, the amount of exposure to the polluted area was determined as the second most decisive factor, which in turn increased as a result of escalations in traffic jams. Land use was determined as the third most decisive factor. Furthermore, the results revealed that the ANN performed satisfactorily, implying that the model can be used to examine the spatio-temporal behaviour of the time series of respiratory diseases with respect to environmental and infrastructural factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono , Progressão da Doença , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência
7.
N Z Med J ; 133(1508): 111-117, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945047

RESUMO

The mortality risk for infants with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) unrecognised at the time of birth is high. Pulse oximetry has been utilised as a screening tool for the detection of these anomalies in the newborn as the majority will have a degree of hypoxaemia. This screening strategy has a moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of CCHD, and a low false-positive rate. Respiratory and infective diseases are responsible for a large number of positive test results. The early recognition of these diseases can also improve health outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to introduce screening, ranging from hospital-led initiatives to mandatory state-wide policies. A study conducted in New Zealand demonstrated that sector-led screening initiatives are unlikely to result in equitable outcomes. In this midwifery-led maternity setting a nationwide pulse oximetry screening programme with adequate human and material resources should be introduced.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Oximetria/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Oximetria/normas , Gravidez , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125913, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962222

RESUMO

Emerging epidemiologic studies suggested that particulate matter (PM) was a risk factor for the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies were conducted to examine whether PM was associated with cause-specific deaths in the CKD progression. This study aimed to estimate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and a spectrum of deaths among CKD patients. We took leverage of the Elderly Health Service cohort (n = 66,820), a large Hong Kong elderly cohort followed up till 2010. A total of 902 CKD incident patients in the cohort were identified during the follow-up period. We estimated yearly PM2.5 at the residential address for each CKD patient based on a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. We used Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the underlying timescale to assess the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality among CKD patients. A total of 496 patients died during the follow-up, where 147 died from cardiovascular disease, 61 from respiratory disease and 154 from renal failure. The mortality hazard ratio (HR) per interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 (4.0 µg/m3) was 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34 to 2.91) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) among CKD patients, and was 1.42 (95%CI: 1.05 to 1.93) for CKD among those patients concomitantly with hypertension. Associations were not of statistical significance between PM2.5 and mortality hazard ratios of all-cause, stroke, and pneumonia among CKD patients. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the CKD progression into ischemic heart diseases.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/química , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Transtornos Respiratórios , Sons Respiratórios , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
10.
Bogotá; Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social; 2020. 3 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1052554

RESUMO

Ante la presencia de la enfermedad COVID-19 en Colombia, el Gobierno nacional se permite dar las siguientes instrucciones de intervención, respuesta y atención del COVID-19, complementarias a la impartidas en la Circular 0017 del 24 de febrero de 2020 del Ministerio del Trabajo, aplicables principalmente a los ambientes laborales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias
11.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1)2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095352

RESUMO

Objetivos: investigar as internações por doenças respiratórias no Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais, Brasil), discutindo-as no contexto da atenção em saúde, e a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo e quantitativo sobre as doenças do aparelho respiratório nas macrorregiões de saúde Triângulo do Norte e Triângulo do Sul, de janeiro de 2014 a dezembro de 2019. Foram utilizados dados provenientes do Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS), disponíveis no endereço eletrônico do Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS). Os dados foram apresentados por números absolutos, frequência relativa e medidas de tendência central. Resultados: nesse período, houve 76.745 internações por doenças do aparelho respiratório no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), com aspecto crescente desde 2018. As cidades de Uberlândia e Uberaba somam juntas quase metade desse total. Com os serviços hospitalares e profissionais foram gastos, aproximadamente, 90 milhões de reais. As faixas etárias cuja internação foi mais frequente foram a de 1 a 4 anos e a de 80 anos ou mais. As maiores frequências de óbitos concentraram-se no segundo e terceiro trimestre do ano e entre os indivíduos acima de 60 anos. Conclusões: O contexto caótico e oneroso ao SUS, decorrente das internações por doenças respiratórias, agravar-se-á ao se somar ao cenário de pandemia por COVID-19. Por isso, é imperiosa a prevenção dos fatores de risco e a promoção de saúde por meio da melhora na atenção primária em saúde, bem como a ampliação e a reorganização da rede hospitalar.(AU)


