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1.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1699-1708, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the selective Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, fasudil, on the mRNA level of proinflammatory factors and the retinal vascular development in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice underwent standard protocol for OIR induction from postnatal days 7 to 12. Subsequently, they received a daily intraperitoneal injection of fasudil or sodium chloride from P12 to P16. Analyses were performed using vascular staining on retinal flat mounts, RNA expression by qPCR, and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. RESULTS: On retinal flat mounts, the proportion of avascular area and tuft formation did not differ between the fasudil and NaCl group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a less intense staining with inflammatory markers after fasudil. Nevertheless, there were no differences on RNA level between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings support that daily systemic application of fasudil does not decrease retinal neovascularization in rodents with oxygen-induced retinopathy. The results of our study together with the controversial results on the effects of different ROCK inhibitors from the literature makes it apparent that effects of ROCK inhibition are more complex, and further studies are necessary to analyze its potential therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigênio/toxicidade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/enzimologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
2.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(3): 149-153, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245977

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine length of hydroxychloroquine use and cumulative dose and evaluate the ocular effects by 10-2 central visual field test, microperimetry (MP), color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in hydroxychloroquine users. Materials and Methods: Patients who used hydroxychloroquine continuously for at least 2 years for various connective tissue diseases were included in the study. A total of 300 eyes of 150 patients aged 19-78 years who were followed due to risk of developing hydroxychloroquine maculopathy in the Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Ophthalmology Department between the years 1995-2017 were evaluated. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopic, and fundoscopic examination were performed at all visits. MP, FAF, OCT, fundus photography, and central 10-2 visual field examinations were performed 3 times at 6-month intervals. Results: The mean age of patients was 48.9±10.8 years; 141 (94%) patients were female and 9 (6%) were male. The mean duration of hydroxychloroquine use was 10.5±6.4 (2-30) years. Fifty-six patients had been using the drug for 5 years or less. The mean cumulative drug dose was 754.7±447.2 (146-1825) g. Mean BCVA was 0.02±0.08 LogMAR at all follow-up visits (p=0.999). Mean MP values at the first, second, and third examinations were 14.07±3.24 dB, 14.18±3.35 dB, and 14.54±2.79 dB, respectively (p>0.05). Mean central macular thickness was 221.9±19.8 µm at initial examination, 221.8±19.9 µm at the second visit, and 221.8±19.8 µm at the final visit (p=0.113). There was a weak negative correlation between age and MP values at all three visits (visit 1: p=0.003, r=- 0.170; visit 2: p=0.001, r=-0.185, visit 3: p=0.011, r=-0.146). There was statistically significant relationship between MP values and hydroxychloroquine length of use and cumulative dose (p=0.027 and p=0.049, respectively). Duration of use was not associated with changes in 10/2 visual field (p=0.124). There were significant relationships between alterations in FAF and hydroxychloroquine length of use and cumulative dose (p=0.027 and p=0.049, respectively). Conclusion: FAF alterations were significantly associated with duration of hydroxychloroquine use and cumulative dose. As objective methods are more reliable, examinations such as FAF can be recommended as auxiliary methods in the follow-up and early detection of toxic maculopathy.


Assuntos
Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Macula Lutea/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Incidência , Macula Lutea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/epidemiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Turquia/epidemiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(5): 376-381, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046022

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Because patients with HIV have increased life expectancies with the advent of new drug therapies, complications from iatrogenic syndromes such as drug toxicity can occur. Ritonavir-induced retinal toxicity is one such complication but has rarely been reported in the literature. PURPOSE: This case report describes a patient with bilateral maculopathy and bone spicule-like pigmentary changes in the midperipheral retina due to ritonavir use. In addition, novel optical coherence tomography findings are described. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old man presented with gradual-onset blurry vision and difficulty seeing at night. He had been diagnosed as having HIV infection 19 years prior and had previously taken ritonavir for 7 years as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Best-corrected acuities were 20/30 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Clinical examination revealed a subtle annular pattern of retinal pigment epithelium mottling around the fovea and bone spicule-like pigment changes in the midperiphery of both retinas. Optical coherence tomography imaging revealed abnormal subfoveal hyperreflectivity of the ellipsoid zone with relative attenuation centrally, annular parafoveal ellipsoid zone loss, and punctate hyperreflectivity within the ellipsoid zone more eccentrically. Fundus autofluorescence in both eyes showed annular hyperautofluorescence in the parafoveal region, geographic hyperautofluorescence in the areas underlying the midperipheral pigmentary changes, and discrete patches of hyperautofluorescence along the far inferotemporal arcades in areas that appeared normal with biomicroscopy. A diagnosis of retinal toxicity secondary to ritonavir use was made based on the patient's history and clinical examination. CONCLUSIONS: Ritonavir retinal toxicity seems to be an uncommon adverse event that can cause decreased visual function. This case report provides further evidence of the retinal toxicity and reviews the reported clinical and optical coherence tomography manifestations of the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Ritonavir/toxicidade , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual
4.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 38(3): 279-285, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039623

RESUMO

Aim: Lutein is a potent antioxidant that is found in ocular tissue. It protects retina against oxidative stress. We aimed to increase lutein efficiency by encapsulating it into liposome and testing its neuroprotective effect against cisplatin-induced retinal injury in rabbits. Materials and methods: Twenty-four male, New Zealand, rabbits weighing 1.5-2 kg were divided into four groups, as follows: group I as a control, group II received cisplatin, group III received free lutein + cisplatin and group IV received liposomal lutein + cisplatin. All treatments were administrated twice per week for 14 days. Electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded for all rabbits just before decapitation. Then, the retinae were subjected to histopathological evaluations and comet assay. Results: Results indicated significant decrease (p ˂ 0.01) in ERG waves, significant increase (p ˂ 0.01) in all parameters of comet assay (% tailed cells, tail length, DNA% in tail and tail moment), severe fragmentation in photoreceptors layer and changes in inner retina after the administration of cisplatin. There were some sort of improvement in ERG, comet assay and the histological results after the administration of lutein with cisplatin, whereas these tests yielded values comparable to control in the liposomal lutein group. Conclusions: Liposomal lutein administration could prevent the detrimental effects of cisplatin on the retina, while avoiding the use any artificial chemicals. The latter might be preferable but with possible highly toxic effects. Results were promising and worse further future investigations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Luteína/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Eletrorretinografia , Lipossomos , Masculino , Coelhos , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/patologia , Retina/fisiologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 2165-2172, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108547

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate fundus autofluorescence lifetime features in patients with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy, and to identify early markers of retinal alterations in patients due to HCQ. Methods: Patients attending screening for HCQ retinopathy were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes (Tm) were obtained in a short spectral channel (SSC, 498-560 nm) and a long spectral channel (LSC, 560-720 nm). Screening modalities included fundus images, fundus autofluorescence intensity images (FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), visual fields, and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Results: Forty-two eyes of 21 patients on HCQ therapy and 40 eyes of 20 healthy age-matched controls were included. Fourteen eyes of 7 patients with HCQ retinopathy (mean age, 66.1 [SD, 7.7] years) and 28 eyes of 14 patients (mean age, 46.1 [SD, 7.9] years) receiving HCQ without retinopathy were identified. Patients with HCQ retinopathy showed a parafoveal ring-shaped or oval area of prolonged mean fluorescence lifetimes. In these areas, mean (±SEM) lifetimes were 374 ± 7 ps in the SSC, and on average 19.4% longer compared to the control group (P = 0.0001). Patients on HCQ without retinopathy had retinal fluorescence lifetimes that were similar to the control group. Conclusions: This study shows that HCQ retinopathy displays characteristic mean fluorescence lifetimes.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(6): 801-805, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124490