Objective: to investigate the hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in the Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais, Brazil), and discuss them in the context of health care and the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: epidemiologic, descriptive, and quantitative study on Respiratory Tract Diseases in Triângulo do Norte and Triângulo do Sul health macroregions, from January 2014 to December 2019. It was used data from the Informational Hospital System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS), available at the electronic address of the Information Technology Department of Unified Health System (DATASUS). Data were presented by absolute numbers, relative frequency, and central tendency measures. Results: in this period, there were 76.745 hospitalizations for Respiratory Tract Diseases at SUS, with a growing aspect since 2018. Uberlandia and Uberaba cities together add up to half of that amount. It was spent approximately 90 million of Brazilian Reals currency on hospital and professional services. The age groups whose hospitalization was more frequent were from 1 to 4 years and 80 years or more. Most deaths were concentrated in the second and third trimesters of the year and among individuals over 60 years of age. Conclusions: the chaotic and onerous context to SUS resulting from hospitalizations for respiratory tract diseases will become more severe by adding the COVID-19 pandemic scenario. Therefore, it is imperative to prevent risk factors and promote health by improving primary health care, as well as the hospital network ampliation and reorganization.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Perfil de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Epidemiologia Descritiva
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 154-163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787180

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported associations of short-term exposure to different sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and increased mortality or hospitalizations for respiratory diseases. Few studies, however, have focused on the short-term effects of source-specific PM2.5 on emergency room visits (ERVs) of respiratory diseases. Source apportionment for PM2.5 was performed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and generalized additive model was applied to estimate associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease ERVs. The association of PM2.5 and total respiratory ERVs was found on lag4 (RR = 1.011, 95%CI: 1.002, 1.020) per interquartile range (76 µg/m3) increase. We found PM2.5 to be significantly associated with asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ERVs, with the strongest effects on lag5 (RR = 1.072, 95%CI: 1.024, 1.119), lag4 (RR = 1.104, 95%CI: 1.032, 1.176) and lag3 (RR = 1.091, 95%CI: 1.047, 1.135), respectively. The estimated effects of PM2.5 changed little after adjusting for different air pollutants. Six primary PM2.5 sources were identified using PMF analysis, including dust/soil (6.7%), industry emission (4.5%), secondary aerosols (30.3%), metal processing (3.2%), coal combustion (37.5%) and traffic-related source (17.8%). Some of the sources were identified to have effects on ERVs of total respiratory diseases (dust/soil, secondary aerosols, metal processing, coal combustion and traffic-related source), bronchitis ERVs (dust/soil) and COPD ERVs (traffic-related source, industry emission and secondary aerosols). Different sources of PM2.5 contribute to increased risk of respiratory ERVs to different extents, which may provide potential implications for the decision making of air quality related policies, rational emission control and public health welfare.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
13.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 115, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in homes and symptom reporting of children have been extensively studied, but only few large-scale studies have been done in schools. We examined associations between expert-assessed IEQ in schools and pupils' reporting of different symptoms, and whether associations were stronger if participants relate symptoms to the school environment. METHODS: The questionnaire survey was done in all primary and secondary schools in two areas of Helsinki, Finland. Primary school pupils (grade 3-6, n = 8775, 99 school-buildings) and secondary school pupils (grade 7-9, n = 3410, 30 school-buildings) reported their symptoms. Symptoms were combined into respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptom groups. Surveys were also done among the parents of the primary school pupils (grade 1-6, n = 3540, 88 school buildings), but results are reported only in the supplement due to the low response rate (20% in 2017 and 13% in 2018). The associations between IEQ and symptoms were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Several of the IEQ indicators were highly correlated and indicators were therefore mainly analyzed by combining them into a summary score and into latent classes. Dose-response associations were found between IEQ problems and higher reporting of respiratory and general symptoms among both primary and secondary school pupils. Some associations were also observed with lower respiratory and skin symptoms, but not with eye symptoms. The associations were somewhat stronger with symptoms related to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation: for a unit change in IEQ summary score and respiratory symptoms in primary schools, odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.06) and 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.10), and in secondary schools 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.17), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Expert-assessed IEQ problems in schools were associated with increased reporting of especially respiratory and general symptoms. The associations were only somewhat stronger in magnitude for symptoms reported in relation to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Autorrelato , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875632