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 C57BL / 6J type mice exposed to room air comprised two control groups (n = 5 each; a negative control and a group receiving intravitreal sterile dimethyl sulfoxide [IVS DMSO]). Thirty C57BL / 6J type mice exposed to 75% ± 2% oxygen from postnatal day 7 to postnatal day 12 comprised the OIR groups. On postnatal day 12, these mice were randomized into six groups (n = 5 each): two OIR control groups (negative control and IVS DMSO), two intravitreal C3G groups (300 and 600 ng/µL), and two intraperitoneal C3G groups (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg). We quantified neovascularization by counting endothelial cell proliferation on the vitreal side of the inner limiting membrane of the retina and examined histological and ultrastructural changes via light and electron microscopy and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxy-UTP-nick end labeling. Results: The intravitreal C3G groups yielded lower endothelial cell counts compared with the intravitreal DMSO group. The intraperitoneal high-dose group had lower cell counts compared with the OIR control groups. Electron microscopy revealed significantly less mitochondrial dysmorphology in intravitreal groups and the high-dose intraperitoneal mice. We noted no difference in apoptotic cell count between the controls, low-dose intravitreal, and both intraperitoneal groups. However, apoptotic cell count was significantly higher in the high-dose intravitreal group. Conclusion: C3G suppresses endothelial cell proliferation in an OIR mouse model, leads to a reduced hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysmorphology, but increases apoptotic cell death in high concentrations.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Injeções Intravítreas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica , Oxigênio/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
11.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(7): 814-822, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the neurotoxic effect of amalgam dental fillings on plasma mercury (Hg) levels and retino-choroidal layers measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIALS/METHODS: Study participants included 56 cases with amalgam dental fillings and 44 healthy controls. All participants were examined in terms of detailed ophthalmic examination, oral examination, and body mass index (BMI). The measurement of retinal layers and choroid was performed using SD-OCT. Venous blood samples were collected and blood Hg levels were measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric analysis. Correlations between SD-OCT measurement results and blood Hg levels were analyzed. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups in terms of age, sex, or BMI. The mean blood Hg level was 2.76 ± 1.21 µg/L in the amalgam group and 2.06 ± 1.15 µg/L in the control group ( p = 0.04). The Hg/BMI ratio was 0.12 ± 0.06 kg/m2 in the amalgam group and 0.09 ± 0.05 kg/m2 in the control group ( p = 0.01). Reduced volumes of ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer were observed in the amalgam group when compared with the control group ( p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Amalgam dental fillings can cause retinal neurotoxicity. SD-OCT can be useful for evaluating amalgam-related retinal neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Amálgama Dentário/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(4): 954-964, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882851

RESUMO

Purpose: To use our intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) rabbit model to assess the impact of IAC procedure, drug, dose, and choice of technique on ocular structure and function, to study the nature and etiology of IAC toxicity, and to compare to observations in patients. Methods: Rabbits received IAC melphalan (0.4-0.8 mg/kg), carboplatin (25-50 mg), or saline, either by direct ophthalmic artery cannulation, or with a technique emulating nonocclusion. Ocular structure/function were assessed with examination, electroretinography (ERG), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography, prior to and 5 to 6 weeks after IAC. Blood counts were obtained weekly. We reviewed our last 50 IAC treatments in patients for evidence of ocular or systemic complications. Results: No toxicity was seen in the saline control group. With standard (0.4 mg/kg) melphalan, no vascular/microvascular abnormalities were seen with either technique. However, severe microvascular pruning and arteriolar occlusions were seen occasionally at 0.8 mg/kg doses. ERG reductions were dose-dependent. Histology showed melphalan dose-dependent degeneration in all retinal layers, restricted geographically to areas of greatest vascular density. Carboplatin caused massive edema of ocular/periocular structures. IAC patients experienced occasional periocular swelling/rash, and only rarely experienced retinopathy or vascular events/hemorrhage in eyes treated multiple times with triple (melphalan/carboplatin/topotecan) therapy. Transient neutropenia occurred after 46% of IAC procedures, generally after triple therapy. Conclusions: IAC toxicity appears to be related to the specific drug being used and is dose-dependent, rather than related to the IAC procedure itself or the specific technique selected. These rabbit findings are corroborated by our clinical findings in patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Carboplatina/toxicidade , Infusões Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Melfalan/toxicidade , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Vasos Retinianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais , Artéria Oftálmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Retina/fisiopatologia , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Retina/tratamento farmacológico , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Retinoblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
13.
Lupus ; 28(4): 555-559, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to analyse retinal changes over a five-year period, assessed by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), in patients from the Lupus-Cruces cohort treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). METHODS: SD-OCT screening was performed annually between 2012 and 2017. Average macular thickness (AMT), ganglion cell layer thickness (GCLT) and qualitative data of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and external retina (ExtR) were collected prospectively. We compared data from 2012 (first) and 2017 (second) SD-OCT. RESULTS: We studied 110 patients and 195 eyes. No cases of HCQ toxicity were detected. At the time of the second SD-OCT, 99% patients had taken a daily dose of HCQ ≤5 mg/kg/day. The median time on HCQ was 133 months. The mean AMT and GCLT were significantly lower in both eyes at the second SD-OCT; however, all the differences were clinically insignificant at less than 1%. Qualitative analysis of RPE and ExtR showed no significant changes. Similar results were found among patients with risk factors for retinopathy. The comparison of patients with and without risk factors showed no differences. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows clinically irrelevant retinal changes in an SLE cohort on HCQ treatment over a five-year follow-up. Our findings support the safety of long-term HCQ at doses ≤5 mg/kg/day.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Retina/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
14.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(5): 961-966, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788607