RESUMO

Asian dust is a phenomenon involving the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants originating from the desert areas of China and Mongolia. In recent years, the health effects of Asian dust have raised public concerns. Numerous studies on the health effects of Asian dust have been published since the last review in 2010. Thus, a literature review was conducted to shed light on the latest epidemiologic findings. PubMed and Science Direct databases were used for the review of epidemiologic studies published between June 2009 and April 2018. We identified 53 epidemiologic studies. Mortality, ambulance transportation, hospitalization/medical examination, changes in symptomatic, functional, and examination findings, as well as birth outcomes have been reported as outcomes. When the outcomes were categorized by disease, the effects of Asian dust on respiratory, cardiovascular, and allergic diseases raised concerns. The common evidences of causation between Asian dust and these diseases were the consistency of findings and temporal sequence of association. As results of research on dose-response relationships have become available, and the possibility that the health effects of Asian dust may vary depending on its chemical composition has been pointed out, further research using the exposure level indicators of Asian dust or its chemical composition should be conducted. Furthermore, with focus on the crucial issue of reducing exposure, research related to prevention and raising awareness should be further promoted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Areia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mongólia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 36(4): 176-183, oct.-dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188307

RESUMO

Background: Teenagers are the foremost susceptible population to smokeless tobacco usage and limited studies have surveyed the influence of smokeless tobacco on cardiac and respiratory response. Objective: This study aims to measure consequence (cardiovascular and breathing) of smokeless tobacco usage (gutkha and chewing tobacco) among young Indian men. Method: On random basis, the applicants were divided into Group I (n=50) - healthy control group, Group II (n=50) - smokeless tobacco users. Anthropometric measurements and recording of blood pressure (BP), pulse wave analysis (PWV), heart rate variability (HRV) and pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed. Result: We observed that altogether anthropometric variables were comparable among all individuals. In blood pressure variable, except DBP, other variables for example SBP, PP and MAP were significantly increased in Group II individuals, once compare to Group I. Pulse wave analysis, (such as, AP, AIx, and SEVR), was comparable in individuals of both groups. As compare to Group I, HR was significantly increased in Group II. In HRV investigation, NN, VLF, LF, LF(nu), LF/HF were increased significantly and TSP, HF, HF(nu) were decreased significantly in Group II with compare to Group I. In PFT analysis, FVC was comparable among individuals of both the group and conversely, significant decrease in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75 and PEFR in Group II when compare with Group I. Conclusion: This study illustrate that smokeless tobacco practice has increasing adverse effects on cardiovascular as well as breathing system and become an important public health problem


Antecedentes: Los adolescentes constituyen la población más susceptible al consumo de tabaco sin humo, y pocos estudios han investigado la influencia de dicho tabaco en la respuesta cardiaca y respiratoria. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es medir la consecuencia (cardiovascular y respiratoria) del consumo de tabaco sin humo (gutka y tabaco de mascar) entre los jóvenes indios. Métodos: De manera aleatoria dividimos a los candidatos entre el grupo I (n=50) o grupo control sano y el grupo II (n=50) o grupo de consumidores de tabaco sin humo. Realizamos mediciones antropométricas y registramos la presión arterial (PA), el análisis de la onda de pulso (PWA), la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (HRV) y las pruebas de la función pulmonar (PFT). Resultados: Observamos que, en conjunto, las variables antropométricas eran comparables entre todos los individuos. En la variable de presión arterial, exceptuando la PAD, el resto de las variables, como por ejemplo PAS, PP y PAM incrementaban significativamente en los individuos del grupo II, en comparación con el grupo I. El análisis de la onda de pulso (AP, AIx y SEVR) fue comparable en los individuos de ambos grupos. En comparación con el grupo I, la FC incrementaba significativamente en el grupo II. En el análisis de HRV, NN, VLF, LF, LF(nu) LF/HF incrementaban significativamente y TSP, HF, HF(nu) disminuían considerablemente en el grupo II, en comparación con el grupo I. En el análisis PFT, FVC fue comparable entre los individuos de ambos grupos y, por contra, encontramos un descenso significativo de FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75 y PEFR en el grupo II, en comparación con el grupo I. Conclusión: Este estudio ilustra que el consumo de tabaco sin humo tiene efectos adversos crecientes sobre el sistema cardiovascular y el respiratorio, y constituye un problema importante de salud pública


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/métodos , Goma de Mascar de Nicotina , Frequência Cardíaca , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105272, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675571

RESUMO

Climate change is a major public health concern. In addition to its direct impacts on temperature patterns and extreme weather events, climate change affects public health indirectly through its influence on air quality. Pollution trends are not only affected by emissions changes but also by weather changes. In this paper we analyze air quality trends in Spain of important air pollutants (C6H6, CO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2) recorded during the last 25 years, from 1993 to 2017. We found substantial reductions in ambient concentration levels for all the pollutants studied except for O3. To assess the influence of recent weather changes on air quality trends we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) using nonparametric smoothing; with and without adjusting for weather parameters including temperature, wind speed, humidity and precipitation frequency. The difference of annual slopes estimated by the models without and with adjusting for these meteorological variables represents the impact of weather changes on pollutant trends, i.e. the 'weather penalty'. The analyses were seasonally and geographically stratified to account for temporal and regional differences across Spain. The results were meta-analyzed to estimate weather penalties on ambient concentration trends at a national level as well as the impact on mortality for the most relevant pollutants. We found significant penalties for most pollutants, implying that air quality would have improved even more during our study period if weather conditions had remained constant. The largest weather influences were found for PM10, with seasonal penalties up to 22 µg⋅m-3 accumulated over the 25-year period in some regions. The national meta-analysis shows penalties of 0.060 µg⋅m-3 per year (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.004, 0.116) in cold months and 0.127 µg⋅m-3 per year (95% CI: 0.089, 0.164) in warm months. Penalties of this magnitude would correspond to 129 annual deaths (95% CI: 25, 233), i.e. approximately 3200 deaths over the 25-year period in Spain. According to our results, the health benefits of recent emission abatements for this pollutant in Spain would have been up to 10% greater if weather conditions had remained constant during the last 25 years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Umidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Temperatura
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623056

RESUMO

SummaryTobacco smoke exposure has obvious and complex effects on the immune system of the human upper respiratory tract, including pro-inflammatory and anti-immune effects. Exposure to tobacco smoke is closely related to the occurrence and development of allergic rhinitis, the common rhinitis and sinusitis. The innate immune system is influenced by tobacco smoking through its effects on the respiratory mucosa and its adjuncts, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils and innate immune receptors. Cigarette smoke can also affect the humoral immunity and cellular immunity, altering the acquired immune condition of the upper respiratory tract. Tobacco smoke exposure promotes the occurrence and development of the upper respiratory tract infectious diseases and allergic diseases by changing the composition of microflora in the upper respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Nariz , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Rinite , Sinusite , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/imunologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569347

RESUMO

Coal ash, the byproduct of burning coal made up of small particles, including heavy metals and radioactive elements, is discarded in open-air landfills where it can be emitted into the air, contributing to air pollution in the surrounding community. Few regulations exist regarding the storage, disposal, and transport of coal ash. There is limited research on the health impacts of coal ash exposure on communities. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults exposed to coal ash and non-exposed adults. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among two populations: one exposed to coal ash and one not exposed to coal ash. Perception of health (p-Value < 0.0001), cough (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 5.30, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 2.60-11), shortness of breath (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.56-4.31), hoarseness (AOR = 4.02, 95% CI = 2.45-6.60), respiratory infections (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.14-2.89), and mean overall respiratory health score (p-Value < 0.0001) were all statistically significantly greater in exposed adults (N = 231) when compared to non-exposed adults (N = 170). Adults residing near the coal ash facility were more likely to report respiratory symptoms than the non-exposed population. More research on the health impact of coal ash and storage regulations needs to be conducted.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Carvão Mineral , Centrais Elétricas , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
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