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retidyne™ is a new lutein-based dye for internal limiting membrane staining. It uses the intrinsic staining characteristics of lutein which is already known to act as an antioxidant and blue-light filter in the human retina. We investigated retinal tolerance to different staining times measured by the electroretinogram (ERG) of an isolated and perfused retina whole mount. METHODS: For functionality, testing bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen saturated standard solution and the ERG was recorded until stable b-wave amplitudes were reached. Then the perfusion was stopped and Retidyne™ was applied directly onto the retinal surface for exposure times of 60 or 120 s. After restarting the perfusion with standard solution, the ERG amplitudes were monitored for 75 min. To investigate the effects on photoreceptor function alone, 1 mM asparate was added to block b-waves. RESULTS: For an exposure time of 60 s amplitudes of a- and b-waves remained stable throughout the experiment. Exposure times of 120 s caused an initial drop of amplitudes that reached statistical significance only for a-waves (a, - 21%, p = 0.047; b, - 14%, p = 0.052). This effect was only seen during the first minutes of the washout and the ERG recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: In the model of isolated and perfused bovine retina, Retidyne™ showed a good safety profile for common intraoperatively used staining times. An initial toxic effect regarding the transient drop of amplitudes cannot be ruled out but the effect might also be explained by the partial blockage of the flashlight due to a more intense staining effect at the beginning of the washout.


Assuntos
Luteína/toxicidade , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Corantes/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia , Perfusão , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(2): 289-292, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672499

RESUMO

We report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity after only 2 months of starting the treatment. A 42-year-old woman presented with visual impairment. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a bull's eye pattern in both eyes which was more prominent in the left eye. She had received HCQ therapy (400 mg/day) for 1 month, and had been taking 200 mg/day for 1 month for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. HCQ macular toxicity is rarely seen in short-term use, before 5 years, and to our knowledge, there is only one other case reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Macula Lutea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Macula Lutea/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Campos Visuais
17.
Amino Acids ; 51(4): 641-646, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656415

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate effect of TAU on NMDA-induced changes in retinal redox status, retinal cell apoptosis and retinal morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats. Taurine was injected intravitreally as pre-, co- or post-treatment with NMDA and 7 days post-treatment retinae were processed for estimation of oxidative stress, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using TUNEL staining. Treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, significantly increased retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels compared to NMDA-treated rats; whereas, the levels of malondialdehyde reduced significantly. Reduction in retinal oxidative stress in TAU pre-treated group was associated with significantly greater fractional thickness of ganglion cell layer within inner retina and retinal cell density in inner retina. TUNEL staining showed significantly reduced apoptotic cell count in TAU pre-treated group compared to NMDA group. It could be concluded that TAU protects against NMDA-induced retinal injury in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/toxicidade , N-Metilaspartato/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
19.
Ophthalmologica ; 241(4): 226-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of hydroxychloroquine in visual field and retinal layer thickness. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients taking hydroxychloroquine without signs of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy were included. Optical coherence tomography segmentation was used to obtain the ETDRS map thickness of each retinal layer. Groups were divided into short-term (< 5 years) and long-term (≥5 years) drug use. RESULTS: We included 93 eyes of 93 patients (short-term: 25 eyes; long-term: 68 eyes). The inner nuclear layer (INL) was thinner in the long-term group (32.86 ± 2.12 vs. 34.14 ± 2.37 µm; p = 0.014). Considering long-term cases, the parafoveal ganglion cell layer (GCL) showed an inverse correlation with cumulative dose (r = -0.37; p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, parafoveal ganglion cell complex thickness was associated with cumulative dose (ß = -0.239; p = 0.011). The parafoveal outer retina and visual field indices were similar between groups and did not correlate with cumulative dose. CONCLUSION: Hydroxychloroquine leads to progressive thinning of the parafoveal inner retina, particularly the INL and GCL. Visual field indices do not reflect the long-term effects of the drug.


Assuntos
Fóvea Central/patologia , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Campos Visuais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fóvea Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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